Rest on the Flight into Egypt (Caravaggio)
Rest on the Flight into Egypt is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in the Doria Pamphilj Gallery, Rome. The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, like the Flight into Egypt, was a popular subject in art, but Caravaggio's composition, with an angel playing the viol to the Holy Family, is unusual; the scene is based not on any incident in the Bible itself, but on a body of tales or legends that had grown up in the early Middle Ages around the Bible story of the Holy Family fleeing into Egypt for refuge on being warned that Herod the Great was seeking to kill the Christ Child. According to the legend and Mary paused on the flight in a grove of trees; this basic story acquired many extra details during the centuries. Caravaggio shows Mary asleep with the infant Jesus, while Joseph holds a manuscript for an angel, playing a hymn to Mary on the viol; the date of the painting is disputed. According to Caravaggio's contemporary Giulio Mancini, this painting and the Penitent Magdalene, together with an unidentified painting of Saint John the Evangelist, was done while Caravaggio was staying with Monsignor Fantino Petrignani, shortly after leaving the workshop of Giuseppe Cesari.
This happened in January 1594. However, there are problems with accepting Mancini's statement. To begin, none of these three works were listed in Petragnani's inventory of 1600, although it is possible that they could have been painted for another patron. More the painting has an obvious and direct compositional source in Annibale Carracci's Judgement of Hercules, completed early in 1596 and admired: the pose of Caravaggio's angel, for example, is based on that of Carracci's figure of Vice. While John Gash accepts Mancini's testimony, including Peter Robb and Helen Langdon, have raised the possibility that it was painted for Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, who made Caravaggio in effect his household artist from about 1595 or 1596; the sophisticated treatment is appropriate for the cardinal's intellectual tastes and interests, it is unlikely that the artist would embark on a work like this other than as a direct commission. This was the first large-scale work done by Caravaggio, is compositionally more ambitious and more successful than The Musicians, of about 1595.
It is one of the rare landscapes from this artist who seems always to have been painting in a prison cell, a room at a tavern, or at night - one critic has joked that all the sky in all Caravaggio's 80-odd works would add up to a few square centimeters of paint. The painting was sold to the Pamphilj by the early 17th century. Caravaggio's Lombard and Venetian heritage are evident in the treatment of the landscape and in the luminous tonalities. Like most depictions of the flight to Egypt this is a peaceful moment, one in which the scenery is to be enjoyed, more gardenscape than landscape; the luminous figure of the adolescent angel, at once serene and sensuous, holds the centre of the group. The mother and child grouping, one of many that Caravaggio would paint, is comparable in its delicacy and realism to the best that the thousands in the canon can offer. One of the great pastimes of Caravaggio scholars is identifying his models. Much progress has been made, but the following should be regarded as tentative only, as Caravaggio left few clues.
Mary appears to be the same girl who appears as Mary Magdalen in the Penitent Magdalene of about 1597 in the Doria-Pamphilj Gallery. The aged Joseph appears similar to the elderly saints in The Inspiration of Saint Matthew of 1602 and, less Saint Jerome in Meditation of about 1605; some critics have identified the boy-angel with the ingenuous victim of cheats on the left of Cardsharps, while others have seen a similarity with the profile of the boy cheating him instead. Gash, John. Caravaggio. ISBN 1-904449-22-0. Hibbard, Howard. Caravaggio. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-430128-1. Langdon, Helen. Caravaggio: A Life. ISBN 0-374-11894-9. Robb, Peter. M. ISBN 0-312-27474-2. Media related to Rest on the Flight into Egypt by Caravaggio at Wikimedia Commons
Death of the Virgin (Caravaggio)
Death of the Virgin is a painting completed by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. It is a near contemporary with Caravaggio's Madonna with Saint Anne now at the Musée du Louvre; when he painted The Death of the Virgin, Caravaggio had been working in Rome for fifteen years. The painting was commissioned by Laerzio Cherubini, a papal lawyer, for his chapel in the Carmelite church of Santa Maria della Scala in Trastevere, Rome; the depiction of the Death of the Virgin caused a contemporary stir, was rejected as unfit by the parish. Giulio Mancini thought Caravaggio modelled a prostitute his mistress, as the Virgin. Giovanni Baglione and Gian Pietro Bellori attributed the rejection to the appearance of the Virgin; the breach of decorum led to a rejection of the painting by the fathers of Santa Maria della Scala and its replacement by a picture by Carlo Saraceni, a close follower of Caravaggio. Upon the recommendation by Peter Paul Rubens, who praised it as one of Caravaggio's best works, the painting was bought by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua.
