John George Alexander Leishman
John George Alexander Leishman was an American businessman and diplomat. He worked in various executive positions at Carnegie Steel Company and served as an ambassador for the United States. John George Alexander Leishman was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on March 28, 1857, the only son of Scots-Irish immigrants John B. Leishman and Amelia Henderson, his father drowned in the Allegheny River the same year. Leishman began a lifetime of work as an assistant for a Pittsburgh physician. Over the next seventeen years, Leishman would rise to become a trusted confidant of both Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Carnegie. Prior to his entry into the Carnegie service, John Leishman had been in the service of Shoenberger Steel Company, as what was termed a "mud clerk". Mud clerks were the steel industry's representatives on the river wharf, responsible for tracking the shipping of goods: the arrival of raw materials and the departure of finished products. To guarantee efficiency and success, mud clerks lived 24 hours a day in small sheds on the riverbank.
This work led first to an unsuccessful venture as an independent steel broker and a successful partnership with his friend and colleague from Shoenberger Steel, William Penn Snyder. As senior partner in Leishman and Snyder, Leishman caught the attention of Andrew Carnegie, who convinced Leishman to enter Carnegie's service on October 1, 1884, as Special Sales Agent. Carnegie saw more than a little of himself in the younger man. Leishman occupied the following positions: Vice Chairman, Carnegie Brothers & Company, Ltd.. The Leishmans' social and business connections provided entrée into an extraordinarily exclusive circle of sixty-odd families, called the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, it was conceived as an idyllic summer colony and developed by Henry Clay Frick in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, a short, convenient train ride away from the smoke and soot of Pittsburgh's industry. To create the summer colony, an abandoned Pennsylvania Railroad earthen dam was rebuilt and increased in size to create a mountaintop reservoir for pleasure boating, named Lake Conemaugh.
Among the Club's members were Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Mellon. The Club's earthen dam failed on May 1889, contributing to the Johnstown Flood disaster. Many of the Pittsburgh members of the Club were hastily assembled in an ad hoc meeting and formed "The Pittsburgh Relief Committee." Two decisions were made at that meeting. One was to make immediate and tangible gifts to help the flood relief efforts; the other was a pledge never to speak of the Club or the Flood in private. All litigation was handled by attorneys Philander Knox and his partner James Hay Reed, of the firm Knox and Reed, both of whom were themselves South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club members. On July 23, 1892, Alexander Berkman, a self-proclaimed anarchist, sought to destroy Henry Clay Frick, the man Berkman blamed for the carnage of the Homestead steel strike in the preceding weeks. Armed with a pistol and a sharpened rat-tailed file, Berkman gained easy access to the headquarters of Carnegie Steel and found his way into the second floor private office of the chairman, 43-year-old Henry Clay Frick.
Berkman forced his way into Frick's private office on the heels of a porter who had taken in his card. He opened fire, Frick fell to the ground with three bullets in his body. Berkman was fended off by Leishman, Frick's second in command, in Frick's office at the time. Amid the growing rancor between Frick and Carnegie, Leishman attempted to steer a middle course; this was thwarted when Frick engaged a stratagem to orchestrate the ouster of the man who had saved his life from the presidency of Carnegie Steel, his removal from the Western Pennsylvanian business scene. Frick alerted Carnegie to Leishman's speculation in the stock market, a practice that Carnegie engaged in but abhorred in his subordinates. Frick worked behind the scenes, with Philander Knox to see that Leishman would be offered the post as ambassador to Switzerland. Under pressure from both men, Leishman withdrew from Carnegie service in June 1897, to accept the appointment by President William McKinley as United States Ambassador to Switzerland.
Thereafter, Leishman became United States Ambassador to Turkey in 1900, United States Ambassador to Italy in 1909 and United States Ambassador to Germany in 1911. Years as a board member of the Equitable Life Insurance Company, Frick used a similar scheme to arrange the removal of James Hazen Hyde from the United States to France by seeking an appointment for him to become United States Ambassador to France. Unlike Leishman a decade before, Hyde rebuffed the offer. However, he did go to live in France, where he met and married Leishman's eldest daughter, Marthe. While serving in Turkey, Leishman was instrumental in effecting the safe release of missionary Miss Ellen Stone as well as bringing about the purchase of the first overseas property to serve as a United States embassy, the Palazzo Corpi, he distinguished himself for diplomatic tact and dexterity in his negotiations with Turkey for full rights for American citizens and schools in that country, in his pressing with equal success his insistence that the American minister should have access to the Sultan.
His office was elevated to the rank of Extraordinary Ambassador and Plenipotentiary in 1906. While serving in Italy, Leishman purcha
Madonna Della Strada
Madonna Della Strada or Santa Maria Della Strada — the Italian for Our Lady of the Wayside, or Our Lady of the Good Road — is the name of an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary, enshrined at the Church of the Gesù in Rome, mother church of the Society of Jesus religious order of the Roman Catholic Church and is a variation on the Eastern basilissa type of icon. The Madonna Della Strada is the patroness of the Society of Jesus, its founder, Ignatius of Loyola, was said to have been protected by the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary during battle in his service as a soldier. The name goes back to a shrine established in Rome in the 5th century by the Astalli family known as the Madonna degli Astalli, at a crossroads along the ceremonial route of the popes; the 13th-14th century fresco was painted on the wall of Saint Mary of the Way in Rome, the church of the Society of Jesus, given to Saint Ignatius by Pope Paul III in 1540. In 1568, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese erected the Gesù Church of Rome, the mother church of the Jesuits, in place of the former church of Santa Maria della Strada.
