Padstow is a town, civil parish and fishing port on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The town is situated on the west bank of the River Camel estuary 5 miles northwest of Wadebridge, 10 miles northwest of Bodmin and 10 miles northeast of Newquay; the population of Padstow civil parish was 3,162 in the 2001 census, reducing to 2,993 at the 2011 census. In addition an electoral ward with the same name extends as far as Trevose Head; the population for this ward is 4,434 Padstow was named Petroc-stow, Petroc-stowe, or'Petrock's Place', after the Welsh missionary Saint Petroc, who landed at Trebetherick around AD 500. After his death a monastery was established here, of great importance until "Petroces stow" was raided by the Vikings in 981, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Whether as a result of this attack or the monks moved inland to Bodmin, taking with them the relics of St Petroc; the cult of St Petroc was important both in Bodmin. Padstow is recorded in the Domesday Book. There was land for 5 villeins who had 2 ploughs, 6 smallholders and 24 acres of pasture.
It was valued at 10/-. In the medieval period Padstow was called Aldestowe. Or Hailemouth; the modern Cornish form Lannwedhenek derives from Lanwethinoc and in a simpler form appears in the name of the Lodenek Press, a publisher based in Padstow. The seal of the borough of Padstow was a ship with three masts, the sails furled and an anchor hanging from the bow, with the legend "Padstow." Time Team visited Padstow for the episode "From Constantinople to Cornwall," broadcast on 9 March 2008. There are two Cornish crosses in the parish: one is built into a wall in the old vicarage garden and another is at Prideaux Place. There is part of a decorated cross shaft in the churchyard; the church of St Petroc is one of four said to have been founded by the saint, the others being Little Petherick and Bodmin. It is quite large and of 13th and 14th century date. There is a fine 15th century font of Catacleuse. There are two fine monuments to members of the Prideaux family: there is a monumental brass of 1421.
Traditionally a fishing port, Padstow is now a popular tourist destination. Although some of its former fishing fleet remains, it is a yachting haven on a dramatic coastline with few navigable harbours; the influence of restaurateur Rick Stein can be seen in the port, tourists travel from long distances to eat at his restaurant and cafés. This has led to the town being dubbed "Padstein", by food writers in the British media. However, the boom in the popularity of the port has caused house price inflation both in the port and surrounding areas, as people buy homes to live in, or as second or holiday homes; this has meant significant numbers of locals cannot afford to buy property in the area, with prices well over 10 times the average salary of around £15,000. This has led to a population decline. Plans to build a skatepark in Padstow have been proposed and funds are being raised to create this at the Recreation Ground. During the mid-19th century, ships carrying timber from Canada would arrive at Padstow and offer cheap travel to passengers wishing to emigrate.
Shipbuilders in the area would benefit from the quality of their cargoes. Among the ships that sailed were the barques Clio and Voluna; the approach from the sea into the River Camel is blocked by the Doom Bar, a bank of sand extending across the estuary, a significant hazard to shipping and the cause of many shipwrecks. For ships entering the estuary, the immediate loss of wind due to the cliffs was a particular hazard resulting in ships being swept onto the Doom Bar. A manual capstan was installed on the west bank of the river and rockets were fired to carry a line to ships so that they could be winched to safety. There have been ferries across the Camel estuary for centuries and the current service, the Black Tor Ferry, carries pedestrians between Padstow and Rock daily throughout the year. From 1899 until 1967 Padstow railway station was the westernmost point of the former Southern Railway; the railway station was the terminus of an extension from Wadebridge of the former Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway and North Cornwall Railway.
