Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Elizabeth of Luxembourg was queen consort of Germany and Bohemia. The only child of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Elizabeth was expected to ascend his thrones along with her husband, Albert of Austria, her rights were ignored by the Hungarian nobility when Sigismund died in 1437 and only her husband was accepted as monarch, with Elizabeth as mere consort. Albert died in 1439, leaving Elizabeth a pregnant dowager with two daughters and Elizabeth. Bohemian nobility proclaimed an interregnum, while King Vladislaus III of Poland was crowned new king of Hungary in May 1440, three months after Queen Elizabeth delivered a son, Ladislaus the Posthumous, she was determined to contend for her patrimony on her son's behalf, which led to a civil war between hers and Vladislaus' supporters. The conflict ended with the queen's death at the age of 33. Vladislaus himself died in battle in 1444, opening the path for Elizabeth's son to be recognized as king of Hungary, her real birth date can be calculated by virtue of a letter of King Sigismund to Kéméndi Péter fia János, Lord-lieutenant of Zala County dated 26 April 1410 at Végles and sealed with Queen Barbara's seal, who stayed there and in which the king informs him about his daughter's birth alias circa festum beati Francisci confessoris.
Because this feast falls on 4 October, it must have happened in the previous year, that is, 1409 and in October. Baranyai argues that the usage of circa can allow some variations towards September but if it had occurred in September, he would have referred to the feast of Saint Michael which falls on 29 September instead of that of Francis of Assisi; the only remaining question, namely the exact day is educed from the engagement date of his daughter to Archduke Albert, held on 7 October 1411, Pozsony and may have adjusted to a former important event because it belongs to no religious feasts. The birthplace is inferential and is traced back to the traditional place for the queen's labours, in Visegrád and, referred to in her Memoirs by Helene Kottannerin in the case of Queen Elisabeth advanced in pregnancy with Ladislas V in early 1440. In addition, Itinerary of King Sigismund shows that he stayed in Visegrad between 9–19 October 1409. In the end one concludes that her birth in Prague, on 28 February 1409 to the date of 27 November this year which in reality was her christening day, is based on false sources.
Elizabeth was born into the powerful House of Luxembourg. Her parents were the 41-year-old King Sigismund of Hungary and his second wife, the 17-year-old Barbara of Cilli. Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, the rebellious baron with whom Sigismund had come to terms, was the infant's godfather; the year after her birth, Elizabeth's father was elected King of the Romans. As the king's only child, Elizabeth was seen as de facto heir presumptive to the throne, or at least as the princess whose eventual marriage would provide a king. In 1411, Sigismund managed to have the Hungarian estates promise that they would recognize Elizabeth's right to the Holy Crown of Hungary and elect her future husband as king –an agreement that would have great consequences after Sigismund's death. Elizabeth's hereditary right was in fact rather slim, as her father had acquired it by marrying his first wife, Queen Mary, from whom Elizabeth was not descended; the same year, Sigismund betrothed Elizabeth to the Habsburg Duke Albert V of Austria aged 14.
Queen Barbara was unpopular among the nobility, who resented her sympathy for the Hussites, forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. In 1418, they accused her of having committed adultery while her husband was attending the Council of Constance; the resulting strain in the royal marriage led to the queen's banishment and confinement, first in Várad and subsequently in Szakolca, between 1418 and 1419. The fact that Elizabeth accompanied her mother into the exile and endured the same harsh treatment despite being recognized as heiress to the throne suggests that Sigismund may have doubted her paternity during that period. Sigismund negotiated her marriage to the Habsburg Duke Albert V of Austria; the Habsburgs, Sigismund's long-standing friends and allies, evidently did not question Elizabeth's legitimacy or, at least, were not deterred by the accusations made against her mother. Sigismund reconciled with Barbara in 1419 and Elizabeth returned to his favour along with her mother; the same year, he inherited the Bohemian crown from his elder brother, King Wenceslaus IV.
