Parthia is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great; the region served as the political and cultural base of the Eastern-Iranian Parni people and Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire. The Sasanian Empire, the last state of pre-Islamic Persia held the region and maintained the Seven Parthian clans as part of their feudal aristocracy; the name "Parthia" is a continuation from Latin Parthia, from Old Persian Parthava, the Parthian language self-designator signifying "of the Parthians" who were an Iranian people. In context to its Hellenistic period, Parthia appears as Parthyaea. Parthia corresponds to a region in northeastern Iran, it was bordered by the Karakum desert in the north, included Kopet Dag mountain range and the Dasht-e-Kavir desert in the south.
It bordered Media on the west, Hyrcania on the north west, Margiana on the north east, Aria on the south east. During Arsacid times, Parthia was united with Hyrcania as one administrative unit, that region is therefore considered a part of Parthia proper; as the region inhabited by Parthians, Parthia first appears as a political entity in Achaemenid lists of governorates under their dominion. Prior to this, the people of the region seem to have been subjects of the Medes, 7th century BC Assyrian texts mention a country named Partakka or Partukka. A year after Cyrus the Great's defeat of the Median Astyages, Parthia became one of the first provinces to acknowledge Cyrus as their ruler, "and this allegiance secured Cyrus' eastern flanks and enabled him to conduct the first of his imperial campaigns – against Sardis." According to Greek sources, following the seizure of the Achaemenid throne by Darius I, the Parthians united with the Median king Phraortes to revolt against him. Hystaspes, the Achaemenid governor of the province, managed to suppress the revolt, which seems to have occurred around 522–521 BC.
The first indigenous Iranian mention of Parthia is in the Behistun inscription of Darius I, where Parthia is listed among the governorates in the vicinity of Drangiana. The inscription dates to c. 520 BC. The center of the administration "may have been at Hecatompylus"; the Parthians appear in Herodotus' list of peoples subject to the Achaemenids. This "has rightly caused disquiet to modern scholars."At the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC between the forces of Darius III and those of Alexander the Great, one such Parthian unit was commanded by Phrataphernes, at the time Achaemenid governor of Parthia. Following the defeat of Darius III, Phrataphernes surrendered his governorate to Alexander when the Macedonian arrived there in the summer of 330 BC. Phrataphernes was reappointed governor by Alexander. Following the death of Alexander, in the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC, Parthia became a Seleucid governorate under Nicanor. Phrataphernes, the former governor, became governor of Hyrcania. In 320 BC, at the Partition of Triparadisus, Parthia was reassigned to Philip, former governor of Sogdiana.
A few years the province was invaded by Peithon, governor of Media Magna, who attempted to make his brother Eudamus governor. Peithon and Eudamus were driven back, Parthia remained a governorate in its own right. In 316 BC, Stasander, a vassal of Seleucus I Nicator and governor of Bactria was appointed governor of Parthia. For the next 60 years, various Seleucids would be appointed governors of the province. In 247 BC, following the death of Antiochus II, Ptolemy III seized control of the Seleucid capital at Antioch, "so left the future of the Seleucid dynasty for a moment in question." Taking advantage of the uncertain political situation, the Seleucid governor of Parthia, proclaimed his independence and began minting his own coins. Meanwhile, "a man called Arsaces, of Scythian or Bactrian origin, elected leader of the Parni", an eastern-Iranian peoples from the Tajen/Tajend River valley, south-east of the Caspian Sea. Following the secession of Parthia from the Seleucid Empire and the resultant loss of Seleucid military support, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders, about 238 BC – under the command of "Arsaces and his brother Tiridates" – the Parni invaded Parthia and seized control of Astabene, the northern region of that territory, the administrative capital of, Kabuchan.
A short while the Parni seized the rest of Parthia from Andragoras, killing him in the process. Although an initial punitive expedition by the Seleucids under Seleucus II was not successful, the Seleucids under Antiochus III recaptured Arsacid controlled territory in 209 BC from Arsaces' successor, Arsaces II. Arsaces II sued for peace and accepted vassal status, it was not until Arsaces II's grandson Phraates I, that the Arsacids/Parni would again begin to assert their independence. From their base in Parthia, the Arsacid dynasts extended their dominion to include most of Greater Iran, they quickl
History of Europe
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw human inflows from east and southeast and subsequent important cultural and material exchange; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the Mediterranean Basin and Northwest Europe; the fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology; the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches in Germany and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Western Europe; the main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths; the Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989.