Giovanni Magni, the duke's ambassador exhibited the painting in his house on the Via del Corso, between 1 and 7 April 1607. Copying was forbidden; the duke's collection was sold to Charles I of England in 1627. After his execution the English Commonwealth put his collection up for sale in 1649, the painting was bought by Everhard Jabach, who in 1671 sold it to Louis XIV for the French Royal Collection, which after the French Revolution became the property of the state. Today it hangs in the Louvre. Prior to leaving Rome, it was shown at the Academy of Painters for under two weeks. However, by Caravaggio had fled Rome, never to publicly return. During one of his frequent brawls in Rome, the mercurial and impulsive Caravaggio killed a man, Ranuccio Tomassoni, during a sword fight after a tennis game; the popular teen CW series Riverdale shows the painting in the background of one scene. It can be found in "Chapter Nineteen: Death Proof"; the painting recalls Caravaggio's Entombment in the Vatican in scope and the photographic naturalism.
The figures are nearly life-sized. Mary lies reclined, clad in a simple red dress; the lolling head, the hanging arm, the swollen, spread feet depict a raw and realistic view of the Virgin's mortal remains. Caravaggio abandons the iconography traditionally used to indicate the holiness of the Virgin. In this cast-off body, nothing of the respectful representation found in devotional paintings remains; the composition is arranged around the painting's central theme. Surrounding the Virgin are overcome Mary Magdalen and apostles. Others shuffle in behind them; the compact mass of the assemblage and the posturing of the figures guide the viewer's eye toward the abandoned body. He expresses the greater grief of the former not by hiding their faces. Caravaggio, master of stark and dark canvases, is not interested in a mannerist exercise that captures a range of emotions. In some ways this is a silent grief, this is no wake for wailers; the sobbing occurs in faceless emotional silence. The holiness of the Virgin is discerned by her thread-like halo.
Suppressing all anecdotal detail, Caravaggio invests this subdued scene with extraordinary monumentality through the sole presence of these figures and the intensity of their emotions. The theatrical drape of blood-red cloth looms in the upper portion of the canvas; the painter makes use of the nuances of light and shadow to model the volumes of the objects and clothing. But above all he accentuates, through this process, the physical presence of the Virgin, struck by a dazzling light; the artist creates the illusion of depth through a series of lighter areas: from the back of Mary Magdalene's neck in the foreground, the eye penetrates further into the painting, passing from Mary's face to the hands and heads of the apostles. This painting was completed at a time when the dogma of the Assumption of Mary was not yet formally enunciated ex cathedra by the pope, but had been gaining ground for some centuries. Pope Pius XII, in his Apostolic constitution, Munificentissimus Deus, which dogmatically defined the Assumption, left open the question of whether or not Mary underwent death in connection with her departure, but alludes to the fact of her death at least five times.
The New Testament does not mention the matter at all. How she passed from this world is and was therefore not a matter of Catholic dogma, although by the 17th century, the conventional belief among Catholics was that she was assumed alive, as shown in the great majority of contemporary paintings of the subject. By most believed that she felt no pain or disease, that she was assumed in healthy if aged body and soul prior to "death." However, during a General Audience on 25 June 1997, Pope John Paul II affirmed that Mary did indeed experience natural death prior to her assumption into Heaven. Caravaggio's painting is the last major Catholic work of art in which Mary is dead. Caravaggio does not depict an assumption but her death; the figure, like that in nearly all Renaissance and Baroque Assumptions, looks much younger than a woman some 50 or more years old. This painting illustrates the iconographic and formal revolution that Caravaggio instigated in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Distancing himself from the precious, affected mannerist vogue, the artist inaugurated a frank, energetic style.