On 28 September 1421, the enduring friendship between King Sigismund and the House of Habsburg culminated in a marriage treaty signed in Vienna. The treaty confirmed Elizabeth's status as heiress presumptive of both Hungary and Bohemia, but only for as long as she remained Sigismund's only child, it stipulated that the birth of another daughter would leave Elizabeth with the right to choose one of her father's kingdoms, while the younger sister would inherit the other. Should she gain a brother, she would be deprived of both crowns in his favour; the Margraviate of Moravia was ceded to Albert as Elizabeth's dowry. The treaty was controversial in both Hungary and Bohemia, as the nobility of both countries claimed the right to elect their monarch though their choice was the heir-in-blood. Elizabeth formally married Albert in a splendid ceremony held on 19 April 1422 in Vienna. Elizabeth, now duchess of Austria, moved to the Viennese court of her husband; the papal dispensation for the marriage, necessary due to the couple's common descent from Wenceslaus II of Bohemia a
Barbara of Cilli
Barbara of Cilli was the Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. She was involved in politics and economy of her times, independently administering large feudal fiefdoms and taxes, was instrumental in creating the famous royal Order of the Dragon, she served as the regent of Hungarian kingdom in the absence of her husband four times: in 1412, 1414, 1416, 1418. Barbara was the daughter of Herman II, Count of Celje, Countess Anna of Schaunberg. Barbara was engaged in 1405 to Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, a younger son of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor; the marriage took place in December 1405. Sigismund succeeded to the rule in Germany and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor himself in 1433, giving her the equivalent titles, she spent most of her time on her Hungarian fiefdoms. She served as the regent of Hungary during his absences in 1412, 1414, 1416 and 1418. In 1429, she participated at the congress of Łuck, she was crowned Queen of Hungary in 1408, Queen of Germany in 1414, Holy Roman Empress in 1433 and Queen of Bohemia in 1437, shortly before her husband's death.
She is remembered by many contemporaries as emperor's young and beautiful consort at the Council of Constance. In 1409, Barbara gave birth to a daughter, Sigismund's only surviving issue and heiress, who married King Albert II of Germany. Day before the death of her gravely ill husband on 9 December 1437 at Znojmo, as a pretext to confiscate her large fiefdoms in the Hungarian kingdom, she was accused by her son-in-law Albert II of Germany of the Habsburg dynasty and his chancellor Kaspar Schlick of plotting against Sigismund, for which she was swiftly transported to prison in Bratislava castle and forced to relinquish most of her possessions, including her dowry. Conflict with the new king was inevitable, Barbara soon decided to find shelter in the Polish royal court, where she was in exile from 1438 to 1441; the Polish king decided to give her financial support by granting her Sandomierz as a fief, according to the chronicle of Jan Długosz. In 1441, two years after the death of her arch-rival King Albert II of Germany, she moved to Mělník in Bohemia - a fiefdom given to her by her deceased husband.
All her Hungarian fiefdoms were lost. She reconciled with her daughter and renounced her rights to Hungarian possessions, she spent the rest of her life as Dowager Queen in Bohemia. She seems to have retreated from political life, although the Habsburg court saw her as dangerous and tried to accuse her of heresy and immoral and agnostic behavior, for which she received the sobriquet "Messalina of Germany", she died of the plague epidemic in Mělník and was buried in St. Andrew's chapel of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. Barbara is featured as the main character in the wraparound narrative of the story collection Waggish Tales of the Czechs. Referred to as "Queen Barbota," Barbara is portrayed as a somewhat ribald character who and bored during her pregnancy, engages her women-in-waiting in telling her moral tales. According to the book's foreword, these are "lusty, sometimes cruelly brutal yarns, recited with the coarse gusto and abounding virility of a healthy outdoor people." Queen Barbota takes great delight in them.