The fresco was moved there in 1575 to a side chapel. Sometime in the 19th century, the image was affixed to a slate panel; the icon is located between two altars, the first dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the second, the main altar of the Church, dedicated to the Holy Name of Jesus. The icon was restored in 2006, revealing at least two layers of previous paint, the original art being a fresco, detached from a wall and affixed to canvas; the Jesuits celebrate the feast of Our Lady of the Way on May 24. There is a chapel dedicated to Madonna Della Strada at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois, at the University of Scranton in Scranton, at Zilber Hall, Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A copy of the image hangs in the Le Moyne College Chapel; the Society of the Lady of the Way is a secular institute in Vienna, Austria that follows the spirituality of St Ignatius of Loyola. Roman Catholic Marian art Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary Almagno, R. Stephen, O. F. M. Editor. Mary Our Hope: A Selection from the Sermons and Papers of Cardinal John J. Wright.
San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1984. 158f
Saints Peter and Paul Church, San Francisco
Saints Peter and Paul Church is a Roman Catholic Church in San Francisco's North Beach neighborhood. Located at 666 Filbert Street, it is directly across from Washington Square and is administered by the Salesians of Don Bosco, it is known as "la cattedrale italiana dell'Ovest", or "the Italian Cathedral of the West", has served as the home church and cultural center for San Francisco's Italian-American community since its consecration. During 1926-1927, the church was the target of radical anti-catholic anarchists, who instituted five separate bomb attacks against the building in the space of one year. On March 6, 1927, police shot and killed one man and wounded another, Celsten Eklund, a radical anarchist and local soapbox orator, as the two men attempted to light the fuse of a large dynamite bomb in front of the church; the dead man, known only as'Ricca', was never identified. In recent years, Saints Peter and Paul has become the home church for the city's Chinese-American Roman Catholic population, offering weekly masses in Italian and English.
Mass in Latin is offered monthly as well. Saints Peter and Paul serves the Archdiocese of San Francisco; the church is prominently featured in The Dead Pool. Scenes from Cecil B. DeMille's 1923 version of The Ten Commandments were filmed at the church while it was under construction. Featured in What's Up, Doc? in which Judy Maxwell, portrayed by Barbra Streisand and Dr. Howard Bannister, portrayed by Ryan O'Neal borrowed a Volkswagen Beetle during a car chase. Parts of Sister Act 2 were filmed here. After their civil ceremony in 1954, Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio returned for photographs on the steps of this church. DiMaggio was married to Dorothy Arnold in the church on November 19, 1939, but divorced. Still married as far as the Church was concerned, he could not be married in the Catholic Church. In a side entrance, Sts. Peter and Paul Church still showcases a photo in a book displaying proudly DiMaggio's marriage day photo-but with Arnold, not Monroe. DiMaggio's funeral was held here on March 11, 1999, officiated by lifelong family friend and confidant, Armand Oliveri, S.
D. B. who politely refuses all interviews or requests to discuss any intimate details of Monroe's or DiMaggio's life. American pop singer Michelle Lambert, considers this church her spiritual home, portrayed Mary in “Las Posadas de San Francisco,” parade in 2010. In the 2015 disaster film San Andreas, the church and Washington Square was seen being hit by a tsunami as it reaches North Beach. Saints Peter and Paul website
Roberto Ferruzzi was an Italian artist. He is best known for the painting Madonnina that won the second Venice Biennale in 1897. Roberto Ferruzzi was born in Dalmatia in 1853 to Italian parents. At the age of four he moved to Venice with his family. After the death of his father, a lawyer, he returned to Dalmatia to study classics. In 1868, he returned to Venice to enroll in the Liceo Marco Foscarini, he subsequently entered the University of Padua, graduated with a law degree, however instead of practicing law he gained vocation as a self-taught painter. Afterwards, he moved to Luvigliano, a frazione of Torreglia, where he painted Madonnina in 1897. Ferruzzi exhibited his work for the first time in 1883 in Turin, consisting of figure paintings. In 1887, he exhibited a canvas in Venice titled La prima penitenza, a genre painting of a boy praying a rosary in penance for bad behavior, whilst his grandmother looks on amused. In 1891-1892 at the Palermo exposition his genre painting Hush! won an award.
In 1897, he exhibited the Toward the Light in Venice. Ferruzzi died on 16 February 1934 in Venice and was buried in the small cemetery of Luvigliano in his family's plot, near his wife Ester Sorgato and his daughter Mariska, he bore two descendants of the same name: a painter of lagoons. Article about the Madonnina with picture ÷
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A