Magellan's circumnavigation

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The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing three years after setting out.

In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan launched a Spanish expedition, the Armada de Molucca, that completed the first circumnavigation of the world in 1522; the expedition's goal, which it accomplished, was to find a western route to the Moluccas (Spice Islands). Magellan left Spain on 20 September 1519, sailed across the Atlantic, and discovered the strait that bears his name, allowing him to pass through South America into the Pacific Ocean (which he named); the fleet crossed the Pacific, stopping in the Philippines, and eventually reached the Moluccas after two years. A much-depleted crew finally returned to Spain on 6 September 1522.

The fleet initially consisted of about 270 men and five ships: four carracks and one caravel; the expedition faced numerous hardships including mutinies, starvation, scurvy, storms, and hostile encounters with indigenous people. Only 18 men and one ship (the Victoria) completed the return trip to Spain. Magellan himself died in battle in the Philippines, and was succeeded as captain-general by a series of officers, with Juan Sebastián Elcano leading the Victoria's return trip.

The expedition was funded mostly by King Charles V of Spain, with the hope that it would discover a profitable western route to the Moluccas, as the eastern route was controlled by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas. Though the expedition did find a route, it was much longer and more arduous than expected, and was therefore not commercially useful. Nevertheless, the first circumnavigation has been regarded as a great achievement in seamanship, and had a significant impact on the European understanding of the world.[1]

Background[edit]

King Charles was 18 years old when he agreed to finance Magellan's expedition to the Spice Islands in 1518. He is pictured here in a painting by Bernard van Orley c. 1517

Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West (1492–1503) had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms; the Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498.

Given the economic importance of the spice trade, Castile (Spain) urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain.

Magellan and his partner, cosmographer Ruy Faleiro, both Portuguese subjects, repeatedly petitioned King Manuel I of Portugal to fund an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa[2]) but were refused. In 1517, Manuel granted Magellan's request to serve another master. Magellan relocated to Seville, Spain in 1517, with Faleiro following two months later.

On arrival in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda, factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, and with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I (future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). Magellan's project, if successful, would realize Columbus' plan of a spice route by sailing west without damaging relations with the Portuguese; the idea was in tune with the times and had already been discussed after Balboa's discovery of the Pacific. On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July, he raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. The king granted them:[3]

  • Monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years.
  • Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found, with 5% of the resulting net gains.
  • A fifth of the gains of the travel.
  • The right to levy one thousand ducats on upcoming trips, paying only 5% on the remainder.
  • Granting of an island for each one, apart from the six richest, from which they would receive a fifteenth.

The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel. Expert cartographer Jorge Reinel and Diogo Ribeiro, a Portuguese who had started working for King Charles in 1518[4] as a cartographer at the Casa de Contratación, took part in the development of the maps to be used in the travel. Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip, including lack of money, the king of Portugal trying to stop them, Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish, and the difficult nature of Faleiro.[5] Finally, thanks to the tenacity of Magellan, the expedition was ready. Through the bishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca they obtained the participation of merchant Christopher de Haro, who provided a quarter of the funds and goods to barter.

Construction and provisions[edit]

The expedition, funded largely by the Spanish Crown, provided both 5 ships and supplies for two years of travel; the fleet was to be called Armada de Molucca, after the Indonesian name for the Spice Islands.[citation needed] The ships were mostly black, due to the tar covering most of their surface. Though King Charles V was supposed to pay for the fleet he was deeply in debt, and he turned to the House of Fugger; the official accounting of the expedition put the cost at 8,751,125 maravedis, including the ships, provisions, and salaries. Food was a hugely important part of the provisioning, it cost 1,252,909 maravedis, almost as much as the cost of the ships. Four-fifths of the food on the ship consisted of just two items – wine and hardtack.

The fleet also carried flour and salted meat; some of the ships' meat came in the form of livestock; the ship carried seven cows and three pigs. Cheese, almonds, mustard, and figs were also present.[6] Carne de Membrillo, made from quince, was a delicacy enjoyed by captains that unknowingly aided in the prevention of scurvy.

