Nagamalai is a suburb of Madurai situated about 10 km west of Madurai City, Tamil Nadu, along the Madurai-Theni highway. Madurai is surrounded by eight hillocks. Of these hills, three small but prominent hills have several interesting legends associated with them. Samanar Hills, opposite to Nagamalai, is of historical importance. Samanars were said to have stayed on the hill, fearing persecution from the rulers of Madurai. Many stone statues and other artifacts are present in Nagamalai. Nagamalai is known for its snake biodiversity, a government proposal is in the works for creating an ecotourism snake park in the area; the top of the hill consists of formed rocks which resemble the form of a crocodile. Though there is no water source at the top of the hill, it has an permanent flow of water on one side at Puluthu, a herbal water which can be directly drunk. Nagamalai is a notable educational hub in the outskirts of the Madurai city; the Madurai Kamaraj University is located in close proximity to Nagamalai.
It accommodates a number of other educational institutions such as: Palkalai Nagar Middle School Nadar Mahajana Sangam S. Vellaichamy Nadar College M. N. U. Jayaraj Nadar Higher Secondary School S. B. O. A. Matriculation Higher Secondary School Sirumalar Girls Higher Secondary School Akshara Matriculation Higher Secondary School M. N. U. J. Annapakiyam Matriculation Higher Secondary School KMR International School List of colleges and institutes in Madurai district S. Vellaichamy Nadar College
Melamadai is 30th ward of Madurai corporation in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In 2012 Melamadai included in Madurai Corporation. Vandiyur Lake is located in Melamadai Geographical Area, Further famous Pandi temple is located in Melamadai; the best month to visit Melamadai vandiyur lake is November to February. Melamadai is purely Tamil Name, Merku refers to WEST, Madai refers to LAKE, Merku + Madai = Merkumadai,then over the years it becomes Melamadai, another believed theory is that'Mel' refers to TOP / UP / FIRST,'MADAI' refers to LAKE in such a way this place derived the name Melamadai. Melamadai is the place of wonder, where village joins together; as of 2001 India census, Melamadai had a population of 28,885. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Melamadai has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, female literacy is 74%. In Melamadai, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Mattuthavani is a neighborhood on the outskirts of Madurai city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Before being shifted to Mattuthavani, the Madurai district central vegetable market operated on North Chittirai street; this caused heavy traffic congestion on city roads because of the heavy flow of trucks and goods carriers. The market moved to vacant land between the bus stand and the agricultural marketing complex at Mattuthavani at a cost of Rs. 63 crore. The Integrated Central Vegetable Market at Mattuthavani opened at this new location from 1 September 2010; the complex was constructed at a cost of Rs 13 crore. The flower market is situated in between the Bus stand. Madurai
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala spanning from c. 5th century BCE to c. 3rd century CE. It is named after the famous Sangam academies of scholars centered in the city of Madurai. In Old Tamil language, the term Tamilakam referred to the whole of the ancient Tamil-speaking area, corresponding to the area known as southern India today, consisting of the territories of the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and northern Sri Lanka known as Eelam. According to Tamil legends, there were three Sangam periods, namely Head Sangam, Middle Sangam and Last Sangam period. Historians use the term Sangam period to refer the last of these, with the first two being legendary. So it is called Last Sangam period, or Third Sangam period; the Sangam literature is thought to have been produced in three Sangam academies of each period. The evidence on the early history of the Tamil kingdoms consists of the epigraphs of the region, the Sangam literature, archaeological data.
The period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamilakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties of Pandya and Chera, a few independent chieftains, the Velir. There is a wealth of sources detailing the history, socio-political environment and cultural practices of ancient Tamilakam, including volumes of literature and epigraphy. Tamilakam's history is split into three periods. A vast array of literary and inscribed sources from around the world provide insight into the socio-political and cultural occurrences in the Tamil region; the ancient Tamil literature consists of the grammatical work Tolkappiyam, the anthology of ten mid-length books collection Pathupattu, the eight anthologies of poetic work Ettuthogai, the eighteen minor works Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. The religion of the ancient Tamils follow roots of nature worship and some elements of it can be found in Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta traditions. In the ancient Sangam literature, Sivan was the supreme God, Murugan was the one celebrated by the masses; the Tamil landscape was classified into five categories, based on the mood, the season and the land.
