Lasiommata maera, the large wall brown, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. Lasiommata maera maera Lasiommata maera abastumana Lasiommata maera adrasta Lasiommata maera crimaea Lasiommata maera jachontovi Lasiommata maera meadewaldoi Lasiommata maera ordona Lasiommata maera orientalis The species is common in continental Europe, it is present in the Urals, south western Siberia, Asia Minor, Iran, Central Asia and the Himalayas. It is absent from the United Kingdom, its preferred habitats are edges of the forest, unmanaged clearings on forested areas, rocky dry areas and stony slopes, at an elevation of 0–2,000 metres above sea level. Lasiommata maera has a wingspan of 44–56 millimetres; these large butterflies are quite variable in pattern. The upperside is orange in the forewings and brown in the hindwings; the forewings always show a single ocellus, while the hindwings bear three ocelli. The underside of the forewings is orange and the underside of the hindwings is marbled with gray brown.
This species is quite similar to Lasiommata megera, smaller and has paler yellow-orange forewings. The larva eats full-grown grasses, such as Poa annua, Poa bulbosa, Poa pratensis, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Festuca pratensis, Glyceria fluitans, Calamagrostis epigejos, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Calamagrostis varia, Deschampsia flexuosa, Agrostis capillaris, Nardus stricta, Dactylis and Hordeum species; this species has two broods in a single brood in the south. Adults fly from April to September; these butterflies are avid fliers and they are seen in flight in strong wind. Lepiforum Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres and are detritivores or scavengers. There are more than 9,900 amphipod species so far described, they are marine animals, but are found in all aquatic environments. Some 1,900 species live in fresh water, the order includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator; the name Amphipoda comes, via the New Latin amphipoda, from the Greek roots ἀμφί and πούς, in reference to two kinds of legs that amphipods possess. This contrasts with the related Isopoda. Among anglers, amphipods are known as freshwater shrimp, scuds or sideswimmers; the body of an amphipod is divided into 13 segments, which can be grouped into a head, a thorax and an abdomen. The head is fused to the thorax, bears two pairs of antennae and one pair of sessile compound eyes, it carries the mouthparts, but these are concealed. The thorax and abdomen are quite distinct and bear different kinds of legs.
The thorax bears eight pairs of uniramous appendages, the first of which are used as accessory mouthparts. Gills are present on the thoracic segments, there is an open circulatory system with a heart, using haemocyanin to carry oxygen in the haemolymph to the tissues; the uptake and excretion of salts is controlled by special glands on the antennae. The abdomen is divided into two parts: the pleosome. Amphipods are less than 10 millimetres long, but the largest recorded living amphipods were 28 centimetres long, were photographed at a depth of 5,300 metres in the Pacific Ocean. Samples from the Atlantic Ocean with a reconstructed length of 34 centimetres have been assigned to the same species, Alicella gigantea; the smallest known amphipods are less than 1 millimetre long. The size of amphipods is limited by the availability of dissolved oxygen, such that the amphipods in Lake Titicaca at an altitude of 3,800 metres can only grow up to 22 millimetres, compared to lengths of 90 millimetres in Lake Baikal at 455 metres.
Mature females bear a marsupium, or brood pouch, which holds her eggs while they are fertilised, until the young are ready to hatch. As a female ages, she produces more eggs in each brood. Mortality is around 25–50% for the eggs. There are no larval stages; some species have been known to eat their own exuviae after moulting Over 9,950 species of amphipods are recognised. Traditionally they were placed in the four suborders Gammaridea, Caprellidea and Ingolfiellidea; the classification of the Amphipoda is however being rearranged to better reflect their phylogeny, the relationships within the suborder Gammaridea having suffered from the most confusion. A new classification has been developed in the works of Lowry & Myers, where a new large suborder Senticaudata was split off from the Gammaridea in 2013; that taxon, which encompasses the previous Caprellidea, now comprises over half of the known amphipod species. The classification given below, from the rank of suborder down to superfamily, however still represents the traditional division as given in Martin & Davis, except that superfamilies are recognised here within the Gammaridea.
