Charles M. Schulz
Charles Monroe "Sparky" Schulz, was an American cartoonist and creator of the comic strip Peanuts. He is regarded as one of the most influential cartoonists of all time, cited by cartoonists including Jim Davis, Bill Watterson, Matt Groening, Stephan Pastis. Born in Minneapolis, Schulz grew up in Saint Paul, he was the only child of Carl Schulz, born in Germany, Dena Halverson, who had Norwegian heritage. His uncle called him "Sparky" after the horse Spark Plug in Billy DeBeck's comic strip, Barney Google. Schulz loved drawing and sometimes drew his family dog, who ate unusual things, such as pins and tacks. In 1937, Schulz drew a picture of Spike and sent it to Ripley's Believe It or Not!. Schulz attended Richards Gordon Elementary School in Saint Paul, he became a shy, timid teenager as a result of being the youngest in his class at Central High School. One well-known episode in his high school life was the rejection of his drawings by his high school yearbook, which he referred to in Peanuts years when he had Lucy ask Charlie Brown to sign a picture he drew of a horse, only to say it was a prank.
A five-foot-tall statue of Snoopy was placed in the school's main office 60 years later. In February 1943, Schulz's mother Dena died after a long illness. At the time of her death, he had only been made aware that she suffered from cancer. Schulz had by all accounts been close to his mother and her death had a big effect on him. Around the same time, Schulz was drafted into the United States Army, he served as a staff sergeant with the 20th Armored Division in Europe during World War II, as a squad leader on a.50 caliber machine gun team. His unit saw combat only at the end of the war. Schulz said he forgot to load it, he said. Years Schulz proudly spoke of his wartime service. In late 1945, Schulz returned to Minneapolis, he did lettering for a Roman Catholic comic magazine, Timeless Topix, in July 1946, took a job at Art Instruction, Inc. reviewing and grading lessons submitted by students. Schulz had taken a correspondence course from the school, he worked at the school for several years while developing his career as a comic creator until he was making enough money to do that full-time.
Schulz's first group of regular cartoons, a weekly series of one-panel jokes called Li'l Folks, was published from June 1947 to January 1950 in the St. Paul Pioneer Press, with Schulz doing four one-panel drawings per issue, it was in Li'l Folks that Schulz first used the name Charlie Brown for a character, although he applied the name in four gags to three different boys as well as one buried in sand. The series had a dog that looked much like Snoopy. In May 1948, Schulz sold his first one-panel drawing to The Saturday Evening Post. Around the same time, he tried to have Li'l Folks syndicated through the Newspaper Enterprise Association. Li'l Folks was dropped from the Pioneer Press in January 1950; that year, Schulz approached United Feature Syndicate with the one-panel series Li'l Folks, the syndicate became interested. By that time Schulz had developed a comic strip using four panels rather than one, to Schulz's delight, the syndicate preferred that version. Peanuts made its first appearance on October 1950, in seven newspapers.
The weekly Sunday page debuted on January 6, 1952. After a slow start, Peanuts became one of the most popular comic strips of all time, as well as one of the most influential. Schulz had a short-lived sports-oriented comic strip, It's Only a Game, but he abandoned it after the success of Peanuts. From 1956 to 1965 he contributed a single-panel strip, "Young Pillars", featuring teenagers, to Youth, a publication associated with the Church of God. In 1957 and 1961 he illustrated two volumes of Art Linkletter's Kids Say the Darndest Things, in 1964 a collection of letters, Dear President Johnson, by Bill Adler. At its height, Peanuts was published daily in 21 languages. Over the nearly 50 years that Peanuts was published, Schulz drew nearly 18,000 strips; the strips, plus merchandise and product endorsements, produced revenues of more than $1 billion per year, with Schulz earning an estimated $30 million to $40 million annually. During the strip's run, Schulz took only one vacation, a five-week break in late 1997 to celebrate his 75th birthday.
The first collection of Peanuts strips was published in July 1952 by Company. Many more books followed contributing to the strip's increasing popularity. In 2004, Fantagraphics began their Complete Peanuts series. Peanuts proved popular in other media. Numerous TV specials followed, the latest being Happiness is a Warm Blanket, Charlie Brown in 2011; until his death, Schulz wrote or co-wrote the TV specials and oversaw their production. Cha
A convenience store, convenience shop, or corner store is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries and magazines. In some jurisdictions, convenience stores are licensed to sell alcohol beer and wine; such stores may offer money order and wire transfer services, along with the use of a fax machine or photocopier for a small per-copy cost. They differ from general stores and village shops in that they are not in a rural location and are used as a convenient supplement to larger stores. A convenience store may be part of a gas/petrol station, so customers can purchase goods conveniently while filling their vehicle with fuel, it may be located alongside a busy road, in an urban area, near a railway or railroad station, or at another transport hub. In some countries, convenience stores have long shopping hours, some remain open 24 hours. Convenience stores charge higher prices than conventional grocery stores or supermarkets, as these stores order smaller quantities of inventory at higher per-unit prices from wholesalers.