He took on the task of translating people's reality and emotions without worrying about the conventions of represe
The Musicians (Caravaggio)
The Musicians or Concert of Youths is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. It is held in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, where it has been since 1952, it underwent extensive restoration in 1983. Caravaggio entered the household of Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte sometime in 1595, The Musicians is thought to have been his first painting done expressly for the cardinal, his biographer, the painter Baglione, says he "painted for the Cardinal youths playing music well drawn from nature and a youth playing a lute," the latter being The Lute Player, which seems to form a companion-piece to The Musicians. The picture shows four boys in quasi-Classical costume, three playing various musical instruments or singing, the fourth dressed as Cupid and reaching towards a bunch of grapes. Caravaggio seems to have composed the painting from studies of two figures; the central figure with the lute has been identified with Caravaggio's companion Mario Minniti, the individual next to him and facing the viewer is a self-portrait of the artist.
The cupid bears a strong resemblance to the boy in Boy Peeling Fruit, done a few years before, to the angel in Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy. The manuscripts show that the boys are practicing madrigals celebrating love, the eyes of the lutenist, the principal figure, are moist with tears—the songs describe the sorrow of love rather than its pleasures; the violin in the foreground suggests a fifth participant, implicitly including the viewer in the tableau. Scenes showing musicians were a popular theme at the time—the Church was supporting a revival of music and new styles and forms were being tried by educated and progressive prelates such as Del Monte; this scene, however, is secular rather than religious, harks back to the long-established tradition of "concert" pictures, a genre originating in Venice and exemplified, in its earlier form, by Titian's Le concert champêtre. This was Caravaggio's most ambitious and complex composition to date, the artist has evidently had difficulties with painting the four figures separately—they don't relate to each other or to the picture-space, the overall effect is somewhat clumsy.
The painting is in poor condition, the music in the manuscript has been badly damaged by past restorations, although a tenor and an alto part can be made out. Despite considerable paint loss, the work's originality remains undimmed. A Caravaggio Rediscovered, The Lute Player, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on this painting
The Lute Player (Caravaggio)
The Lute Player is a composition by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. It exists in two versions, one in the Wildenstein Collection and another in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg. A third from Badminton House, came to light in 2007 - however, some question its authenticity. Caravaggio's early biographer Giovanni Baglione gives the following description of a piece done by the artist for his patron Cardinal Francesco Del Monte: E dipinse … anche un giovane, che sonava il Lauto, che vivo, e vero il tutto parea con una caraffa di fiori piena d’acqua, che dentro il reflesso d’ua fenestra eccelentemente si scorgeva con altri ripercotimenti di quella camera dentro l’acqua, e sopra quei fiori eravi una viva rugiada con ogni esquisita diligenza finta. E questo che che facesse mai." " The painting exists in three versions. All show a boy with soft facial features and thick brown hair, accompanying himself on the lute as he sings a madrigal about love; as in the Uffizi Bacchus, the artist places a table-top in front of the figure.
In the Hermitage and Badminton House versions it is bare marble, with a violin on one side and a still life of flowers and fruit on the other. In the Wildenstein version the table is covered with a carpet and extended forwards to hold a tenor recorder, while the still life is replaced by a spinetta and a caged songbird; the musical instruments are valuable and came from Del Monte's personal collection. The Hermitage and Badminton House versions show madrigals by Jacques Arcadelt, the visible text reads in part: "Vous savez que je vous aime et vous adore... Je fus vôtre.". The Wildenstein version shows songs by a native Florentine on a text by Petrarch: Laisse le voile and Pourquoi ne vous donnez-vous pas? by Giachetto Berchem. The flowers and damaged fruit, the cracked body of the lute, suggest the theme of transience: love, like all things, is fleeting and mortal; the choice of Franco-Flemish composers over native Italians – only Layolle was a native Italian – no doubt reflects the cultural affiliations of the pro-French Del Monte-Giustiniani circle.
