Summer on the Lakes
Summer on the Lakes, in 1843 is a nonfiction book by American writer and transcendentalist Margaret Fuller based on her experiences traveling to the Great Lakes region. Margaret Fuller wrote the book based on her travel journals while visiting the Great Lakes region and places like Chicago, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, New York. Along the way, she interacted with several Native Americans, including members of the Ottawa and the Chippewa tribes, which she considered anthropologically in the book and presented as people in need of sympathy. Fuller began working on the book upon her return to New England, she completed the manuscript on her 34th birthday in 1844. In preparing the book, she did further research on the region at the library at Harvard College; the book was published in May 1844 by Brown. Critic Evert Augustus Duyckinck called it "the only genuine book, I can think of, this season." Some critics, disliked the lack of coherence in the book. Critic Caleb Stetson in the Christian Examiner wrote that the book was made up of "things connected by no apparent link of association with the objects which seem to fill her eye and mind... except for the fact that they occurred in the course of her reading or were called up from the depths by some mysterious association".
An abridged version edited by her brother Arthur Buckminster Fuller was published posthumously in 1856 in a collection titled At Home and Abroad. The genre of the book is difficult to classify. Scholar Dorothy Z. Baker noted that the book has been variously defined as "Transcendental travelogue, a sketchbook, a social and political tract"
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian. He was best known for his works Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy and during the Second Republic which succeeded the February 1848 Revolution, he retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's 2 December 1851 coup and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution. He argued the importance of the French Revolution was to continue the process of modernizing and centralizing the French state which had begun under King Louis XIV; the failure of the Revolution came from the inexperience of the deputies who were too wedded to abstract Enlightenment ideals.
Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government, but he was skeptical of the extremes of democracy. Alexis de Tocqueville came from an old Norman aristocratic family, his parents, Hervé Louis François Jean Bonaventure Clérel, Count of Tocqueville, an officer of the Constitutional Guard of King Louis XVI. Under the Bourbon Restoration, Tocqueville's father became a noble peer and prefect. Tocqueville attended the Lycée Fabert in Metz. Tocqueville, who despised the July Monarchy, began his political career in 1839. From 1839 to 1851, he served as deputy of the Manche department. In parliament, he sat on the centre-left, defended abolitionist views and upheld free trade while supporting the colonisation of Algeria carried on by Louis-Philippe's regime. In 1847, he sought to found a Young Left party which would advocate wage increases, a progressive tax, other labor concerns in order to undermine the appeal of the socialists. Tocqueville was elected general counsellor of the Manche in 1842 and became the president of the department's conseil général between 1849 and 1851.
According to one account, Tocqueville's political position became untenable during this time in the sense that he was mistrusted by both the left and right and was looking for an excuse to leave France. In 1831, he obtained from the July Monarchy a mission to examine prisons and penitentiaries in the United States and proceeded there with his lifelong friend Gustave de Beaumont. While Tocqueville did visit some prisons, he traveled in the United States and took extensive notes about his observations and reflections, he returned within nine months and published a report, but the real result of his tour was De la démocratie en Amerique, which appeared in 1835. Beaumont wrote an account of their travels in Jacksonian America: Marie or Slavery in the United States. During this trip, he made a side trip to Lower Canada to Montreal and Quebec City from mid-August to early September 1831. Apart from North America, Tocqueville made an observational tour of England, producing Memoir on Pauperism. In 1841 and 1846, he traveled to Algeria.
His first travel inspired his Travail sur l'Algérie in which he criticized the French model of colonisation, based on an assimilationist view, preferring instead the British model of indirect rule, which avoided mixing different populations together. He went as far as advocating racial segregation between the European colonists and the Arabs through the implementation of two different legislative systems. In 1835, Tocqueville made a journey through Ireland, his observations provide one of the best pictures of how Ireland stood before the Great Famine. The observations chronicle the growing Catholic middle class and the appalling conditions in which most Catholic tenant farmers lived. Tocqueville made clear both his libertarian sympathies and his affinity for his Irish co-religionists. After the fall of the July Monarchy during the February 1848 Revolution, Tocqueville was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of 1848, where he became a member of the Commission charged with the drafting of the new Constitution of the Second Republic.
He defended bicameralism and the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage. As the countryside was thought to be more conservative than the labouring population of Paris, universal suffrage was conceived as a means to counteract the revolutionary spirit of Paris. During the Second Republic, Tocqueville sided with the parti de l'Ordre against the socialists. A few days after the February insurrection, he believed that a violent clash between the Parisian workers' population led by socialists agitating in favor of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the conservatives, which included the aristocracy and the rural population, was inescapable; as Tocqueville had foreseen, these social tensions exploded during the June Days Uprising of 1848. Led by General Cavaignac, the suppression was supported by Tocqueville, who advocated the "regularization" of the state of siege declared by Cavaignac and other measures promoting suspension of the constitutional order. Between May and September, Tocqueville participated in the Constitutional Commission which wrote the new Constitution.