These lines were part of the London and South Western Railway incorporated into the Southern Railway in 1923 and British Railways in 1948, but were proposed for closure during the Beeching Axe of the 1960s. The LSWR promoted Padstow as a holiday resort; until 1964, Padstow was served by the Atlantic Coast Express – a direct train service to/from London – but the station was closed in 1967. The old railway line is now the Camel Trail, a footpath and cycle path, popular owing to its picturesque route beside the River Camel. One of the railway mileposts is now embedded outside the Shipwright's Arms public house on the Harbour Front. Today, the nearest railway station is at Bodmin Parkway, a few miles south of Bodmin. Plymouth Bus operate buses to the station; the South West Coast Path runs on both sides of the River Camel estuary and crosses from Padstow to Rock v
Par is a village and fishing port with a harbour on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is situated in the civil parish of Tywardreath and Par, although West Par and the docks lie in the parish of St Blaise. Par is 3.5 miles east of St Austell. Par has a population of around 1,600, it became developed in the second quarter of the nineteenth century when the harbour was developed, to serve copper mines and other mineral sites in and surrounding the Luxulyan Valley. Par Harbour and the beach at Par Sands are south of the village, the latter includes a large static caravan holiday park. Between these two beaches the South West Coast Path takes an inland diversion through the village. Par lies in a triangle of streets. There is a variety of a post office, a public house and other businesses; the Anglican church of St Mary the Virgin at Biscovey was completed in 1849. It was built from the local reddish coloured Biscovey slates; the parish of Par was formed out of parts of St Blazey and Tywardreath parishes in 1846.
In the churchyard is an inscribed cross shaft removed from the highroad in 1896. This stone is a sepulchral monument to a son of Ullicus erected by Alroron; the church was the first to be designed by the notable architect G. E. Street; the design is an subtle adaptation of the Early English style. The chancel and south aisle are well proportioned and the steeple is placed at the west end of the south aisle; the church is a Grade II* listed building. The Church of the Good Shepherd at Par Green was designed by E. H. Sedding and built of granite with Polyphant stone dressings in 1896, it is in the Early English style. Before 1800 the village was a small group of houses below the cliff overlooking the mouth of the River Par. During the first years of the nineteenth century small scale workings of china stone, china clay and granite were developed. Joseph Austen, born 1782, was an important Fowey businessman, he acquired an interest on many mines and pits, he re-opened the dormant Lanescot copper mine on the hill overlooking Par, developed it further.
With adjacent workings it became the rich and productive Fowey Consols mine. Treffry sought to build a tramway connection to Fowey Harbour from his workings, but was unable to acquire the necessary land, instead he decided to develop a harbour at Par, he purchased the ferry and replaced it with a bridge in 1824, started improvement of the harbour in 1829. To bring the copper ore to Par, Treffry built a canal from Pontsmill to Par by canalising the river; the harbour development led to the expansion of Par, the community was detached from the parish of St Blaise in the mid 19th century. Treffry built a new tramway up the Luxulyan Valley to Molinnis, extended it down from Pontsmill to Par, by-passing the canal; however copper was exported to Swansea for smelting and coal for powering mine engines were imported from there. This was not achieved in his lifetime. In the fourth quarter of the nineteenth century, the importance of copper working had diminished, due to exhaustion and the availability of cheaper supplies of the mineral elsewhere in the world.
At the same time, china clay became more important, industrialisation of the extraction and processing work took place. This mineral became the dominant outward traffic at Par, clay dries were erected in the vicinity, together with further expansion of the harbour; the opening of the Cornwall Railway from Plymouth in 1859 encouraged further expansion of Par north-eastwards towards Tywardreath. The boundaries between the three settlements are now somewhat indistinct. In 1858 15,154 tons of china clay were shipped out of Par. By 1885 86,325 tons were being handled at Par, but by this time Fowey had a railway connection and handled 114,403 tons. In 1987 Par handled 700,000 tons, by 2002 the port served 284 vessels per year which were loaded with 318,455 metric tons of china clay, 107 vessels loaded with 136,970 metric tons of secondary aggregates for the building trade; the harbour developed a range of industrial facilities including a lead smelter with a 248-foot high chimney known as Par Stack.
This was used as a navigation aid by shipping until it was demolished in 1907. A 450-foot breakwater encloses 35 acres of water, tidal with only 16 feet depth of water and, unlike nearby Fowey, it cannot accommodate large ocean-going ships; the harbour is operated by the French mineral extraction company Imerys. Today china clay is piped to the harbour in slurry form. One berth at Par can load clay slurry into coasting vessels
St Ives, Cornwall
St Ives is a seaside town, civil parish and port in Cornwall. The town lies west of Camborne on the coast of the Celtic Sea. In former times it was commercially dependent on fishing; the decline in fishing, caused a shift in commercial emphasis, the town is now a popular seaside resort, notably achieving the title of Best UK Seaside Town from the British Travel Awards in both 2010 and 2011. St Ives was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1639. St Ives has become renowned for its number of artists, it was named best seaside town of 2007 by The Guardian newspaper. It should not be confused with a village and civil parish in south-east Cornwall; the origin of St Ives is attributed in legend to the arrival of the Irish saint Ia of Cornwall, in the 5th century. The parish church bears her name, St Ives derives from it; the Sloop Inn, which lies on the wharf was a fisherman's pub for many centuries and is dated to "circa 1312", making it one of the oldest inns in Cornwall. The town was the site of a notable atrocity during the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549.