The still life elements are of an high standard in all versions, the finely rendered fruit and flowers in two versions equalled by the textures of spinetta and flute in the other, the artist has reproduced the initial notes of the madrigals so that one can recognize the Roman printer, Valerio Dorica. The rather androgynous model could be Pedro Montoya, a castrato known to have been a member of the Del Monte household and a singer at the Sistine Chapel at about this time - castrati were prized and the Cardinal was a patron of music as well as of painting. More Caravaggio biographer Peter Robb has identified him as Caravaggio's companion Mario Minniti, the model for several other paintings from this period including The Cardsharps and one of the two versions of The Fortune Teller. All three versions demonstrate the innovative approach to light that Caravaggio adopted at this time. Caravaggio's method, as described by Caravaggio's contemporary Giulio Mancini, was to use "a strong light from above with a single window and the walls painted black, so that having the lights bright and the shadows dark, it gives depth to the painting, but with a method, not natural nor done or thought of by any other century or older painters like Raphael, Titian and others."
The room itself seems to be the same as that in the Contarelli Chapel Calling of Saint Matthew, the beam of light across the rear wall has an upper limit that would appear to be the shutter of the window above the table in the Calling. The carafe is a "cut-and-paste" motif from another image, where the main light came from a window at more or less the same level as the carafe itself; such a complex illustration of refracted light is unprecedented in the Cinquecento, may have been the result of collaboration with scientists in Del Monte's circle, including Giovanni Battista della Porta, the guiding spirit behind the foundation in 1603 of the Accademia dei Lincei. His multi-volume De Refractione Optices was concerned with optical matters, the second volume being devoted to the incidence of light on water-filled and glass spheres; the circle of Della Porta was significant for Caravaggio on in Naples, where the commission for the Seven Acts of Mercy seems to have emanated from Giovanni Batista Manso, Marchese di Villa, whose friend, the alchemist Colantonio Stigliola, was a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
The appearance of second originals is a feature of a new understanding of Caravaggio's work, indeed Vincenzo Giustiniani, whose experience was related to the artist's career, describes in his Discorso sulla pittura the painter's development as beginning with copying others’ work - ‘Proceeding further, he can copy his own work, so that the replica may be as good, sometimes better, than the first’. The procedure for making a second version was, however different from the sometimes arduous task of building a group from many separate observations of reality, of figures and objects.
Madonna and Child with St. Anne (Dei Palafrenieri)
The Madonna and Child with St. Anne is one of the mature religious works of the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, painted in 1605–1606, for the altar of the Archconfraternity of the Papal Grooms in the Basilica of Saint Peter; the painting was exhibited in the parish church for the Vatican, Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri, before its removal due to its unorthodox portrayal of the Virgin. It was subsequently sold to Cardinal Scipione Borghese, now hangs in his palazzo, where it shares space along with five other Caravaggios: Boy with a Basket of Fruit, David with the head of Goliath, Young Sick Bacchus, Saint Jerome Writing, St John the Baptist in the Desert. While not his most successful arrangement, it is an atypical representation of the Virgin for its time, must have been shocking to some contemporary viewers; the allegory, at its core, is simple. The Virgin with the aid of her son, whom she holds, tramples on a serpent, the emblem of evil or original sin. Saint Anne, whom the painting is intended to honor, is a wrinkled old grandmother, witnessing the event.
Flimsy halos crown the upright. Both Mary and Jesus are barefoot. All else is shadow, the figures gain monumentality in the light. If this painting was meant to honor the grandmother of Christ, it is unclear how the ungracious depiction of her wrinkled visage in this painting would have been seen as reverent or iconic. Further shock must have accrued, as stated at the Virgin Mary's revealing bodice. One could speculate that the parallel diagonals of Jesus’ phallus and leg suggest that both battle the snake, with one its metaphorical equal; the model for the Virgin can be found in Caravaggio’s Madonna di Loreto. Contrast this tense scene with the famous, more peaceful arrangement of the family by Leonardo in his Virgin and Child with St. Anne. Madonna dei Palafrenieri 1606 Oil on canvas, 292 x 211 cm Galleria Borghese, Rome—online catalog, Web Gallery of Art, Hungary friendly format for printing and bookmarking
Boy Peeling Fruit (Caravaggio)
Boy Peeling Fruit is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio painted circa 1592–1593. This is the earliest known work by Caravaggio, painted soon after his arrival in Rome from his native Milan in mid 1592, his movements in this period are not certain. According to his contemporary Giulio Mancini he stayed for a short time with Monsignor Pandulfo Pucci in the Palazzo Colonna, but disliked the way Pucci treated him and left after a few months.. He copied religious pictures for Pucci, did a few pieces of his own for personal sale, of which Boy Peeling a Fruit would be the only known example; the piece may date from later, when he was working for Giuseppe Cesari, the "cavaliere d'Arpino". As Caravaggio is said to have been painting only "flowers and fruit" for d'Arpino, this would again be a personal piece done for sale outside the workshop, but it was among the works seized from d'Alpino by Cardinal Scipione Borghese in 1607, together with two other early Caravaggios, the Young Sick Bacchus and the Boy with a Basket of Fruit.