Amphipods are thought to have originated in the Lower Carboniferous. Despite the group's age, the fossil record of the order Amphipoda is meagre, comprising specimens of 12 species dating back only as far as the Upper Eocene, where they have been found in Baltic amber. Amphipods are found in all aquatic environments, from fresh water to water with twice the salinity of sea water, they are always an important component of aquatic ecosystems acting as mesograzers. Most species in the suborder Gammaridea are epibenthic, although they are collected in plankton samples. Members of the Hyperiidea are all marine. Many are symbionts of gelatinous animals, including salps, siphonophores, colonial radiolarians and ctenophores, most hyperiids are associated with gelatinous animals during some part of their life cycle; some 1,900 species, or 20% of the total amphipod diversity, live in fresh water or other non-marine waters. Notably rich endemic amphipod faunas are found in the ancient Lake Baikal and waters of the Caspian Sea basin.
The landhoppers of the family Talitridae are terrestrial, living in damp environments such as leaf litter. Landhoppers have a wide distribution in areas that were part of Gondwanaland, but have colonised parts of Europe and North America in recent times. Around 750 species in 160 genera and 30 families are troglobitic, are found in all suitable habitats, but with their centres of diversity in the Mediterranean Basin, southeastern North America and the Caribbean. In populations found in Benthic ecosystems, amphipods play an essential role in controlling brown algae growth; the mesograzer behaviour of amphipods contributes to the suppression of brown algal dominance in the absence of amphipod predators. Amphi
In Greek mythology, Atlas was a Titan condemned to hold up the celestial heavens for eternity after the Titanomachy. Atlas plays a role in the myths of two of the greatest Greek heroes: Heracles and Perseus. According to the ancient Greek poet Hesiod, Atlas stood at the ends of the earth in extreme west, he became identified with the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa and was said to be "King of Mauretania". Atlas was said to have been skilled in philosophy and astronomy. In antiquity, he was credited with inventing the first celestial sphere. In some texts, he is credited with the invention of astronomy itself. Atlas was the Oceanid Asia or Clymene, he had many children daughters, the Hesperides, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the nymph Calypso who lived on the island Ogygia. The term Atlas has been used to describe a collection of maps since the 16th century when Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator published his work in honor of the mythological Titan; the "Atlantic Ocean" means "Sea of Atlas", while "Atlantis" means "island of Atlas", with some myths calling the deity a king of Atlantis.
The etymology of the name Atlas is uncertain. Virgil took pleasure in translating etymologies of Greek names by combining them with adjectives that explained them: for Atlas his adjective is durus, "hard, enduring", which suggested to George Doig that Virgil was aware of the Greek τλῆναι "to endure". Since the Atlas mountains rise in the region inhabited by Berbers, it has been suggested that the name might be taken from one of the Berber ádrār'mountain'. Traditionally historical linguists etymologize the Ancient Greek word Ἄτλας as comprised from copulative α- and the Proto-Indo-European root *telh₂-'to uphold, support', and, reshaped to an nt-stem. However, Robert Beekes argues that it cannot be expected that this ancient Titan carries an Indo-European name, that the word is of Pre-Greek origin, such words end in -ant. Atlas and his brother Menoetius sided with the Titans in their war against the Olympians, the Titanomachy; when the Titans were defeated, many of them were confined to Tartarus, but Zeus condemned Atlas to stand at the western edge of Gaia and hold up the sky on his shoulders.
Thus, he was Atlas Telamon, "enduring Atlas," and became a doublet of Coeus, the embodiment of the celestial axis around which the heavens revolve. A common misconception today is that Atlas was forced to hold the Earth on his shoulders, but Classical art shows Atlas holding the celestial spheres, not a globe; the greek poet Polyidus ca. 398 BC tells a tale of Atlas a shepherd, encountering Perseus who turned him to stone. Ovid gives a more detailed account of the incident, combining it with the myth of Heracles. In this account Atlas is not a shepherd but a King. According to Ovid, Perseus arrives in Atlas' Kingdom and asks for shelter, declaring he is a son of Zeus. Atlas, fearful of a prophecy which warned of a son of Zeus stealing his golden apples from his orchard, refuses Perseus hospitality. In this account, Atlas is turned not just into stone by Perseus, but an entire mountain range: Atlas' head the peak, his shoulders ridges and his hair woods; the prophecy did not relate to Perseus stealing the golden apples but Heracles, another son of Zeus, Perseus' great-grandson.