The English provost marshal, Anthony Kingston, came to St Ives and invited the portreeve, John Payne, to lunch at an inn. He asked. Afterwards the portreeve and the Provost Marshal walked down to the gallows; the portreeve was hanged for being a "busy rebel". The seal of St Ives is Argent, an ivy branch overspreading the whole field Vert, with the legend Sigillum Burgi St. Ives in Com. Cornub. 1690. During the Spanish Armada of 1597 two Spanish ships, a bark and a pinnace had made their way to St Ives to seek shelter from the storm which had dispersed the Spanish fleet, they were captured by the English warship Warspite of Sir Walter Raleigh leaking from the same storm. The information given by the prisoners was vital on learning the Armada's objectives. From medieval times fishing was important at St Ives; the pier was built by John Smeaton between 1766 and 1770 but has been lengthened at a date. The octagonal lookout with a cupola belongs to Smeaton's design. A. K. Hamilton Jenkin describes how the St Ives fisherman observed Sunday as a day of rest.
St Ives was a busy fishing port and seining was the usual method of fishing. Seining was carried out by a set of three boats of different sizes, the largest two carrying seine nets of different sizes; the total number of crew was eighteen. However this came to an end in 1924. In the decade 1747–1756 the total number of pilchards dispatched from the four principal Cornish ports of Falmouth, Penzance, St Ives averaged 30,000 hogsheads annually. Much greater catches were achieved in 1790 and 1796. In 1847 the exports of pilchards from Cornwall amounted to 40,883 hogsheads or 122 million fish while the greatest number taken in one seine was 5,600 hogsheads at St Ives in 1868; the bulk of the catch was exported to Italy: for example, in 1830, 6400 hogsheads were sent to Mediterranean ports. From 1829 to 1838, the yearly average for this trade was 9000 hogsheads. Once the spring mackerel season ends, the fishing fleet head north. In July 1882, ninety luggers and six hundred men were engaged in the Scottish herring fishery.
While commercial fishing is much reduced, the harbour is still in use as well for recreational boating, tourist fishing and day trips to the nearby seal colonies on the Carrack Rocks and other locations along the coast. A class of Victorian fishing boat unique to St. Ives, known as a "jumbo," has been replicated by boatbuilder Jonny Nance to celebrate the town's maritime heritage. Today's jumbos are operated by the St. Ives Jumbo Association; the first lifeboat was stationed in the town in 1840. In 1867 the Royal National Lifeboat Institution built a boathouse at Porthgwidden beach, it proved to be a difficult site to launch from and in 1867 it was replaced by a building in Fore Street. In 1911 a new boathouse was built on the Quay, in 1993 a larger station was built at the landward end of the West Pier. Since its inception in 1839, thirty eight medals have been awarded to rescuers from St Ives, 18 silver medals and 20 bronze. Seven crewmen died in the St Ives lifeboat tragedy of 1939. In the early hours of 23 January 1939 there was a Force 10 storm blowing with gusts up to 100 miles per hour.
The lifeboat John and Sara Eliza Stych was launched at 3 o'clock to search for a ship reported in trouble off Cape Cornwall. It rounded the Island, it drifted across St Ives Bay when its propeller was fouled. The first time it turned over four men were lost, he scrambled ashore. The modern seaside resort developed as a result of the arrival of the St Ives Bay branch line from St Erth, part of the Great Western Railway in 1877. With it came a new generation of Victorian seaside holidaymakers. Much of the town was built during the latter part of the 19th century; the railway, which winds along the cliffs and bays, survived the Beeching cuts and has become a tourist attraction itself. In 1952, the Royal Navy warship HMS Wave ran aground near the town; the ship was salvaged and returned to service. A propeller believed to be from HMS Wave was washed ashore in 2008. In 1999, the town was the first landfall of the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999; the Tate St Ives displayed a exhibition called As Dark as Light, with art by Yuko Shiraishi, Garry
Fowey is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey in south Cornwall, United Kingdom. The town has been in existence since well before the Norman invasion, with the local church first established some time in the 7th century. Privateers made use of the sheltered harbourage; the Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway brought China clay here for export. The Domesday Book survey at the end of the 11th century records manors at Penventinue and Trenant, a priory was soon established nearby at Tywardreath. C. 1300 the prior granted a charter to people living in Fowey itself. This medieval town ran from a north gate near Boddinick Passage to a south gate at what is now Lostwithiel Street; the natural harbour allowed trade to develop with Europe and local ship owners hired their vessels to the king to support various wars, although the town developed a reputation for piracy, as did many others at this time. A group of privateers known as the'Fowey Gallants' were given licence to seize French vessels during the Hundred Years' War.