During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw massive migrations from east and southeast which brought agriculture, new technologies, the Indo-European languages through the areas of the Balkan peninsula and the Black sea region. Some of the best-known civilizations of the late prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. After checking the Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia and other parts of Europe; the Thracians and their kingdoms and culture were long present in Southeast Europe. In 500 BC, Rome was a small city-state on the Italian peninsula. By 200 BC, Rome had conquered Italy, over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Hispania, the North African coast, much of the Middle East and Britannia.
By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe, pressed by the Huns, grew in strength, repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples became more powerful in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over Western Europe, the Frankish Empire reaching its peak under Charlemagne around 800; this empire was divided into several parts. The British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations; the Byzantine Empire – the eastern part of the Roman Empire, with its capital Constantinople, survived for the next 1000 years as the most dominant empire in Southeast Europe. The powerful and long lived. Both empires were major powers in that part of Europe for centuries, both creating important cultural, political and religious legacy through the Middle Ages to this day.
The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Normans, descendants of the Vikings who settled in Northern France, had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Sicily; the Rus' people founded Kievan Rus'. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions intended to bring the Levant back under Christian rule; the Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. Led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads who established a decentralized empire which, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic Seas in Europe; as Mongol power waned towards the Late Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to become the strongest of the numerous Russian principalities and republics and would grow into the Tsardom of Russia in 1547.
The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period. In Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years' War. In Central Europe, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became a large territorial empire, while the Holy Roman Empire, an elective monarchy, came to be dominated for centuries by the House of Habsburg. Russia continued to expand eastward into former Mongol lands. In the Balkans, the Islamic Ottoman Empire overran Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which historians mark as the end of the Middle Ages. Ottoman armies pressed into Central Europe, besieging
Mithridates II of Parthia
Mithridates II was king of Parthian Empire from 124 to 88 BC. He was known as "the Great" in antiquity, he is the first Parthian ruler to use the title of "King of Kings", thus stressing the Parthian association with the Achaemenid Empire. Considered one of the most prominent monarchs of the ancient East, his reign marked the rise of the Parthians as a superpower, he spent most of reign consolidating his rule in the Near East re-conquering Babylonia, turning the kingdoms of Armenia, Characene and Osrhoene into vassal states. He captured Dura-Europos in Syria, restored Parthian authority in Sakastan, given as a fief to the House of Suren. During the last years of his reign, his empire fell into disarray, with the Parthian nobility having enough authority to challenge the Parthian king periodically, including a rival-monarch named Gotarzes I, who claimed the throne. Following Mithridates II's death in 88 BC, Gotarzes ruled Babylonia, while Orodes I ruled the eastern territories of the empire separately.
Mithridates is the Greek form of the Iranian theophoric name of Mihrdāt, meaning "gift of Mithra". The Old Persian version is Miθradāta, whilst the Modern Persian version is Mehrdād. At the time of his succession, the Parthian Empire was reeling from military pressures in the West and East. Several embarrassing defeats at the hands of eastern nomads had sapped the strength and prestige of the kingdom. However, Mithridates II proved himself to be a capable king and was soon able to reincorporate Babylonia into the kingdom, lost to Characene a short time before; as a sign of victory he had the coinage of the Characene ruler Hyspaosines overstruck, although he had died in 124 BC. The whole of Mesopotamia was taken in a rush and he reached Dura-Europus in 113 BC. Mithridates II attacked Armenia ruled by Artavasdes I and took hostage the Armenian king's son, the future Tigranes the Great; this was the first time that the Parthians interfered in Armenian politics. In the east of the Empire, the situation seemed unsalvagable.
Invading nomads had destroyed the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and threatened the eastern borders of the empire. However, Mithridates II was able to fend off the attacking nomads and reincorporate the provinces of Parthia and Aria back into the realm, he was able to reconquer the region of Sakastan, which had since c. 129 BC been under the control of nomadic peoples the Eastern Iranian Saka and the Indo-European Yuezhi. He gave the province as a fiefdom to the House of Suren, further expanded his rule as far as present-day southern Afghanistan. In 121 BC the Chinese under Emperor Wu of Han had defeated the Xiongnu in the east and were expanding westwards in force. In Ferghana the Chinese sphere of influence encountered that of the Parthians. A Chinese delegation to the Parthian court is attested for the year 120 BC. In the following year the Silk Road was opened; the Armenian King Tigranes I died in 95 BC and Mithridates II put the Armenian heir Tigranes II, who had hitherto lived among the Parthians, on the Armenian throne.