His proposals underlined the importance of his North America
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Grand Haven, Michigan
Grand Haven is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Ottawa County known as Grand Heaven.. Grand Haven is located on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Grand River, for which it is named; as of the 2010 census, Grand Haven had a population of 10,412. It is part of the Grand Rapids Metropolitan Area, which had a population of 1,027,703 in 2014; the city is home to the Grand Haven Memorial Airpark and is located just north of Grand Haven Charter Township. The Potawatomi and Ottawa Indians lived in the area for centuries and used the river as a trade route into the interior of Michigan; some of the long culture of the Ottawa tribe is being revealed through the excavation of archeological artifacts. The city dates its European-American founding to French colonial settlers. A fur trading outpost called Gabagouache was first established by Madeline La Framboise and her husband Joseph. After the War of 1812, this area became more settled by Americans; the first permanent resident was a Presbyterian minister, William Montague Ferry, who founded in 1834 the first area church and neighboring town of Ferrysburg.
Residents named the town as "Grand Haven" in 1835. Sheldon Tannery was founded in 1838, developing to process leathers from cattle; the second church was organized in 1850. Ferry founded the city's first bank in 1851 in the Son building on Harbor Drive, he started a school, Ferry Elementary, which continues to operate. The city was incorporated in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Grand Haven developed as a logging, lumber mill and shipping town, as well as a shipbuilding center; the city was served by the Grand Trunk Railway. Its depot and offices have been adapted for use as a historical museum; the Story and Clark Piano Company built pianos in the city from 1900-1984. The smokestack at the piano factory collapsed during the Southern Great Lakes Derecho of 1998. In August 2006, Eagle-Ottawa Leather Co. which developed from the 1838 Sheldon Tannery, announced it would close its local operations that year. Given the importance of shipping and water trade to the city, the Grand Haven Lighthouses were built in 1839 on the south pier, to mark the most navigable channel into the river.
The current lighthouses, painted red, were built in 1875 and 1905. They are connected by a lighted catwalk. George "Baby Face" Nelson and Homer Van Meter, who became notorious 1930s criminals, committed their first bank robbery at a Grand Haven bank; the Grand Haven port community is an active beach resort with boating, sailing, skating etc. along with connecting campgrounds and recreational areas. The city has over 100 miles of bike trails, a state beach, two lighthouses, a pier, large charter fishing fleet and a Great Lakes port, where it imports limestone, slag and coal while exporting sand. Grand Haven is a destination point for residents of inland cities of West Michigan, as well as many from the other side of the state. Grand Rapidians visit to take advantage of the close proximity to the Lake Michigan beaches, State campgrounds, bars, attractions with many owning cottages in the area as their home away from home. Grand Haven State Park was nationally recognized for having one of the top five beaches in the United States, by Good Morning America - Travel Mom.
In summer, water temperatures do reach the low 70s°F, bringing tens of thousands of visitors as a boon to the local economy. The state park includes a campground on Lake Michigan, near the pier and lighthouses. In addition, the city features a skate park; the waterfront locations bring tourists from all over the state and region for activities which include, sailing, jet skiing, wind surfing, an annual kite festival. Grand Haven is home to the United States Coast Guard's "Sector Field Office Grand Haven." The first Coast Guard presence in the city was in 1924. The Coast Guard cutter Escanaba was based in the city until the Second World War. After it was sunk by a U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, the citizens of Grand Haven raised more than $1,000,000 in bonds to build a replacement cutter bearing the same name. Grand Haven hosts the annual Coast Guard Festival, a celebration based on Coast Guard Day, which draws U. S. and Canadian vessels along with parades of bands and other activities, including a memorial to the 101 sailors lost in the Escanaba sinking.
The yearly attendance for this event exceeds 300,000 people over the two-week period of the festival. Grand Haven is the first city designated as Coast Guard City, USA by an act of Congress signed by President Bill Clinton; the act was Public Law 105-383 enacted by the United States Congress and signed by the president on November 13, 1998. The Grand Haven Musical Fountain was built on the opposite bank of the Grand River from the city center in 1969, it plays nightly during the tourist season. When it was built, it was the world's largest such fountain. Today, the overall largest fountain is in Las Vegas. Grand Haven has been one of many technology leaders in West Michigan and throughout the country, having been featured in the national media, including on ABC, in PCWorld, ComputerWorld and Forbes magazine; the city was the first municipality in the country to feature a citywide wireless internet service. The wireless service is designed to work throughout the city and up to 15 miles offshore for boaters.