One of the Twelve Labors of the hero Heracles was to fetch some of the golden apples which grow in Hera's garden, tended by Atlas' reputed daughters, the Hesperides which were called the Atlantides, guarded by the dragon Ladon. Heracles went to Atlas and offered to hold up the heavens while Atlas got the apples from his daughters. Upon his return with the apples, Atlas attempted to trick Heracles into carrying the sky permanently by offering to deliver the apples himself, as anyone who purposely took the burden must carry it forever, or until someone else took it away. Heracles, suspecting Atlas did not intend to return, pretended to agree to Atlas' offer, asking only that Atlas take the sky again for a few minutes so Heracles could rearrange his cloak as padding on his shoulders; when Atlas set down the apples and took the heavens upon his shoulders again, Heracles took the apples and ran away. In some versions, Heracles instead built the two great Pillars of Hercules to hold the sky away from the earth, liberating Atlas much as he liberated Prometheus.
According to Plato, the first king of Atlantis was named Atlas, but that Atlas was a son of Poseidon and the mortal woman Cleito. The works of Eusebius and Diodorus give an Atlantean account of Atlas. In these accounts, Atlas' father was Uranus and his mother was Gaia, his grandfather was Elium "King of Phoenicia". Atlas was raised by Basilia. Atlas was a legendary king of Mauretania, the land of the Mauri in antiquity corresponding with modern Maghreb. In the 16th Century Gerardus Mercator put together the first collection of maps to be called an "Atlas" and devoted his book to the "King of Mauretania". Atlas became associated with Northwest Africa over time, he had been connected with the Hesperides, "Nymphs" which guarded the golden apples, Gorgons both of which lived beyond Ocean in the extreme west of the world since Hesiod's Theogony. Diodorus and Palaephatus mention that t
In Greek mythology, the Nereids are sea nymphs, the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites. They accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, can be friendly and helpful to sailors, like the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece. Nereids are associated with the Aegean Sea, where they dwelt with their father Nereus in the depths within a golden palace; the most notable of them are wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles. They symbolized everything, beautiful and kind about the sea, their melodious voices sang. They are represented as beautiful girls, crowned with branches of red coral and dressed in white silk robes trimmed with gold, but who went barefoot, they carried his trident. In Homer's Iliad XVIII, when Thetis cries out in sympathy for the grief of Achilles for the slain Patroclus, her sisters appear; the Nereid Opis is mentioned in Virgil's Aeneid. She is called by the goddess Diana to avenge the death of the Amazon-like female warrior Camilla. Diana gives Opis magical weapons for revenge on the Etruscan Arruns.
Opis laments Camilla's death and shoots Arruns in revenge as directed by Diana. In modern Greek folklore, the term "nereid" has come to be used for all nymphs, fairies, or mermaids, not nymphs of the sea. Nereid, a moon of the planet Neptune, is named after the Nereids; this list is correlated from four sources: Homer's Iliad, Hesiod's Theogony, the Bibliotheca and Hyginus. Because of this, the total number of names goes beyond fifty. Media related to Nereids at Wikimedia Commons Nereids in classical literature and art Nereid and Triton Mosaic from Ephesus Terrace Home -2 3D stereoview of Nereid and Triton relief from Temple of Apollo in Didim Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
Britomartis was a Greek goddess of mountains and hunting, worshipped on the island of Crete. She was sometimes believed to be an oread, or a mountain nymph, but she was conflated or syncretized with Artemis and Aphaea, the "invisible" patroness of Aegina, she is known as Diktynna. According to Solinus, the name'Britomartis' is from a Cretan dialect. Solinus identifies her explicitly as the Cretan Artemis. Hesychius of Alexandria equates the Cretan word βριτύ with Greek γλυκύ'sweet'. Other scholars have argued that Britomartis is an epithet that does not reveal the goddess's name, nor her character, instead arguing that it may be an apotropaic euphemism; the goddess was portrayed on Cretan coinage, either as herself or as Diktynna, the goddess of Mount Dikte, Zeus' birthplace. As Diktynna, she was depicted as a winged goddess with a human face, standing atop her ancient mountain, grasping an animal in each hand, in the guise of Potnia Theron, the mistress of animals. By Hellenistic and Roman times, Britomartis was given a genealogical setting that fitted her into a Classical context: Britomartis, called Diktynna, the myths relate, was born at Kaino in Crete of Zeus and Karme, the daughter of Euboulos, the son of Demeter.