Soon after this Mithridates II attacked Adiabene and Osrhoene and conquered these city states, bringing the western border of the Parthian realm to the Euphrates. Here the Parthians encountered the Romans for the first time. In 96 BC Mithridates II sent a certain Orobazos as an envoy to Sulla. While the Romans were increasing immensely in power, the Parthians sought friendly relations with the Romans and thus wanted to reach a agreement that assured mutual respect between the two powers. Negotiation followed in which Sulla gained the upper hand and Orobazos made himself and the Parthians look like suppliants; the actual result of the negotiations is not known, but it can be assumed that the border was set at the upper Euphrates. Orobazos would be executed; the Parthian diplomatic affairs with the Romans and Chinese demonstrates their rise as a superpower. By the late 90s BC, Mithridates II seems to have faced internal political issues. In 93/2 BC Mithridates II's nephew, rebelled in Susiana, he proclaimed himself king and held the region until 88/7 BC, at which point Mithridates II's son, Gotarzes I, forced him to flee to the Central Asian steppe.
Sinatruces returned to the Parthian throne in 77/76 BC with the aid of Sakae mercenaries. Mithridates II did not outlive the usurper and died in 91 BC. There are clear signs that the Parthian empire was restructured under Mithridates II; the last administrative texts in cuneiform were written under his rule. Temples in the Babylonian style were replaced by some in a more Hellenic/Parthian style. Both facts seem to indicate that the temple administration system which dated back at least to Nebuchadnezzar II did not continue; the oldest documents yet discovered from Nisa belong to his reign. The portrait of the king is exclusively known from his coinage, it is possible to identify several types of depiction in the coinage. He can be shown with a short beard and a diadem, but there are images which show him with a mid-length beard or with a long beard, still wearing the diadem. A different type of image shows him with a high domed tiara on his head. At Mount Behistun, now in the west of Iran, there is a rock relief which shows the king and four vassals or officials, who make obeisence to him.
There are accompanying inscriptions in Greek. The relief known only from old copies. Since the early 2nd-century BC, the Arsacids had begun adding obvious signals in their dynastic ideology, which emphasized their association with the heritage of
In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld; the prairie of North America is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. A steppe may be semi-arid or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is of chernozem type. Steppes are characterized by a semi-arid or continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C and in winter, −55 °C. Besides this huge difference between summer and winter, the differences between day and night are very great. In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 °C can be reached during the day with sub-zero °C readings at night; the mid-latitude steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm of precipitation per year.
Precipitation level alone is not. Two types of steppe can be recorded: Temperate steppe: the "true" steppe, found in continental areas of the world; the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe led to, e.g. the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo-Europeans with the autochthonous pre-Greek population and its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse, followed by the demise of the Achaeans, the spread of the Sea Peoples, the rise of Archaic and Classical Greece. The world's largest steppe region referred to as "the Great Steppe", is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia, China and Uzbekistan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges; the inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are dominated by cold steppe.
The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe Hungary. Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada and northern part of Mexico; the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Channeled Scablands in Southern British Columbia and Washington State is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains. In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes. Small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand. In Europe, some Mediterranean areas have a steppe-like vegetation, such as central Sicily in Italy, southern Portugal, parts of Greece in the southern Athens area, central-eastern Spain the southeastern coast, places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza. In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.
In Australia, "subtropical steppe" can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts, such as Reno, the inner part of California, much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico. Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B. Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, Gerard Bota. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lleida, Spain. December 2004. ISBN 84-87334-99-7 "The Steppes". Barramedasoft.com.ar. 1998–2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04
Not to be confused with the Sindhi people. The Sindi were an ancient people in the Taman Peninsula and the adjacent coast of the Pontus Euxinus, in the district called Sindica, which spread between the modern towns of Temryuk and Novorossiysk, their name is variously written, Mela calls them Sindones, Sindianoi. Strabo describes them as living along the Palus Maeotis, among the Maeotae, Toreatae, Arrechi, Obidiaceni, Sittaceni and Aspurgiani, among others.. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia classes them as a tribe of the Maeotae; the Cambridge Ancient History refers to the Sindi as a Scythian people dominant among the Maeotians, whom it considers as either of Cimmerian ancestry or as Caucasian aboriginals under Iranian overlordship. In the 4th century BC, the Sindi were the people inhabiting the Sindike Kingdom, which were under the rule of Hekataios and his wife Tirgatao until the latter was dethroned; the son of Hekataios, was the ruler of the people after having usurped the throne from his father and was warred by Leukon and defeated him shortly thereafter.