HungarianSzathmáry, László: Alkémisták a magyar királyi udvarban, Természettudományi Közlöny, 60. Kötet, 1928. Február 1. Pálosfalvi, Tamás: Borbála és a Cilleiek, História, 2006 Engel, Pál – C. Tóth Norbert: Borbála királyné itineráriuma, Itineraria Regum et Reginarum, MTA Támogatott Kutatóhelyek Irodája, Budapest, 169-187, 2005SlovakDvořáková, Daniela. Čierna kráľovná. Barbora Celjská: Životný príbeh uhorskej, rímsko-nemeckej a českej kráľovnej. Budmerice-Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Rak, HIÚ SAV. ISBN 978-80-85501-60-5. SlovenianSitar, Sandi. "8. Barbara Celjska: astrologinja in alkimistka". Sto slovenskih zdravnikov in tehnikov. Ljubljana: Prešernova družba. Pp. 76–77. McNally, Raymond T. "In Search of the Lesbian Vampire: Barbara von Cilli, Le Fanu’s'Carmilla' and the Dragon Order". Journal of Dracula Studies 3 A pedigree of her
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxembourg was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396 he led the Crusade of Nicopolis, which attempted to liberate Bulgaria and save the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople from Ottoman rule. Afterwards, he founded the Order of the Dragon to fight the Turks, he was regarded as educated, spoke several languages and was an outgoing person who took pleasure in the tournament. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the period of Sigismund's life. Born in Nuremberg, Sigismund was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV, of his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania, the granddaughter of King Casimir III of Poland and the great-granddaughter of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas.
He was named after Saint Sigismund of the favourite saint of Sigismund's father. From Sigismund's childhood he was nicknamed the "ginger fox" in the Crown of Bohemia, on account of his hair colour. King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland always had a good and close relationship with Emperor Charles IV, Sigismund was betrothed to Louis' eldest daughter, Mary, in 1374, when he was six years old. Upon his father's death in 1378, young Sigismund became Margrave of Brandenburg and was sent to the Hungarian court, where he soon learnt the Hungarian language and way of life, became devoted to his adopted country. King Louis appointed him his successor as King of Hungary. In 1381, the 13-year-old Sigismund was sent to Kraków by his eldest half-brother and guardian Wenceslaus, King of Germany and Bohemia, to learn Polish and to become acquainted with the land and its people. King Wenceslaus gave him Neumark to facilitate communication between Brandenburg and Poland; the disagreement between Polish landlords of Lesser Poland on one side and landlords of Greater Poland on the other, regarding the choice of the future King of Poland ended in choosing the Lithuanian side.
The support of the lords of Greater Poland was however not enough to give Prince Sigismund the Polish crown. Instead, the landlords of Lesser Poland gave it to Mary's younger sister Jadwiga I of Poland, who married Jogaila of Lithuania. On the death of her father in 1382, his betrothed, became queen of Hungary and Sigismund married her in 1385 in Zólyom; the next year, he was accepted as Mary's future co-ruler by the Treaty of Győr. However, Mary was captured, together with her mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia, who had acted as regent, in 1387 by the rebellious House of Horvat, Bishop Paul Horvat of Mačva, his brother John Horvat and younger brother Ladislav. Sigismund's mother-in-law was strangled. Having secured the support of the nobility, Sigismund was crowned King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár on 31 March 1387. Having raised money by pledging Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, he was engaged for the next nine years in a ceaseless struggle for the possession of this unstable throne.
The central power was weakened to such an extent that only Sigismund's alliance with the powerful Czillei-Garai League could ensure his position on the throne. It was not for selfless reasons that one of the leagues of barons helped him to power: Sigismund had to pay for the support of the lords by transferring a sizeable part of the royal properties.. The restoration of the authority of the central administration took decades of work; the bulk of the nation headed by the House of Garai was with him. Not until 1395 did Nicholas II Garay succeed in suppressing them. Mary died pregnant in 1395. To ease the pressure from Hungarian nobles, Sigismund tried to employ foreign advisors, not popular, he had to promise not to give land and nominations to other than Hungarian nobles. However, this was not applied to Stibor of Stiboricz, Sigismund's closest friend and advisor. On a number of occasions, Sigismund was imprisoned by nobles, but with help of the armies of Garai and Stibor of Stiboricz, he would regain power.