In the 14th century the harbour was defended by 160 archers. Despite these defences the town was attacked by French forces in 1457. Place House, by the church, was defended against the French but subsequently strengthened; this building still exists, but much remodelled. A small castle was built on St Catherine’s Point, the western side of the harbour entrance, around 1540; the defences proved their worth when a Dutch attack was beaten off in 1667. The people of Fowey sided with the Royalists during the English Civil War, but in 1644 the Earl of Essex brought a Parliamentarian army to Lostwithiel and occupied the peninsula around Fowey. In August, a Royalist army surrounded Essex’s troops and King Charles I himself viewed Fowey from Hall Walk above Polruan, where he came close to being killed by a musket shot. On 31 August, the Parliamentarian cavalry forced their way through the Royalist lines and retreated towards Saltash, leaving the foot soldiers to be evacuated by sea from Fowey. Essex and some officers did indeed escape, but the majority of the force surrendered a few days near Golant and were marched to Poole, but most died before reaching there.
The fortunes of the harbour became much reduced, with trade going to elsewhere instead. Fishing became more important, but local merchants were appointed as privateers and did some smuggling on the side. Tin and iron mines, along with quarries and china clay pits became important industries in the area, which led to improvements at rival harbours. West Polmear beach was dug out to become Charlestown harbour circa 1800, as was Pentewan in 1826. Joseph Austen shipped copper from Caffa Mill Pill above Fowey for a while before starting work on the new Par harbour in 1829. Fowey had to wait another forty years before it saw equivalent development, but its natural deep-water anchorage and a rail link soon gave it an advantage over the shallow artificial harbours nearer to the mines and china clay works. Meanwhile, a beacon tower was erected on the Gribben Head by Trinity House to improve navigation into Fowey and around Par bay; the Fowey Harbour Commissioners were established by an Act of Parliament in 1869, to develop and improve the harbour.
On 1 June in that year, the 7 ft broad gauge Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway was opened to new jetties situated above Carne Point, in 1873, the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge Cornwall Minerals Railway opened a line from Newquay and Par to further jetties between Caffa Mill Pill and Carne Point. Both of these railways carried just goods, but on 20 June 1876, a passenger station was opened on the CMR on land reclaimed from Caffa Mill Pill; the Lostwithiel line closed at the end of 1879 but was reopened by the CMR as a standard gauge line in 1895, the short gap between the two lines at Carne Point was eliminated. Passenger trains from Par were withdrawn after 1934 and from Lostwithiel in 1965; the Par line was subsequently converted to a dedicated roadway for lorries bringing china clay from Par after which all trains had to run via Lostwithiel. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution established Fowey Lifeboat Station near the Town Quay in 1922 to replace an earlier station at Polkerris; this was replaced by a new facility in Passage Street.