However, convenience stores make up for this loss by having longer open hours, serving more locations, having shorter cashier lines. A convenience store may be called a c-store, cold store, party store, carry out, mini-market, mini-mart, corner shop, deli or milk bar, superette, depanneur or dep. Various types exist, for liquor stores, mini-markets, general stores or party stores. Confectionery, lottery tickets and magazines are sold although merchandise varies from store to store. Unless the outlet is a liquor store, the range of alcohol beverages is to be limited or non-existent. Most stores sell other tobacco products. Varying degrees of food and grocery supplies are available, from household products to prepackaged foods like sandwiches and frozen burritos. Automobile-related items—such as motor oil and car kits—may be sold. Toiletries and other hygiene products are stocked, as well as sanitary products and contraception. Stores may carry home furnishings, CDs and DVDs; some of these stores offer money orders and wire transfer services.
Convenience stores may carry small appliances as well as other household items such as coolers and backpacks. Convenience stores have been known to carry candles, stationery and crockery. Many convenience shops offer food ready-to-eat, such as breakfast fry-ups. Throughout Europe, it is now common for convenience stores to sell fresh French bread. A process of freezing parbaked bread allows baking in-store; some shops have a delicatessen counter, offering custom-made baguettes. Others have racks offering fresh baked doughnuts from local doughnut shops; some shops have a self-service microwave oven for heating purchased food. In the United States, some fast-food chains offer a counter in convenience stores. Instead of cooking food in the store, these counters offer a limited menu of items delivered several times a day from a local branch of the restaurant. Convenience stores may be combined with other services, such as general stores and pawn shops, a ticket counter for purchasing railway tickets, a post office counter, or gasoline pumps.
In Asian countries, like Japan or Taiwan, convenience stores are more common because of the higher population density. They are found with gasoline and train stations, but can be stand-alone stores. Here, items like soft drinks or snacks are sold. Hot dogs, hard boiled tea eggs, fish cakes can be found in stores. Delicatessens are absent, pre-made sandwiches can be bought. Non-food products like magazines are sold but to a lower degree. Many convenience stores have a fountain that offers a variety of beverages such as coffee, soft drinks and frozen beverages; the smaller convenience stores have few perishable items because it is not economically viable to rotate perishable items with such a low number of staff. Smaller convenience stores do not generate the business needed to sustain food spoilage rates typical of grocery stores or supermarkets; as such, products with a long shelf life are the rule unless a product is aimed at attracting customers on the chance they may buy something profitable too.
Although larger, newer convenience stores may have quite a broad range of items, the selection is still limited compared to supermarkets, in many stores only one or two choices are available. Prices in a convenience store are higher than those at a supermarket, mass merchandise store, or auto supply store, as convenience stores order smaller quantities of inventory at higher per-unit prices from wholesalers. However, there are some exceptions like milk and fuel which are priced similar to larger stores, as convenience stores traditionally do high volume in these goods and sometimes use them as loss leaders. Product containers in a convenience store are smaller with reduced product quantity, to allow more products on the store shelves; this reduces the apparent cost differences between full-size packaging in supermarkets. Smaller packaging reduces waste when a traveller such as a hotel guest does not want or is unable to carry the leftover product with
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. Free will is linked to the concepts of responsibility, guilt and other judgements which apply only to actions that are chosen, it is connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion and prohibition. Traditionally, only actions that are willed are seen as deserving credit or blame. There are numerous different concerns about threats to the possibility of free will, varying by how it is conceived, a matter of some debate; some conceive free will to be the capacity to make choices in which the outcome has not been determined by past events. Determinism suggests that only one course of events is possible, inconsistent with the existence of free will thus conceived; this problem has been identified in ancient Greek philosophy and remains a major focus of philosophical debate. This view that conceives free will to be incompatible with determinism is called incompatibilism and encompasses both metaphysical libertarianism, the claim that determinism is false and thus free will is at least possible, hard determinism, the claim that determinism is true and thus free will is not possible.