Tolkappiyam, one of the oldest grammatical works in Tamil mentions that each of these thinai had an associated deity such as Kottravai and Sevvael in Kurinji, Thirumal in Mullai, Vendhan in Marutham, Kadaloan in the Neithal. Other ancient works refer to Vaali; the most popular deity was Murugan, who has from a early date been identified with Karthikeya, the son of Siva. Kannagi, the heroine of the Silappatikaram, was worshiped as Pathini by many Tamilians in Sri Lanka. There were many temples and devotees of Thirumal, Siva and the other common Hindu deities; the ancient Tamil calendar was based on the sidereal year similar to the ancient Hindu solar calendar, except that months were from solar calculations, there was no 60-year cycle as seen in Sanskrit calendar. The year was made up of twelve months and every two months constituted a season. With the popularity of Mazhai vizhavu, traditionally commencement of Tamil year was clubbed on April 14, deviating from the astronomical date of vadavazhi vizhavu.
Pongal the festival of harvest and spring, thanking Lord El, comes on January 14/15. Peru Vaenil Kadavizha, the festival for wishing quick and easy passage of the mid-summer months, on the day when the Sun or El stands directly above the head at noon at the southern tip of ancient Tamil land; this day comes on April 14/15. Mazhai Vizhavu, aka Indhira Vizha, the festival for want of rain, celebrated for one full month starting from the full moon in Ootrai சித்திரை and completed on the full moon in Puyaazhi, it is epitomised in the epic Cilapatikaram in detail. Puyaazhi visaagam and Thai poosam, தைப்பூசம் the festivals of Tamil God's birth and accession to the Thirupparankundram Koodal Academy, coming on the day before the full moons of Puyaazhi and Thai respectively. Soornavai Vizha, the slaying of legendary Kadamba Asura king Surabadma, by Lord, comes on the sixth day after new moon in Itrai, it is sung about in Purananuru anthology. Vaadai Vizha or Vadavazhi Vizha, the festival of welcoming the Lord Surya back to home, as He turns northward, celebrated on December 21/22.
It is sung about in Akanauru anthology. Semmeen Ezhumin Vizhavu or Aruthra Darishanam, the occasion of Lord Siva coming down from the ThiruCitrambalam திருச்சிற்றம்பலம் and taking a look at the Vaigarai Thiru Aathirai star in the early morning on the day before the full moon in Panmizh. Aathi Irai min means the star of the God on the Bull. Thiruonam or Onam, considered to be the birthday of Mayon, by the people of Pandya kingdom
Ma'bar Sultanate, unofficially known as the Madurai Sultanate, was a short lived independent kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, India. The sultanate was proclaimed in 1335 when the viceroy of Madurai, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Ahsan Khan and his descendants ruled Madurai and surrounding territories until 1378 when the last sultan, Ala-ud-Din Sikandar Shah fell in battle against the forces of the Vijayanagara Empire led by Kumara Kampana. In this short reign of 43 years, the Sultanate had 8 different rulers. In the early 14th Century, South India was subjected to repeated invasions by armies of the Delhi Sultanate. There were three separate invasions within a period of fifteen years; the first invasion in 1311 CE was led by Malik Kafur. Following this there were two more expeditions from the Delhi Sultanate - the second in 1314 CE led by Khusrav Khan and the third in 1323 CE by Ulugh Khan; these invasions shattered the Pandyan empire beyond revival.