The third hymn to Artemis by Callimachus tells how she was pursued by Minos and, as Diktynna, "Lady of the Nets", threw herself into fishermen's nets to escape him. She was known as Dicte; this myth element "explains" the spread of the Cretan goddess's cult to Greece. Didorus Siculus found it less than credible: But those men who tell the tale that she has been named Diktynna because she fled into some fishermen’s nets when she was pursued by Minos, who would have ravished her, have missed the truth. Strabo notes she was venerated as Diktynna only in western Crete, in the region of Cydonia, where there was a Diktynnaion, or temple of Diktynna. "Oupis, O queen, fairfaced Bringer of Light, thee too the Kretans name after that Nymph," Callimachus says. "She passed her time in the company of Artemis, this being the reason why some men think Diktynna and Artemis are one and the same goddess," Diodorus Siculus suggested. In the second century CE, the Greek writer Pausanias describes Britomartis saying, "She was made a goddess by Artemis, she is worshipped, not only by the Cretans, but by the Aiginetans."
A xoanon, a wooden cult statue, of Britomartis carved by Daedalus, sat in the temple of Olous. In Chersonesos and Olous, she was portrayed on coins, showing that she was worshipped in those cities; as Diktynna, her face was pictured on Cretan coins of Kydonia and Phalasarna as the nurse of Zeus. On Crete, she was connected with the mountain -- Mount Dikte. On some early Britomartis coins of Kydonia, the coin was manufactured as an overstrike of specimens manufactured by Aegina. Temples dedicated to her existed in Athens, Sparta and between Ambrosus and Anticyra in Phocis, where, as Artemis Diktynna, her cult object was a black stone worked by Aeginetans, but she was a goddess of local importance in Western Crete, such as Lysos and West of Kydonia, her temples were said to be guarded by vicious dogs stronger than bears. A temple dedicated to the goddess was erected in ancient times on Mount Tityros near Cydonia. Another name, found on Linear B may be another form of Diktynna. Britomartis was worshipped as Aphaea on the island of Aegina, where the temple "Athena Aphaea" stood.
A temple dedicated to her existed at the Aspropyrgos on the outskirts of Athens. Britomart figures in Edmund Spenser's knightly epic The Faerie Queene, where she is an allegorical figure of the virgin Knight of Chastity, representing English virtue—in particular, English military power—through a folk etymology that associated Brit-, as in Briton, with Martis, here thought of as "of Mars", the Roman war god. In Spenser's allegory, Britomart connotes Elizabeth I of England. In his retelling of the King Arthur legends, Arthur Rex, author Thomas Berger suggests that Queen Guinevere may have become a powerful female knight known as Britomart after the death of the King. Theoi.com: Britomartis Theoi.com: Karme
Egill Skallagrímsson was a Viking-Age poet and farmer. He is known as the protagonist of Egil's Saga. Egil's Saga narrates a period from 850 to 1000 CE and is believed to have been written between 1220 and 1240 CE. Egill was born in Iceland, was the son of Skalla-Grímr Kveldúlfsson and Bera Yngvarsdóttir, the grandson of Kveld-Úlfr, his ancestor, was Norwegian-Sami. When Grímr arrived in Iceland, he settled at the place where his father's coffin landed. Grímr was a respected mortal enemy of King Harald Fairhair of Norway. Egill composed his first poem at the age of three years, he exhibited berserk behaviour, this, together with the description of his large and unattractive head, has led to the theory that he might have suffered from Paget's disease, which causes a thickening of the bones and may lead to blindness. At the age of seven, Egill was cheated in a game with local boys. Enraged, he went home and procured an axe, returning to the boys, split the skull to the teeth of the boy who cheated him.