The Sindi were subjugated by the Bosporan Kingdom during the wars of expansion. They left multiple tumuli which, when excavated by Soviet archaeologists, revealed that their culture was Hellenized; the Sindi were assimilated by the Sarmatians in the first centuries AD. Besides the seaport of Sinda, other towns belonging to the same people were Hermonassa and Aborace, they had a monarchical form of government, Gorgippia was the residence of their kings. Nicolaus Damascenus mentions a peculiar custom which they had of throwing upon the grave of a deceased person as many fish as the number of enemies whom he had overcome; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Boardman, John; the Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 3. Part 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521227178. Retrieved March 2, 2015. Strabo's book 11 on-line Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers Trubachov, Oleg N. 1999: Indoarica, Moscow
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Tacitus was Roman Emperor from 275 to 276. During his short reign he campaigned against the Goths and the Heruli, for which he received the title Gothicus Maximus. Tacitus was born in Italia, he circulated copies of the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus' work, read at the time contributing to the partial survival of the historian's work. Modern historiography rejects his claimed descent from the historian as a fabrication. In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, holding the consulship twice, once under Valerian and again in 273, earning universal respect. After the assassination of Aurelian, the army in remorse at the effects of the previous centuries' military license, which had brought about the death of the well-liked emperor, relinquished the right of choosing his successor to the senate; the Senate hesitated to accept the responsibility, but when the delay had gone on eight months from Aurelian's death it at last determined to settle the matter and offered the throne to the aged Princeps Senatus, Tacitus.
Tacitus, after ascertaining the sincerity of the Senate's regard for him, accepted their nomination on 25 September 275, the choice was cordially ratified by the army. This was the last time; the interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus had been quite long, there is substantial evidence that Aurelian's wife, Ulpia Severina, ruled in her own right before the election of Tacitus. Tacitus had been living in Campania before his election, returned only reluctantly to the assembly of the senate in Rome, where he was elected, he asked the Senate to deify Aurelian, before arresting and executing Aurelian's murderers. Amongst the highest concerns of the new reign was the restoration of the ancient powers of the senate, he granted substantial prerogatives to the senate, securing to them by law the appointment of the emperor, of the consuls, the provincial governors, as well as supreme right of appeal from every court in the empire in its judicial function, the direction of certain branches of the revenue in its long-abeyant administrative capacity.
Probus respected these changes, but after the reforms of Diocletian in the succeeding decades not a vestige would be left of them. Next he moved against the barbarian mercenaries, gathered by Aurelian to supplement Roman forces for his Eastern campaign; these mercenaries had plundered several towns in the Eastern Roman provinces after Aurelian had been murdered and the campaign cancelled. His half-brother, the Praetorian Prefect Florianus, Tacitus himself won a victory against these tribes, among which were the Heruli, gaining the emperor the title Gothicus Maximus. On his way back to the west to deal with a Frankish and Alamannic invasion of Gaul, according to Aurelius Victor and the Historia Augusta, Tacitus died of fever at Tyana in Cappadocia in June 276, it was reported that he began acting strangely, declaring that he would alter the names of the months to honor himself, before succumbing to a fever. In a contrary account, Zosimus claims he was assassinated, after appointing one of his relatives to an important command in Syria.
Historia Augusta, Vita Taciti, English version of Historia Augusta Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita, ix. 16, English version of Breviarium ab Urbe Condita Aurelius Victor, "Epitome de Caesaribus", English version of Epitome de Caesaribus Zosimus, "Historia Nova", Historia Nova Joannes Zonaras, Compendium of History extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284 McMahon, Robin, "Tacitus", De Imperatoribus Romanis Jones, A. H. M. Martindale, J. R; the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Vol. I, AD 260–395, Cambridge University Press, 1971 Southern, Pat; the Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tacitus, Marcus Claudius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Constantine P. Cavafy, The Complete Poems, Brace & World, p. 201 Alan Dugan, Poems 2, Yale University Press, p. 33