It is not known. The fruit being peeled by the boy is something of a mystery. Sources indicate it may be a pear, correct but has been questioned. Seen as a simple genre painting, it differs from most in that the boy is not'rusticated,' that is, he is depicted as clean and well-dressed instead of as a'cute' ragamuffin. An allegoric meaning behind the painting is plausible, given the complex Renaissance symbology of fruit. Caravaggio scholar John T. Spike has suggested that the boy demonstrates resistance to temptation by ignoring the sweeter fruits in favour of the bergamot, but no specific reading is accepted; the model is thought to bear a resemblance to the angel in Caravaggio's Ecstasy of Saint Francis and to the boy dressed as Cupid on the far left in his Young Musicians, both about 1595 to 1597. Several other versions of the work are known. In 1996 John T. Spike identified the original as a painting auctioned in London that year, although others have argued that either the Ishizuka version or that in the British Royal Collection could be the prototype.
The version in the Royal Collection has been on display in the Cumberland Gallery of Hampton Court Palace since 2004. Caravaggio's fruit Caravaggio's secular paintings Peter Robb, M ISBN 0-312-27474-2ISBN 0-7475-4858-7
Young Sick Bacchus
The Young Sick Bacchus known as the Sick Bacchus or the Self-Portrait as Bacchus, is an early self-portrait by the Baroque artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, dated between 1593 and 1594. It now hangs in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. According to Caravaggio's first biographer, Giovanni Baglione, it was a cabinet piece painted by the artist using a mirror; the painting dates from Caravaggio's first years in Rome following his arrival from his native Milan in mid-1592. Sources for this period are inconclusive and inaccurate, but they agree that at one point the artist fell ill and spent six months in the hospital of Santa Maria della Consolazione. According to a 2009 article in the American medical publication Clinical Infectious Diseases, the painting indicates that Caravaggio's physical ailment involved malaria, as the jaundiced appearance of the skin and the icterus in the eyes are indications of some active hepatic disease causing high levels of bilirubin; the Sick Bacchus was among the many works making up the collection of Giuseppe Cesari, one of Caravaggio's early employers, seized by the art-collector Cardinal-Nephew Scipione Borghese in 1607, together with the Boy Peeling Fruit and Boy with a Basket of Fruit.
Apart from its assumed autobiographical content, this early painting was used by Caravaggio to market himself, demonstrating his virtuosity in painting genres such as still-life and portraits and hinting at the ability to paint the classical figures of antiquity. The three-quarters angle of the face was among those preferred for late renaissance portraiture, but what is striking is the grimace and tilt of the head, the real sense of the suffering; the still-life can be compared with that contained in later works such as the Boy With a Basket of Fruit and the Boy Bitten by a Lizard where the fruits are in a much better condition, reflecting no doubt Caravaggio's improved condition, both physically and mentally. The painting shows the influence of his teacher, the Bergamasque Simone Peterzano, in the utilization of the tensed musculature depiction, of the austere Lombard school style in its attention to realistic details. Cindy Sherman, as part of her History Portrait series, produced a parody on Sick Bacchus, an ironic photographic self-portrait named Untitled # 224.
During a 2018 NPR interview, Paul Janeway of the band St. Paul & the Broken Bones said that the title of his band's new album, Young Sick Camellia, is an homage to Caravaggio's Young Sick Bacchus. Chronology of works by Caravaggio