It encompasses hard incompatibilism, which holds not only determinism but its negation to be incompatible with free will and thus free will to be impossible whatever the case may be regarding determinism. In contrast, compatibilists hold; some compatibilists hold that determinism is necessary for free will, arguing that choice involves preference for one course of action over another, requiring a sense of how choices will turn out. Compatibilists thus consider the debate between libertarians and hard determinists over free will vs determinism a false dilemma. Different compatibilists offer different definitions of what "free will" means and find different types of constraints to be relevant to the issue. Classical compatibilists considered free will nothing more than freedom of action, considering one free of will if, had one counterfactually wanted to do otherwise, one could have done otherwise without physical impediment. Contemporary compatibilists instead identify free will as a psychological capacity, such as to direct one's behavior in a way responsive to reason, there are still further different conceptions of free will, each with their own concerns, sharing only the common feature of not finding the possibility of determinism a threat to the possibility of free will.
The underlying questions are whether we have control over our actions, if so, what sort of control, to what extent. These questions predate the early Greek stoics, some modern philosophers lament the lack of progress over all these centuries. On one hand, humans have a strong sense of freedom, which leads us to believe that we have free will. On the other hand, an intuitive feeling of free will could be mistaken, it is difficult to reconcile the intuitive evidence that conscious decisions are causally effective with the view that the physical world can be explained to operate by physical law. The conflict between intuitively felt freedom and natural law arises when either causal closure or physical determinism is asserted. With causal closure, no physical event has a cause outside the physical domain, with physical determinism, the future is determined by preceding events; the puzzle of reconciling'free will' with a deterministic universe is known as the problem of free will or sometimes referred to as the dilemma of determinism.
This dilemma leads to a moral dilemma as well: the question of how to assign responsibility for actions if they are caused by past events. Compatibilists maintain. Classical compatibilists have addressed the dilemma of free will by arguing that free will holds as long as we are not externally constrained or coerced. Modern compatibilists make a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, that is, separating freedom of choice from the freedom to enact it. Given that humans all experience a sense of free will, some modern compatibilists think it is necessary to accommodate this intuition. Compatibilists associate freedom of will with the ability to make rational decisions. A different approach to the dilemma is that of incompatibilists, that if the world is deterministic our feeling that we are free to choose an action is an illusion. Metaphysical libertarianism is the form of incompatibilism which posits that determinism is false and free will is possible; this view is associated with non-materialist constructions, including both traditional dualism, as well as models supporting more minimal criteria.
Yet with physical indeterminism, arguments have been made against libertarianism in that it is difficult to assign Origination. Free will here is predominantly treated with respect to physical determinism in the strict sense of nomological determinism, although other forms of determinism are relevant to free will. For example and theological determinism challenge metaphysical libertarianism with ideas of destiny and fate, biological and psychological determinism feed the development of compatibilist models. Separate classes of compatibilism and incompatibilism may be formed to represent these. Below are the classic arguments bearing upon its underpinnings. Incompatibilism is the position that free will and determinism are logically incomp
Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
Angoulême is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angoumoisines. Located on a plateau overlooking a meander of the Charente River, the city is nicknamed the "balcony of the southwest"; the city proper's population is a little less than 42,000 but it is the centre of an urban area of 110,000 people extending more than fifteen kilometres from east to west. The capital of Angoumois in the Ancien Régime, Angoulême was a fortified town for a long time, was coveted due to its position at the centre of many roads important to communication, so therefore it suffered many sieges. From its tumultuous past, the city, perched on a rocky spur, inherited a large historical and urban heritage which attracts a lot of tourists. Nowadays, Angoulême is at the centre of an agglomeration, one of the most industrialised regions between Loire and Garonne, it is a commercial and administrative city with its own university of technology, a vibrant cultural life.
This life is dominated by the Angoulême International Comics Festival, the FFA Angoulême Francophone Film Festival and the Musiques Métisses Festival that contribute to the international renown of the city. Moreover, Angoulême hosts 40 animation and video game studios that produce half of France's animated production; the city is developing filming for both French television and cinema. Wes Anderson chose Angoulême for his next movie at the end of 2018. Angoulême is called "Ville de l'Image" which means "City of the Image"; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Angoulême is an Acropolis city located on a hill overlooking a loop of the Charente limited in area upstream by the confluence of the Touvre and downstream by the Anguienne and Eaux Claires. Angoulême is located at the intersection of a major north-south axis: the N10 Paris-Bayonne. Angoulême is connected to Périgueux and Saint-Jean-d'Angely by the D939 and to Libourne by the D674.