After Berg-Önundr refused to allow Egill to claim his wife Ásgerðr's share of her father's inheritance, he challenged Önundr to a man-to-man fight on an island or holmgang. After being grievously insulted, Egill killed Bárðr of Atley, a retainer of King Eirik Bloodaxe and kinsman of Queen Gunnhildr, both of whom spent the remainder of their lives trying to take vengeance. Seething with hatred, Gunnhildr ordered her two brothers to assassinate Egill and his brother Þórólfr, on good terms with her previously. However, Egill slew the Queen's brothers. Gunnbildr's brother's names were Alf Aksmann. In spring Þórólfr and Egill got ready a large warship and went the Eastern route, where they won much wealth and had many battles. In Courland they made a peace for half a month and traded with the men of the land.. That same summer, Harald Fairhair died. In order to secure his place as sole King of Norway, Eirik Bloodaxe murdered his two brothers, he declared Egill an outlaw in Norway. Berg-Önundr was killed in his attempt to do so.
Before escaping from Norway, Egill slew Rögnvaldr, the son of King Eirik and Queen Gunnhildr. He cursed the King and Queen, setting a horse's head on a Nithing pole and saying, "Here I set up a níð-pole, declare this níð against King Eiríkr and Queen Gunnhildr,"—he turned the horse-head to face the mainland—"I declare this níð at the land-spirits there, the land itself, so that all will fare astray, not to hold nor find their places, not until they wreak King Eiríkr and Gunnhildr from the land." He left it standing. Gunnhildr put a spell on Egill, which made him feel restless and depressed until they met again. Soon afterwards, Eiríkr and Gunnhildr were forced to flee to the Kingdom of Northumbria by Prince Hákon. In Saxon England, they were set up as King and Queen of Northumbria in rivalry with King Athelstan of England. Egill was shipwrecked in Northumbria and came to know who ruled the land. Egill sought out the house of his good friend Arinbjorn where they armed themselves and marched to Eiríkr's court.
Arinbjorn told Egill "now you must offer the king your head and embrace his foot. I will present your case to him.” Arinbjorn presented Egill’s case and Egill composed a short drápa, reciting it with Eirikr’s foot in his hand, but Eirikr was not impressed. He explained. Gunnhild called for the immediate execution of Egill, but Arinbjorn convinced the king not to kill him until the morning; the Vikings deemed it illegal to kill a man during the night time. Arinbjorn told Egill that he should stay up all night and compose a mighty head-ransom poem or drápa fit for such a king, a poem in praise of his enemy. In the morning Egill recited the great drápa; this twenty-stanza long head-ransom poem appears in Chapter 63 of "Egil's saga". Eirik was so surprised by the quality of the poem that he generously decided to give Egill his life though he had killed his own son; the complex nature of these poems with unique word order determined by sophisticated word choice and metaphor or kenning, as explained in the Poetic Edda, as well as the fact that they were about Kings and recited first in their royal presence ensures that seeds of history abide in them, the fact that professor Byock could diagnose Paget's disease from such poetry adds credence to the truthfulness of their content.