In 2004, the city started offering wireless internet service for residents and visitors for payment on varying cost
Rix Robinson was a Michigan pioneer. He was a fur trader and the first permanent Euro-American settler of Kent County, Michigan, a representative to the state constitutional convention of 1850 and a state senator. Robinson was born August 1789, in Richmond, Massachusetts, his parents were Eunice Robinson of Preston, Connecticut. His father was a farmer, he was considered a studious child and attended school. At age 19 he began the study of law in Auburn, New York, was admitted to practice law in 1811. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, which his father opposed, Robinson headed west to avoid the draft, with one thousand dollars given to him by his father, he moved to the large outpost of Detroit in the Michigan Territory where United States Troops were garrisoned and there was a prospering fur trade. Robinson became a sutler to the American troops during the war, he traveled with the soldiers to Detroit, Mackinac Island, Green Bay, all centers of the fur trade, where he had the opportunity to study the business first hand.
In 1820, the American Fur Company chose Robinson to be their central fur trader in west Michigan when Madeline La Framboise retired to Mackinac Island. He took over her trading post located where the Grand River meets the Thornapple River in what is now known as Ada. In 1821 Robinson married an Ottawa woman, Pee-miss-a-quot-oquay, she had one son, John R. Robinson born March 5, 1826, she and Robinson separated, she died of consumption in 1848. By 1827, Robinson was managing twenty trading posts along the shores of Lake Michigan. Robinson was elected township supervisor when Kent County was established in 1831. By 1834, the fur trade in Michigan was dwindling due to a shortage of fur-bearing animals, fashion changes in Europe and the expansion of the fur industry in the west, but the biggest impact to the fur industry in Michigan was that Robinson facilitated the Treaty of 1836 which gave half of the lower peninsula of Michigan to the federal government. In return he received $23,000; this treaty allowed for the wholesale development and settlement of the state and had a devastating effect on the Native Americans.
During this time he persuaded many of his relatives to settle in Michigan. By the time Michigan joined the union in 1837, a wealthy man, had closed all his trading posts and was appointed to the Board of Commissioners of Internal Improvements, he was a Michigan state senator from 1847 to 1849. During that time he presented a bill to give women the right to vote, it was defeated during the drafting of the state constitution of 1850, but in a step forward in the women's rights movement, a bill allowing married women the right to control property they owned prior to marriage did pass. He was a delegate to the Michigan Constitutional Convention of a presidential elector, he was a strong contender for governor but declined the nomination because his second wife, Se-be-quay, a Native American, would not have been accepted as a governor's wife. Robinson died of consumption January 12, 1875, his wife died April 3, 1876. He is buried in Michigan. Robinson Road in East Grand Rapids and Rix Street in Ada are named for him.
Rix Robinson Park in Grand Haven, MI is named for him. Harrington, Steve. Fair Shake in the Wilderness, The Life and times of Rix Robinson. Grand Rapids: Maritime Press. 2001. ISBN 1-929357-03-6 Johnson, Ida Amanda; the Michigan fur trade. Lansing: Wynkoop Hollenbeck Crawford company. 1919. Kestenbaum, Justin L. Making of Michigan, 1820-1860: a pioneer anthology Wayne State University Press, 1990 9780814319192 Michigan Historical Commission. Michigan historical collections. Lansing, Michigan: Thorp & Godfrey Press, 1888. Portrait and biographical album of Isabella county, Michigan Chicago: Chapman Brothers. 1884. Moore, Charles. History of Michigan. Chicago: Lewis Publishing. 1915
John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor was a German–American businessman, real estate mogul and investor who made his fortune in fur trade and by investing in real estate in or around New York City. Born in Germany, Astor immigrated to England as a teenager and worked as a musical instrument manufacturer, he moved to the United States after the American Revolutionary War. He entered the fur trade and built a monopoly, managing a business empire that extended to the Great Lakes region and Canada, expanded into the American West and Pacific coast. Seeing the decline of demand, he got out of the fur trade in 1830, diversifying by investing in New York City real estate and becoming a famed patron of the arts, he was the first prominent member of the Astor family and the first multi-millionaire in the United States. Johann Jakob Astor was born in Walldorf near Heidelberg in the Electoral Palatinate, he was the youngest son of Maria Magdalena vom Berg. His three elder brothers were George and Melchior. In his childhood, Johann worked as a dairy salesman.