By train: the Paris-Bordeaux line, served by TGV, passes through Angoulême and the TER Limoges-Saintes provides connections. By water: although the river Charente is only used for tourism, it was a communication channel for freight, until the 19th century and the port of l'Houmeau was busy; the Angoulême-Cognac International Airport is at Brie-Champniers. Old Angoulême is the old part between the ramparts and the town centre with winding streets and small squares; the city centre is located on the plateau and was portrayed by Honoré de Balzac in "The Lost Illusions" as "the height of grandeur and power". There is a Castle, a town hall, a prefecture, a cathedral with grand houses everywhere. Unlike Old Angoulême, the entire city centre was rebuilt in the 19th century. Surrounding the city were five old faubourgs: l'Houmeau, Saint-Cybard, Saint-Martin, Saint-Ausone, la Bussatte; the district of l'Houmeau was described by Balzac as "based on trade and money" because this district lived on trade and their scows.
The port of l'Houmeau was created in 1280 on the river bank. It marked the beginning of the navigable part from Angoulême to the sea. Saint-Cybard, on the bank of the Charente, was created around the Abbey of Saint-Cybard became an industrial area with papermills Le Nil. Saint-Martin - Saint-Ausone is a district composed of two former parishes outside the ramparts. At La Bussatte the Champ de Mars esplanade is now converted into a shopping mall, adjoins Saint-Gelais. Today the city has fifteen districts: Centre-ville Old Angoulême Saint-Ausone - Saint-Martin Saint-Gelais La Bussatte - Champ de Mars L'Houmeau Saint-Cybard Victor-Hugo, Saint-Roch is notable for its military presence. Basseau is a district, created in the 19th century with the port of Basseau, the explosives factory in 1821, the Laroche-Joubert papermill in 1842 the bridge in 1850. Sillac - La Grande-Garenne was a private housing estate was built up with HLM units. Bel-Air, la Grand Font in the railway station district with housing blocks from the 1950s at Grand Font.
La Madeleine, rebuilt after the bombings of 1944. Ma Campagne is a district, detached from Puymoyen commune in 1945 and built-up as a collective habitat from 1972. Le Petit Fresquet was detached from Puymoyen and is semi-rural. Frégeneuil was detached from Puymoyen and is semi-rural; the Port-l'Houmeau, the old port on the Charente located in the district of l'Houmeau is in a flood zone and during floods the Besson Bey Boulevard is cut. Geologically the town belongs to the Aquitaine Basin as does three quarters of the western department of Charente; the commune is located on the same limestone from the Upper Cretaceous period which occupies the southern half of the department of Charente, not far from Jurassic formations beginning at Gond-Pontouvre. The earliest Cretaceous period - the Cenomanian- is in the low areas, at an average altitude of 50m; the city was established on the Plateau that dominates the loop of the River Charente, a Turonian formation which forms a dissected plateau of parallel valleys and a cuesta facing north that extends towards La Couronne to the west and Garat to the east
Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz that ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward. Peanuts is among the most popular and influential in the history of comic strips, with 17,897 strips published in all, making it "arguably the longest story told by one human being". At its peak in the mid- to late 1960s, Peanuts ran in over 2,600 newspapers, with a readership of around 355 million in 75 countries, was translated into 21 languages, it helped to cement the four-panel gag strip as the standard in the United States, together with its merchandise earned Schulz more than $1 billion. The strip focuses on a social circle of young children, where adults exist but are seen or heard; the main character, Charlie Brown, is meek and lacks self-confidence. He is unable to fly a kite, win a baseball game, or kick a football held by his irascible friend Lucy, who always pulls it away at the last instant.
Peanuts is one of the literate strips with philosophical and sociological overtones that flourished in the 1950s. The strip's humor is psychologically complex, the characters' interactions formed a tangle of relationships that drove the strip. Peanuts achieved considerable success with its television specials, several of which, including A Charlie Brown Christmas and It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, won or were nominated for Emmy Awards; the Peanuts holiday specials remain popular and are broadcast on ABC in the U. S. during the appropriate seasons, since 2001. The Peanuts franchise had success in theatre, with the stage musical You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown an oft-performed production. In 2013, TV Guide ranked. A computer-animated feature film based on the strip, The Peanuts Movie, was released in 2015. Peanuts had its origin in Li'l Folks, a weekly panel comic that appeared in Schulz's hometown paper, the St. Paul Pioneer Press, from 1947 to 1950, he first used the name Charlie Brown for a character there, although he applied the name in four gags to three different boys and one buried in sand.