In 1396, Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Turks, who had taken advantage of the temporary helplessness of Hungary to extend their dominion to the banks of the Danube. This crusade, preached by Pope Boniface IX, was popular in Hungary; the nobles flocked in their thousands to the royal standard, were reinforced by volunteers from nearly every part of Europe. The most important contingent being that of the French led by John the Fearless, son of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. Sigismund set out with a flotilla of 70 galleys. After capturing Vidin, he camped with his Hungarian armies before the fortress of Nicopolis. Sultan Bayezid I raised the siege of Constantinople and, at the head of 140,000 men defeated the Christian forces in the Battle of Nicopolis fought between the 25 and 28 September 1396. Sigismund returned by sea and through the realm of Zeta, where he ordained a local Montenegrin lord Đurađ II with the islands of Hvar and Korčula for resis
Albert II of Germany
Albert the Magnanimous KG was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg. He was King of Bohemia, elected King of Germany as Albert II, Duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, Archduke of Austria from 1404. Albert was born in Vienna as the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, Joanna Sophia of Bavaria, he succeeded to the Duchy of Austria at the age of seven on his father's death in 1404. His uncle Duke William of Inner Austria head of the rivaling Leopoldinian line, served as regent for his nephew, followed by his brothers Leopold IV and Ernest the Iron in 1406; the quarrels between the brothers and their continued attempts to gain control over the Albertinian territories led to civil war-like conditions. Albert, having received a good education, undertook the government of Austria proper on the occasion of Leopold's death in 1411 and succeeded, with the aid of his advisers, in ridding the duchy of the evils which had arisen during his minority. In 1422 Albert married Elisabeth of Luxemburg, the daughter and heiress of the King Sigismund of Hungary, his second wife, the Slovenian noblewoman Barbara of Celje.
Besides Hungary, Albert's marriage brought him claims to several Slavic kingdoms and principalities as well. Albert assisted his father-in-law Sigismund in his campaigns against the Hussites, involving the Austrian duchy in the Hussite Wars. In return Sigismund designated him as his successor and granted him the title of a Margrave of Moravia in 1423; the Austrian lands were devastated several times and Albert participated in the 1431 Battle of Domažlice where the Imperial troops suffered an embarrassing defeat. When Sigismund died in 1437, Albert was crowned king of Hungary on 1 January 1438, just as his predecessor did, he moved his court to the Hungarian Kingdom from where he oversaw his other domains. Although crowned king of Bohemia six months after ascending to the Hungarian throne, he was unable to obtain possession of the country, he was engaged in warfare with the Bohemians and their Polish allies, when on 18 March 1438, he was chosen "King of the Romans" at Frankfurt, an honour which he does not appear to have sought.
He was never crowned as Holy Roman Emperor. Afterwards engaged in defending Hungary against the attacks of the Turks, he died on 27 October 1439 at Neszmély and was buried at Székesfehérvár. Albert was an energetic and warlike prince, whose short reign as a triple king gave great promise of usefulness for the Holy Roman Empire; until its final dissolution in 1806 the House of Habsburg remained the ruling dynasty. Though the Jews in the Austrian duchy had been subject to local persecutions during the 13th and 14th century, their position remained safe. Jewish communities prospered in several towns like Krems or the area around the Judenplatz at Vienna. During the confusion after the death of Duke Albert IV in 1404 their situation worsened culminating in the blaze of the Vienna synagogue on 5 November 1406, followed by riots and lootings; when Albert V came of age in 1411 and interfered in the Hussite Wars, he established new taxes imposed on the Jewish community to finance his campaigns. On the other hand, after the Hussites had devastated the duchy, the Austrian Jews were accused of collaboration and arms trade in favour of the enemies.
The accusations of a host desecration at Krems in 1420 gave Albert pretext for the destruction of the Jewish community. According to the 1463 Chronica Austriae by chronicler Thomas Ebendorfer the duke on 23 May 1420, at the behest of the Church, ordered the imprisonment and forcible conversion of the Jews; those that had not converted or escaped were sent off in boats down the Danube, while wealthy Jews remained under arrest, several of them tortured and stripped of their property. The forced baptism of Jewish children was stopped on intervention by Pope Martin V. On 12 March 1421 Albert sentenced the remaining Jews to death. 92 men and 120 women were burned at the stake south of the Vienna city walls on 12 March 1421. The Jews were placed under an "eternal ban" and their synagogue was demolished; the persecutions in several Austrian towns are explicitly described in a 16th-century script called Vienna Geserah. Full titulature Albert possessed went as follows: Albert, by the grace of God elected King of the Romans, always August, King of Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, elected King of Bohemia, duke of Austria, Styria and Carniola, margrave of Moravia, Lord of the Wendish March and Port Naon, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol and Kyburg, etc.