Two lifeboats are stationed at Fowey: Maurice and Joyce Hardy, a Trent Class all weather boat, kept afloat opposite the lifeboat station, Olive Two, an IB1 inshore lifeboat kept inside the station and launched by davit. Fowey was the main port for loading ammunition for the US 29th Division that landed on Omaha Beach on D Day during the Second World War. There was a munitions siding at Woodgate Pill just north of Fowey built for the Great War conflict; the seal of the borough of Fowey was On a shield a ship of three masts on the sea her topsail furled with the legend "Sigillum oppidi de Fowy Anno Dom. 1702". Fowey elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons until the Reform Act 1832 stripped it of its representation as a rotten borough, it having lost its borough corporation a few years before, it was restored as a municipal borough in 1913, was merged with the nearby and much larger St Austell in 1968 to form the borough of St Austell with Fowey. This was itself in 1974 replaced with the Restormel Borough, repl
Callington is a civil parish and town in south-east Cornwall, United Kingdom about 7 miles north of Saltash and 9 miles south of Launceston. Callington parish had a population of 4,783 according to the 2001 census; this had increased to 5,786 in the 2011 census. The town is situated in east Cornwall between Dartmoor to the east and Bodmin Moor to the west. A former agricultural market town, it lies at the intersection of the south-north A388 Saltash to Launceston road and the east-west A390 Tavistock to Liskeard road. Kit Hill is a mile north-east of the town and rises to 333 metres with views of Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor and the River Tamar; the hamlets of Bowling Green, Kelly Bray and Downgate are in the parish. Callington railway station was the terminus of a branch line from Bere Alston, the junction with the Southern Railway's Tavistock to Plymouth line; the railway line beyond Gunnislake to the Callington terminus was closed in the 1960s, due to low usage and difficult operating conditions on the final sections of the line due to several severe gradients and speed restrictions.
One can still travel by rail on the Tamar Valley Line from Plymouth as far as Gunnislake via Bere Alston, where trains reverse. For most of its journey the line follows the River Tamar. Gunnislake is the nearest railway station to Callington, although the nearest mainline station is at Saltash. Food manufacturers Ginsters and The Cornwall Bakery are the largest employers in the town. Ginsters uses local produce in many of its products, buying potatoes and other vegetables from local farmers and suppliers. Historic listed building The Old Clink on Tillie St, built in 1851 as a lock-up for drunks and vagrants, is now used as the offices for a local driving school. There is a Tesco supermarket, opened in 2010, which employs 200 local people. Callington has been postulated as one of the possible locations of the ancient site of Celliwig, associated with King Arthur. Nearby ancient monuments include Castlewitch Henge with a diameter of 96m and Cadsonbury Iron Age hillfort, as well as Dupath Well built in 1510 on the site of an ancient sacred spring.
Callington was recorded in the Domesday Book. The lord had land for three ploughs with eleven serfs. Twenty-four villeins and fourteen smallholders had land for fifteen ploughs. There were one and a half square leagues of pasture and a small amount of woodland; the income of the manor was £6 sterling. In 1601 Robert Rolle purchased the manor of Callington, thereby gaining the pocket borough seat of Callington in Parliament, which in future served to promote the careers of many Rolles, he nominated to this seat his brother William Rolle in 1604 and 1614, his son Sir Henry Rolle, of Shapwick, in 1620 and 1624, his son-in-law Thomas Wise of Sydenham in Devon, in 1625, another son John Rolle, In the 19th-century, Callington was one of the most important mining areas in Great Britain. Deposits of silver were found nearby in Silver Valley. Today, the area is marked by mining remains. Granite is still quarried on Hingston Down; the former Callington constituency, a rotten borough, elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons but was abolished by the Reform Act 1832.
The town is now in the South East Cornwall constituency. St Mary's Church was a chapel of ease to South Hill. Unusually for Cornwall there is a clerestory; the parish church contains the fine brass of Nicholas Assheton and his wife, 1466. In the churchyard there is a Gothic lantern cross, it was first mentioned by the historian William Borlase in 1752. Each of the four faces of the cross head features a carved figure beneath an ogee arch; the heads of these figures have been chiselled off, no doubt in the Commonwealth period. Callington is one of a small number of towns to continue to appoint a Portreeve. Callington Town Council covers the civil parish of Callington. At the Council elections in 2013 only ten candidates stood, eight Independents and two Mebyon Kernow Councillors. In recent years, the town has seen much residential development with more, including social housing, planned for the next few years; the neighbouring village of Kelly Bray has doubled in size in recent years with houses still being built in the area.