Such complex poems were remembered as a whole cloth, or not at all. "Egil's saga" and other Icelandic sagas appear to hang on a skeletal framework of such complex poetry, a spine of historical truth. Egill fought at the Battle of Brunanburh in the service of King Athelstan, for which he received payment in silver. Egill returned to his family farm in Iceland, where he remained a power to be reckoned with in local politics, he died shortly before the Christianisation of Iceland. Before Egill died he buried his silver treasure near Mosfellsbær. In his last act of violence he murdered the servant; when a Christian chapel was constructed at the family homestead, Egill's body was re-exumed by his son and re-buried near the altar. According to the saga, the exhumed skull bone was hit with an axe, it only turned white, showing the strength of the w
Mara, in Buddhism, is the demon that tempted Prince Siddhartha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are said to be Mara's daughters. In Buddhist cosmology, Mara is associated with death and desire. Nyanaponika Thera has described Mara as "the personification of the forces antagonistic to enlightenment." The word "Māra" comes from the Sanskrit form of the verbal root mṛ. It takes a causative form mārayati. Māra is a verbal noun from the causative root and means'causing death' or'killing', it is related to other words for death from the same root, such as: mṛtyu. The latter is sometimes identified with Yama; the root mṛ is related to the Indo-European verbal root *mer meaning "die, disappear" in the context of "death, murder or destruction". It is "very wide-spread" in Indo-European languages suggesting it to be of great antiquity, according to Mallory and Adams. In traditional Buddhism, four metaphorical forms of "māra" are given: Kleśa-māra, or Ma̋ra as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed and delusion.
Mṛtyu-māra, or Māra as death. Skandha-māra, or Māra as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence. Devaputra-māra, the deva of the sensuous realm, who tries to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha´s enlightenment. Early Buddhism acknowledged both a psychological interpretation of Mara. Specially Mara is described both as an entity having an existence in Kāma-world, just as are shown existing around the Buddha, is described in pratītyasamutpāda as the guardian of passion and the catalyst for lust and fear that obstructs meditation among Buddhists. "Buddha defying Mara" is a common pose of Buddha sculptures. The Buddha is shown with his left hand in his lap, palm facing upwards and his right hand on his right knee; the fingers of his right hand touch the earth, to call the earth as his witness for defying Mara and achieving enlightenment. This posture is referred to as the bhūmisparśa "earth-witness" mudra. In some accounts of the Buddha's enlightenment, it is said that the demon Māra didn't send his three daughters to tempt but instead they came willingly after Māra's setback in his endeavor to eliminate the Buddha's quest for enlightenment.
Mara's three daughters are identified as Taṇhā, Raga. For example, in the Samyutta Nikaya's Māra-saṃyutta, Mara's three daughters were stripping in front of Buddha; some stories refer to the existence of Five Daughters, who represent not only the Three Poisons of Attraction and Delusion, but include the daughters Pride, Fear. The story "Dying in Bangkok" by Dan Simmons, in his 1993 collection Lovedeath, features Mara and her demonic daughter as supernatural creatures who tempt men with the ultimate in sexual pleasures. Mara has been prominently featured in the Megami Tensei video game series as a demon. Within the series, Mara is portrayed as a large, phallic creature shown riding a golden chariot, his phallic body and innuendo-laden speech is based on a pun surrounding the word mara, a Japonic word for "penis", attested as early as 938 CE in the Wamyō Ruijushō, a Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters. According to the Sanseido dictionary, the word was used as a euphemism for "penis" among Buddhist monks, which makes it likely that it was meant as a direct reference to Mara the demon Mara appears in Roger Zelazny's novel Lord of Light as a God of Illusion.
Demiurge Eros Grīmekhalaṃ Kamadeva Mare Marzanna Mors Thanatos Anubis Izanami Hades Ah Puch Id, ego and super-ego The Temptation of St. Anthony Maravijaya Buddha Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. Saddhatissa, H.. The Sutta-Nipāta. London: RoutledgeCurzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0181-8. Boyd, James W.. "Symbols of Evil in Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 31: 63–75. Doi:10.2307/2053052. JSTOR 2053052. – via JSTOR Guruge, Ananda W. P.. "The Buddha's encounters with Mara, the Tempter: their representation in Literature and Art". Indologica Taurinensia. 17–18: 183–208. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Ling, Trevor O.. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: Allen and Unwin The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter: Their Representation in Literature and Art Taming the Mara Mara, the Evil One_99