Margrave of Burgau and landgrave of Alsace. In practise he used a shorter version: Albert, by the grace of God elected King of the Romans, always August, King of Hungary and Croatia, etc. elected King of Bohemia, duke of Austria, Styria and Carniola, Margrave of Moravia and Count of Tyrol, etc. His children with Elisabeth of Bohemia were: Anne of Austria, who married William III, Duke of Saxony. William became Duke of Luxembourg, in right of his wife Elisabeth, who married Casimir IV of Poland, whose son Vladislaus II of Bohemia became king of Bohemia and Hungary George Ladislas V Posthumus of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Bohemia Kings of Germany family tree, he was related to every other king of Germany. Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl. Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. Setton, Kenneth M.. The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The Fifteenth Century. 2. The American Philosophical Society. Entry about Albert II of Germany in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the histo
Sidonie of Poděbrady
Sidonie of Poděbrady was a duchess consort of Saxony. She was a daughter of George of Poděbrady, King of Bohemia, his first wife Kunigunde of Sternberg, she was the twin sister of Catherine of wife of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. Sidonie and Catherine were born on 11 November 1449 to the Bohemian king; the girl's mother, died from complications of the birth. Sidonie's father remarried. Sidonie had four older siblings; the crown passed instead to Vladislaus II of Hungary. Sidonie's paternal grandparents were his wife Anna of Vartenberk, her maternal grandparents were his wife Barbara of Pardubice. A marriage contract was signed on 11 November 1459 for Sidonie's marriage to Albert, son of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony; the couple married on 11 May 1464. Sidonie followed her husband to Meissen, the consummation of their marriage took place in May 1464 at Castle Tharandt. Four months after their marriage, Albert's father died, he became Duke of Saxony with Sidonie as Duchess consort. Sidonie was a pious Catholic woman.
She therefore refused to accompany her husband during his wars in Friesland. In protest, she took her children to Albrechtsburg. In 1495 she founded the religious festival of the Holy Lance, after being freed from a stone disease. Many of her letters of correspondence have been preserved, in which she pleads for the release of prisoners. On 12 September 1500, Albert died, she spent the rest of her years in Tharandt. On 1 February 1510 she died there. Sidonie was buried at the cathedral of Meissen. Sidonie and Albert were married for thirty-six years, during which time they had nine children: Katharina, married firstly on 24 February 1484 in Innsbruck to Duke Sigismund of Austria, secondly on 1497 to Duke Eric I of Brunswick-Calenberg Georg "the Bearded" Heinrich V "der Fromme" Frederick, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Anna Stillborn child Louis John John
Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I of Poland, of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. Earlier, Sigismund had been invested as Duke of Silesia. A successful monarch and a great patron of arts, he established Polish suzerainty over Ducal Prussia and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state, securing the nation's wealth and power. Sigismund I, the fifth son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Habsburg, had ruled Głogów, since 1499 and became margrave of Lusatia and governor of all Silesia in 1504. In a short time his judicial and administrative reforms transformed those territories into model states, he succeeded his brother Alexander I as grand prince of Lithuania and king of Poland in 1506. Although he established fiscal and monetary reforms, he clashed with the Polish Diet over extensions of royal power. At the Diet’s demand he married Barbara, daughter of Prince Stephen Zápolya of Hungary, in 1512, to secure a defense treaty and produce an heir.