While the previous invasions were content with plunder, Ulugh Khan annexed the former Pandyan dominions to the Delhi Sultanate as the province of Ma'bar. Most of South India came under the Delhi's rule and was divided into five provinces - Devagiri, Kampili, Dorasamudra and Ma'bar. In 1325, Ulugh Khan acceded to the throne in Delhi as Muhammad bin Tughluq, his plans for invading Persia and Khorasan, bankrupted his treasury and led to the issuing of token currency. This further worsened the sultanate's finances, he was unable to pay his huge army and the soldiers stationed in distant provinces revolted. The first province to rebel was Ma ` bar soon followed; the Governor of Ma'bar, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared independence and set up the Madurai Sultanate. The exact year of founding of the Madurai Sultanate is not clear. Numismatic evidence points to 1335 CE as the founding year; the Persian historian Firishta however places the year of Ma'bar's revolt as 1340 CE. This short lived Muslim dynasty at Madurai came into existence following the decline of the Second Pandyan empire, ruled Madurai and parts of South Arcot, for the next 48 years, first as feudatories of the Delhi Sultanate and as independent monarchies lasting until 1378.
The Madurai Sultanate was destroyed by the rise of Vijayanagar followed by the Madurai Nayaks. A rich merchant from the Ma'bar Sultanate, Abu Ali 孛哈里, was associated with the Ma'bar royal family. After falling out with them, he moved to Yuan dynasty China and received a Korean woman as his wife and a job from the Mongol Emperor, the woman was 桑哥 Sangha's wife and her father was 蔡仁揆 채송년 Ch'ae In'gyu during the reign of 忠烈 Chungnyeol of Goryeo, recorded in the Dongguk Tonggam, Goryeosa and 留夢炎 Liu Mengyan's 中俺集 Zhong'anji. 桑哥 Sangha was a Tibetan. Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared independence from Delhi Sultanate around 1335 CE, his daughter was married to the historian Ibn Battuta and his son Ibrahim was the purse bearer of Muhammad bin Tughluq. When Tughluq heard of Jalaluddin's rebellion he had Ibrahim killed in retaliation. Jalaluddin is variously referred to as "Syed", "Hasan" or "Hussun" by the historians Firishta and Ziauddin Barani. Tughluq tried to conquer the Tamil region, known in Muslim chronicles as Ma'bar back in 1337 CE.
But he had to return to Deogiri. His army was defeated by Jalaluddin. Jalaluddin was killed by one of his nobles in 1340 CE. After Jalaluddin's murder, Ala-ud-Din Udauji Shah took power in 1340 CE, he was succeeded by his son in law Qutb-ud-Din Firuz Shah, who in turn was assassinated within forty days of taking power. Qutbuddin's killer Ghiyas-ud-din Dhamagani took over as Sultan in 1340. Ghiyasuddin was defeated by the Hoysala king Veera Ballala III at first, but managed to capture and kill Ballala in 1343 CE during the siege of Kannanur Koppam. Ghiyasuddin captured Balalla, robbed him of his wealth, had him killed and his stuffed body displayed on the walls of Madurai. Ghiyasuddin died in 1344 CE from the after effects of an aphrodisiac. During his reign, Ibn Battuta, the Muslim Moroccan explorer known for his extensive travels through Africa and Asia, visited his court, while on his way to China, he married Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan's daughter. His travel notes mentions Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad Damghani's atrocious behaviour towards the local population.
His army under his personal orders had the habit of rounding up the local villagers, indiscriminately impaling them on sharpened wooden spikes and left to die. These accounts of were published in the Rihla. Ghiyasuddin was succeeded by his nephew Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Damghan Shah a soldier of lowly origins who originated from Delhi, he upon ascension started dismissing and killing many of the officers and nobles and various political enemies who were to disturb his possession of the throne. He too was killed in a short time. From contemporary historical accounts, the rulers of Madurai Sultanate come across as tyrants and persecutors of Hindus. Both Ibn Batutta's and Gangadevi's accounts contain graphic descriptions of atrocities committed by the Muslim Sultans on the Hindu population. Ibn Batuta describes Ghiyasuddin Dhamgani's actions as: the Hindu prisoners were divided into four sections and taken to each of the four gates of the great catcar. There, on the stakes, the prisoners were impaled.
Afterwards their wives were tied by their hair to these pales. Little children were massacred on the bosoms of their mothers and their corpses left there; the camp was raised, they started cutting down the trees of another forest. In the same manner did they tr