The series had a dog that looked much like the early 1950s version of Snoopy. In 1948, Schulz sold a cartoon to The Saturday Evening Post, which published 17 of his single-panel cartoons; the first of these was of a boy sitting with his feet on an ottoman. In 1948, Schulz tried to have Li'l Folks syndicated through the Newspaper Enterprise Association, a firm run by the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain. Schulz would have been an independent contractor for the syndicate, unheard of in the 1940s, but the deal fell through. Li'l Folks was dropped in early 1950; that year, Schulz approached the United Feature Syndicate—also operated by Scripps-Howard—with his best work from Li'l Folks. When his work was picked up by United Feature Syndicate, they decided to run the new comic strip he had been working on; this strip was similar in spirit to the panel comic, but had a set cast of characters rather than different nameless little folk for each page. The name Li'l Folks was close to the names of two other comics of the time: Al Capp's Li'l Abner and a strip titled Little Folks, so to avoid confusion, the syndicate settled on the name Peanuts, after the peanut gallery featured in the Howdy Doody TV show.
The title Peanuts was chosen by the syndication editor. In a 1987 interview, Schulz said: "It's ridiculous, has no meaning, is confusing, has no dignity—and I think my humor has dignity." The periodic collections of the strips in paperback book form had either "Charlie Brown" or "Snoopy" in the title, not "Peanuts", because of Schulz's distaste. From November 20, 1966, to January 4, 1987, the opening Sunday panels read Peanuts, featuring Good Ol' Charlie Brown. Peanuts premiered on October 2, 1950, in nine newspapers: The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, The Minneapolis Tribune, The Allentown Morning Call, The Bethlehem Globe-Times, The Denver Post, The Seattle Times, The New York World-Telegram & Sun, The Boston Globe, it began as a daily strip. The first strip was four panels long and showed Charlie Brown walking by two other young children and Patty. Shermy lauds Charlie Brown as he walks by, but tells Patty how he hates him in the final panel. Snoopy was an early character in the strip, first appearing in the third strip, which ran on October 4.
Its first Sunday strip appeared January 6, 1952, in the half-page format, the only complete format for the entire life of the Sunday strip. Most of the other characters that became the main characters of Peanuts did not appear until later: Violet, Lucy, Pig-Pen, Frieda, "Peppermint" Patty, Franklin and Rerun. Schulz decided to produce all aspects of the strip himself from the script to the finished art and lettering. Schulz did, hire help to produce the comic book adaptations of Peanuts. Thus, the strip was able to be presented with a unified tone, Schulz was able to employ a minimalistic style. Backgrounds were not used, when they were, Schulz's frazzled lines imbued them with a fraught, psychological appearance; this style has been described by art critic John Carlin as forcing "its readers to focus on subtle nuances rather than broad actions or sharp transitions." Schulz held this belief all his life, reaffirming in 1994 the importance of crafting the strip himself: "This is not a crazy business about slinging ink.
This is a deadly
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist, the leader of the National Fascist Party. He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. Known as Il Duce, Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party, but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship.
Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. In 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, recognized the independence of Vatican City. After the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in the Second Italo–Ethiopian War; the invasion was condemned by the Western powers and was answered with economic sanctions against Italy. Relations between Germany and Italy improved due to Hitler's support of the invasion. In 1936, Mussolini surrendered Austria to the German sphere of influence, signed the treaty of cooperation with Germany and proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin Axis. From 1936 through 1939, Mussolini provided huge amounts of military support to Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War; this active intervention further distanced Italy from Britain. Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe, but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II.
On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy entered the war on the side of Germany, though Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire. He believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France, he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece; the invasion failed and the following Greek counter-offensive pushed the Italians back to occupied Albania. The Greek debacle and simultaneous defeats against the British in North Africa reduced Italy to dependence on Germany. Beginning in June 1941, Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union, Italy declared war on the United States in December.
In 1943, Italy suffered one disaster after another: by February the Red Army had destroyed the Italian Army in Russia. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini. After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic, informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland, but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como, his body was taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise. Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Romagna.
During the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town" and Forlì was called "Duce's city", with pilgrims going to Predappio and Forlì to see the birthplace of Mussolini. Benito Mussolini's father, Alessandro Mussolini, was a blacksmith and a socialist, while his mother, was a devout Catholic schoolteacher. Owing to his father's political leanings, Mussolini was named Benito after liberal Mexican president Benito Juárez, while his middle names Andrea and Amilcare were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Cipriani. Benito was the eldest of his parents' three children, his siblings Arnaldo and Edvige fol