Callington is twinned with Guipavas in Brittany and Barsbüttel near Hamburg in Germany. It has unofficial friendship links with Keila in Estonia and a suburb of Malaga, Spain. Callington has both cricket teams. Callington Town Football Club has four adult teams playing in the South West Peninsula League, East Cornwall League, Duchy League and South West Regional Women's Football League, they all play at Marshfield Parc. Callington Cricket Club has three teams playing in the Cornwall Cricket League and play their games at Moores Park. People from Callington Dupath Well East Cornwall Mineral Railway Callington Community College Callington Town Council website Online Catalogue for Callington at the Cornwall Record Office Callington at Curlie
Marazion is a civil parish and town, on the shore of Mount's Bay in Cornwall, England, UK. It is 2 miles east of Penzance and the tidal island of St Michael's Mount is half-a-mile offshore. At low water a causeway links it to the town and at high water passenger boats carry visitors between Marazion and St Michael's Mount. Marazion is a thriving tourist resort with an active community of artists who produce and sell paintings and pottery in the town's art galleries. Marazion lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. On the western side of the town is Marazion Marsh, a RSPB reserve and a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Remains of an ancient bronze furnace, discovered near the town, tend to prove that tin smelting was practised here at an early period. Marazion was not recorded in the Domesday Book of 1088, its only charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth I. The charter attributed to Robert, Count of Mortain granted lands and liberties to St Michael's Mount opposite Marazion and included a market on Thursdays.
This appears to have been held from the first on the mainland. From it is derived the Marghasbighan of the earlier and the Marghasyewe or Marketjew of the charters, it may be added that a Jewish origin has been erroneously ascribed to the place from the name Marketjew. It is certain that Richard, Earl of Cornwall provided that the three fairs, on the two feasts of St Michael and at Mid-Lent, the three markets which had hitherto been held by the priors of St Michael's Mount on land not their own at Marghasbighan, should in future be held on their own land at Marchadyou, he transferred in fact the fairs and markets from the demesne lands of the Bloyous in Marazion to those of the prior. Its earliest known charter was granted in 1257. To remedy the loss incurred by this measure Ralph Bloyou in 1331 procured for himself and his heirs a market on Mondays and a fair on the vigil and morrow of St Andrew at Marghasyon. In Leland's time the market was held at Marhasdeythyow, both Norden and Carew tell us that Marcajewe signifies the Thursday's market, whether etymologically sound or not, shows that the prior's market had prevailed over its rival.
In 1595 Queen Elizabeth granted to Marazion a charter of incorporation. This ratified the grant of St Andrew's fair, provided for another on the Feast of St Barnabas and established a market on Saturdays; the corporation was to consist of eight aldermen and twelve capital burgesses. This corporation continued to administer the affairs of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity commissioners; the chairman of the commissioners retains possession of the regalia. Of the fairs, only the Michaelmas fair has survived and all the markets have gone, it is stated that Marazion had the right of returning two members to parliament, but that owing to its inability to pay the members' expenses the right was lost. The seal of the borough of Marazion was On a shield the arms three castles triple turreted, with the legend "Semper Eadem". Under the Commonwealth an attempt was made to secure or recover the right, two members are said to have been returned, but they were not allowed to take their seats.
Marazion was once a flourishing town, owing its prosperity to the throng of pilgrims who came to visit St Michael's Mount. During the first half of the 16th century it was twice plundered; the rise and progress of the neighbouring borough of Penzance in the 17th century marginalised Marazion. Penwith is believed to be the last part of Cornwall to speak Cornish as a community language. Dolly Pentreath, the last recorded speaker came from Paul in Penwith. A year following the death of Dolly Pentreath, Barrington received a letter, written in Cornish and accompanied by an English translation, from a fisherman in Mousehole named William Bodinar stating that he knew of five people who could speak Cornish in that village alone. Barrington speaks of a John Nancarrow from Marazion, a native speaker and survived into the 1790s; the graveyard of Gulval church is home to the remains of local pirate and smuggler John'Eyebrows' Thomas of Marazion. The West Cornwall Railway opened Marazion railway station on 11 March 1852 and its goods yard handled a large volume of perishable traffic – fish and vegetables – from the surrounding farms and harbours.
Marazion station closed to passenger traffic in October 1964 and to freight in December 1965. For many years the site of the closed station was home to Pullman railway carriages which were used as camping coaches; the site, though not conveniently located, is on Cornwall's still-operating passenger main-line, so there are aspirations to re-open it. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened a'Marazion Lifeboat Station' in 1990, although the D-class inshore lifeboat was kept in a shed on the quayside on St Michael's Mount; the station was closed on 31 October 2001 as it was proving difficult to find enough volunteer crew members. The boat was transferred to the neighbouring Penlee Lifeboat Station at Newlyn on the other side of Mounts Bay where there is a larger population to draw the crews from. At the end of the Second World War a number of naval vessels, the most famous of, the battleship HMS Warspite were broken up on the beaches at Marazion. HMS Warspite was beached and broken up in 1947.