In 1779, at the age of 16, he moved to London to join his brother George in working for an uncle's piano and flute manufacturer, Astor & Broadwood. While there, he anglicized his name to John Jacob Astor. In 1783 or March 1784, Astor immigrated to New York City, just following the end of the American Revolution. There, he rented a room from Sarah Cox Todd, a widow, began a flirtation with his landlady's daughter named Sarah Cox Todd, whom he would marry in 1785, his intent was to join his brother Henry, who had established a butcher shop there, but a chance meeting with a fur trader on his voyage inspired him to join the North American fur trade as well. After working at his brother's shop for a time, he began to purchase raw hides from Native Americans, prepare them himself, resell them in London and elsewhere at great profit, he opened his own fur goods shop in New York in the late 1780s and served as the New York agent of his uncle's musical instrument business. After gold was discovered, Astor looked for business throughout the United States.
Astor took advantage of the Jay Treaty between Great Britain and the United States in 1794, which opened new markets in Canada and the Great Lakes region. In London, Astor at once made a contract with the North West Company, who from Montreal rivaled the trade interests of the Hudson's Bay Company based in London. Astor shipped them to Europe. By 1800, he had amassed a quarter of a million dollars, had become one of the leading figures in the fur trade, his agents were ruthless in competition. In 1800, following the example of the Empress of China, the first American trading vessel to China, Astor traded furs and sandalwood with Canton in China, benefited from it; the U. S. Embargo Act in 1807, disrupted Astor's import/export business because it closed off trade with Canada. With the permission of President Thomas Jefferson, Astor established the American Fur Company on April 6, 1808, he formed subsidiaries: the Pacific Fur Company, the Southwest Fur Company, in order to control fur trading in the Great Lakes areas and Columbia River region.
His Columbia River trading post at Fort Astoria was the first United States community on the Pacific coast. He financed the overland Astor Expedition in 1810 -- 12. Members of the expedition were to discover South Pass, through which hundreds of thousands of settlers on the Oregon and California trails passed through the Rocky Mountains. Astor's fur trading ventures were disrupted during the War of 1812, when the British captured his trading posts. In 1816, he joined the opium-smuggling trade, his American Fur Company purchased ten tons of Turkish opium shipped the contraband item to Canton on the packet ship Macedonian. Astor left the China opium trade and sold to the United Kingdom. Astor's business rebounded in 1817 after the U. S. Congress passed a protectionist law that barred foreign fur traders from U. S. territories. The American Fur Company came to dominate trading in the area around the Great Lakes. John Jacob Astor had a townhouse at 233 Broadway in Manhattan and a country estate, Hellgate in Northern New York City.
In 1822, Astor established the Robert Stuart House on Mackinac Island as headquarters for the reorganized American Fur Company, making the island a metropolis of the fur trade. A lengthy description based on documents, etc. was given by Washington Irving in his travelogue Astoria. Astor's commercial connections extended over the entire globe, his ships were found in every sea, and he and Sarah moved to a townhouse on Prince Street in New York. Astor acquired sizable holdings along the waterfront. After the start of the 19th century, flush with China trade profits, he became more systematic and calculating by investing in New York real estate. In 1803, he bought a 70-acre farm that ran west of Broadway to the Hudson River between 42nd and 46th streets; that same year, the following year, he bought considerable holdings from the disgraced Aaron Burr. In the 1830s, Astor foresaw that the next big boom would be the build-up of New York, which would soon emerge as one of the world's greatest cities.
Astor withdrew from the American Fur Company, as well as all his other ventures, used the money to buy and develop large tracts of Manhattan real estate. Astor predicted New York's rapid growth northward on Manhattan Island, he purchased more a
Nicollet County, Minnesota
Nicollet County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was named for French geographer Joseph N. Nicollet; as of the 2010 census, the population was 32,727. Its county seat is St. Peter. Nicollet County is part of the Mankato -- MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the Gats.io, the county has an area of 467 square miles, of which 448 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Nicollet County's highest point is the lowest high point of all Minnesota counties, with an elevation of 1,065 feet; the county's high point is east of west of the town of Lafayette. Annexstad Lake: in Lake Prairie Township Erickson Lake: in Traverse Township Middle Lake: the southwestern Middle Lake is in Granby Township; the population density was 66 people per square mile. There were 11,240 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.37% White, 0.80% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
1.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 49.2% were of German, 13.3% Norwegian, 6.8% Swedish and 5.4% Irish ancestry. There were 10,642 households out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 16.40% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,170, the median income for a family was $55,694. Males had a median income of $36,236 versus $25,344 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $20,517. About 4.30% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.70% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Courtland Lafayette Mankato Nicollet North Mankato St. Peter Bernadotte Klossner New Sweden Norseland North Star Oshawa St. George Traverse West Newton National Register of Historic Places listings in Nicollet County, Minnesota Nicollet County official website