She died three years however, leaving only daughters. In 1518 Sigismund married the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, Bona Sforza of Milan, by whom he had one son, Sigismund II Augustus, four daughters, his daughter Catherine married John III of Sweden, from whom the Vasa kings of Poland were descended. In 1521 Sigismund made peace with his nephew Albert, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, a paramilitary religious order that ruled East Prussia. Albert became a Lutheran and converted the Teutonic state to Protestantism in 1525, defecting from both the Papacy and Holy Roman Emperor and agreeing to do public homage to Sigismund in return for being granted the title of secular duke of Prussia and Ducal Prussia coming under Polish suzerainty. Sigismund added the Duchy of Masovia to the Polish state in 1529, after the death of Janusz III, the last of its Piast dynasty rulers. Under the command of Jan Tarnowski, Sigismund’s army defeated the invading forces of Moldavia at Obertyn in 1531 and of Muscovy in 1535, thereby safeguarding Poland’s eastern borders.
Sigismund, influenced by his wife, brought Italian artists to Kraków and promoted the development of the Polish variety of the Italian Renaissance. Although a devout Catholic, he accorded religious toleration to Greek Orthodox Christians and royal protection to Jews. At first he vigorously opposed Lutheranism but resigned himself to its growing power in Poland. Sigismund I was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece; the son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth of Austria, Sigismund followed his brothers John Albert and Alexander to the Polish throne. Their eldest brother Vladislaus became king of Bohemia and Croatia. Sigismund was christened as the namesake of his Habsburg maternal great-grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. After his father's death, Sigismund was the only son. In the years 1495–1496, he addressed his older brother, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander, demanded the separation of a domain from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but was refused. Queen Dowager Elisabeth Habsburg tried without success to ensure the succession of her son to the throne of Austria.
And the disastrous and unsuccessful invasion of Bukovina led by his older brother King John I Albert dispelled the plans for placing Sigismund on the Moldavian throne. Sigismund came under the care of his eldest brother Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, from whom he received the duchies of Głogów and Opava, in 1504 became governor of Silesia and Lower Lusatia. After the death of King Alexander I, Sigismund arrived in Vilnius, where he was elected by the Lithuanian Ducal Council on 13 September 1506 as Grand Duke of Lithuania, contrary to the Union of Mielnik, which proposed a joint Polish-Lithuanian election of a monarch. On 8 December 1506, during the session of the Polish Senate in Piotrków, Sigismund was elected King of Poland, he arrived in Kraków on 20 January 1507 and was crowned four days in Wawel Cathedral by Primate Andrzej Boryszewski. The internal situation in Poland was characterised by broad authorisation of the Chamber of Deputies and extended in the constitution of Nihil novi.
During Alexander's reign, the law of Nihil novi had been instituted, which forbade kings of Poland from enacting laws without the consent of the Sejm. Sigismund had little control over the act, unlike the senators, whom he appointed. During his reign, Sigismund benefited from the advice of the local nobility, competent ministers in charge of the royal judiciary system, the wealthy and influential treasurers of Kraków. Although he was reluctant to the parliamentary system and political independence of the nobility, he recognised the authority of legal norms, supported legalism and summoned annual sessions of the Sejm obtaining funds on state defence; however he was unsuccessful at attempting to create a permanent fund for defence from the annual income tax. Despite this "Achilles heel", in 1527 he established a conscript army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it, he set up the legal codes that formalised serfdom in Poland, locking the peasants into the estates of nobles. Related to tax matters was an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king, made on 5 May 1523.
The identity of the would-be assassin - who shot the ruler while he was strolling in the evening around the cloisters of the Wawel castle - and his potential supporters was never established. Unclear motives remained after the assassination attempt; the only clue was the fact that three weeks before the event, Sigismund I introduced a new edict, unfav
William III, Landgrave of Thuringia
William III, called the Brave, was landgrave of Thuringia and claimant duke of Luxemburg. He is the second William to rule Thuringia, in Luxembourg, he was a younger son of Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, Catherine of Brunswick and Lunenburg. On 2 June 1446 he married Anne of Luxembourg, daughter of Albert II, King of Germany and Hungary and Elisabeth of Luxembourg. On behalf of his wife, he became Duke of Luxembourg from 1457 to 1469, they had two daughters, Margaret of Thuringia and Catherine of Thuringia, who married Duke Henry II of Münsterberg. William minted a silver groschen known as the Judenkopf Groschen, its obverse portrait shows a man with a pointed beard wearing a Jewish hat, which the populace took as depicting a typical Jew