The local community radio station is Coast FM (formerly Penwith R
See also: Battle of Stratton 1643Stratton is a small town situated near the coastal resort of Bude in north Cornwall, England, UK. It was the name of one of ten ancient administrative shires of Cornwall - see "Hundreds of Cornwall". A battle of the English civil war took place here on 16 May 1643. A local saying at Stratton is "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland; the earliest known references to Stratton are found in King Alfred’s Will of c. 880 and the Domesday survey of 1086. The earliest form of the name of Stratton is Strætneat, an Anglo-Saxon form derived from Old Cornish "strad" and "neth", meaning the flat-bottomed valley of the river Neth; this river is now known as the River Strat. At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor of Stratton had land for 30 ploughs. There were 20 smallholders and 20 slaves. There were 20 acres of woodland, 200 acres of pasture, 30 cattle and 300 sheep.
Before the conquest the manor had been held by Alfred the Marshal. The town has given its name to a traditional folk ballad "The Stratton Carol". One of the most prominent buildings in Stratton is the 12th century Norman church dedicated to Saint Andrew which holds a central and elevated position within the town, it is listed Grade I. The church contains a brass to Sir John Arundell of Trerice, 1561; as well as the main church, there were other chapels around the village. This is supported by the existence of the large, old tithe barn; the area around Cot Hill was an important sanctuary for pilgrims travelling the pilgrimage route to Hartland during Medieval times. However, many of the chapels are derelict or have now been converted, suggesting the population decline has been so great as to leave only enough people to use the church and one remaining chapel; the town once had a jail, a police station and a courthouse, but the police station has now been moved to Bude, the jail demolished and the courthouse converted into two dwellings.
The door of the jail, marked "CLINK", is still visible in the church porch. The following quotation indicates Stratton's importance as a centre of justice "As Stratton Town and the surrounding villages grew, the need to administer civil and criminal law from an appropriate location was necessary." The name Stratton was given to the unit of government for taxation during Saxon times, known as a ‘Hundred’. Stratton was the head of its hundred due to its importance in comparison to that of the local towns and villages, including Kilkhampton, Boyton, Whitstone, Stratton itself, Bridgerule, Week St Mary, North Tamerton and Morwenstow. Other than the loss of Bridgerule, the Stratton Hundred remained undisturbed until the demise of the Stratton Rural District in the 1970s; the Hundred is an indicator of Stratton’s importance not only for these reasons, but because in the whole of Cornwall, there were only nine Hundreds and all of them had their own courts, this suggests that not only did Stratton have a courthouse, it was the only one in the Stratton Hundred.
Trade and industry affected Stratton’s popularity. During medieval times it dealt in leather, evidence of this is the road named after the trade. There is evidence of farming in the milking parlours and stalls that are made from cob, a traditional building material, the Old Malt House shows where ale was produced in the church owned brewery. During medieval times herbs and spices were considered important, for medicinal purposes as well as others, Stratton was famous for having an abundance of wild garlic. Trade events such as markets and fairs were a regular occurrence in Stratton and people would come from all around to attend. Lots of the evidence for events and trades in Stratton is subtle, for example street names like Market Street and Poundfield Lane. Stratton had up to 14 pubs. Many have now been knocked down or converted, however some, for example the Tree Inn, are still running, despite fewer customers than they would have expected before Bude became the main town. Although many of the shops that once lined the streets have now been converted into homes, the large front windows still hint at the lives led by the inhabitants when Stratton was the most important town in the area.
Trade directories allow us to compare the two towns, for example, in 1844, when Stratton had six shoemakers, Bude had only one, although Slater’s Trade Directory 1852-1853 shows the period in which Bude was beginning to catch up, although Stratton was still thriving. One of the main factors which led to the demise of Stratton’s influence was New Road which directed traffic away from the centre of Stratton in the early 20th century; the bypass was built in 1950 when Stratton was well and defeated. Following the 1960s rail closures Stratton and Bude became the two towns most remote from the rail network in England. Despite the downfall of Stratton, it still managed to keep the hospita