Ships[edit]

A modern replica of the Victoria in the Nao Victoria Museum, Punta Arenas, Chile

The fleet initially consisted of five ships, with Trinidad being the flagship; the Santiago was a caravel, with the other four ships classified as carracks (Spanish "carraca" or "nao"; Portuguese "nau").[7] The Victoria was the only ship to complete the circumnavigation. Details of the ships' configuration are not known, as no contemporary illustrations exist of any of the ships.[8]

Ships of Magellan's expedition[9][circular reference]
Name Captain Crew Weight (tons)[10] Fate
Trinidad Ferdinand Magellan 55 110 Broke down in Moluccas, December 1521
San Antonio Juan de Cartagena 60 120 Deserted at Strait of Magellan, November 1520, returned to Spain May 1521
Concepción Gaspar de Quesada 45 90 Scuttled in the Philippines, May 1521
Santiago João Serrão 32 75 Wrecked in storm at Santa Cruz River, August 1520
Victoria Luis Mendoza 43 85 Completed circumnavigation, returning to Spain in September 1522

Crew[edit]

The crew of about 270 included men from several nations, including Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Greece, England and France.[11] Spanish authorities were wary of Magellan, so that they almost prevented him from sailing, switching his mostly Portuguese crew to mostly men of Spain, it included about 40 Portuguese,[12] among them Magellan's brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, João Serrão, Estêvão Gomes and Magellan's indentured servant Enrique of Malacca. Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. Juan Sebastián Elcano, a Spanish merchant ship captain settled at Seville, embarked seeking the king's pardon for previous misdeeds. Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetian scholar and traveller, asked to be on the voyage, accepting the title of "supernumerary" and a modest salary, he became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal. The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook. Juan de Cartagena was named Inspector General of the expedition, responsible for its financial and trading operations.[citation needed]

Crossing the Atlantic[edit]

On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river. There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September 1519 and left Spain.[13]

On September 26, the fleet stopped at Tenerife in the Canary Islands, where they took in supplies (including vegetable and pitch, which were cheaper to acquire there than in Spain).[14] During the stop, Magellan received a secret message from his father-in-law, Diogo Barbosa, warning him that some of the Castilian captains were planning a mutiny, with Juan de Cartagena (captain of the San Antonio) being the ring-leader of the conspiracy,[15] he also learned that the King of Portugal had sent two fleets of caravels to arrest him.

On October 3, the fleet departed the Canary Islands, sailing south along the coast of Africa. There was some disagreement over directions, with Cartagena arguing for a more westerly bearing.[16] Magellan made the unorthodox decision to follow the African coast in order to evade the Portuguese caravels which were pursuing him.[17]

Toward the end of October, as the Armada approached the equator, they experienced a series of storms, with such intense squalls that they were sometimes forced to strike their sails.[18] Pigafetta recorded the appearance of St. Elmo's fire during some of these storms, which was regarded as a good omen by the crew:

During these storms the body of St. Anselme appeared to us several times; amongst others, one night that it was very dark on account of the bad weather, the said saint appeared in the form of a fire lighted at the summit of the mainmast, and remained there near two hours and a half, which comforted us greatly, for we were in tears, only expecting the hour of perishing; and when that holy light was going away from us it gave out so great a brilliancy in the eyes of each, that we were near a quarter-of-an-hour like people blinded, and calling out for mercy. For without any doubt nobody hoped to escape from that storm.[19]

After two weeks of storms, the fleet spent some time stalled in calm, equatorial waters before being carried west by the South Equatorial Current to the vicinity of the trade winds.

Sodomy trial and failed mutiny[edit]

During the ocean crossing, the Victoria's boatswain, Antonio Salamón was caught in an act of sodomy with a cabin boy. At the time, homosexuality was punishable by death in Spain, though in practice, sex between men was a common occurrence on long naval voyages.[20] Magellan held a trial on board the Trinidad and found Salamón guilty, sentencing him to death by strangulation.

In a meeting following the trial, Magellan's captains challenged his leadership. Cartagena accused Magellan of risking the King's ships by his choice of route, sailing South along the African coast; when Cartagena declared that he would no longer follow Magellan's command, Magellan gave the signal for a number of armed loyalists to enter the room and take hold of Cartagena. Magellan called Cartagena a "rebel" and branded his behaviour as mutinous. Cartagena called on the other two Castilian captains (Quesada and Mendoza) to stab Magellan, but they held back.

Immediately following the episode, Cartagena was placed in stocks. Magellan could have tried Cartagena for mutiny and sentenced him to death, but at the urging of Quesada and Mendoza, he agreed to merely relieve Cartagena of his command of the San Antonio, and allow him to move freely within the confines of the Victoria. Antonio de Coca replaced Cartagena as captain of the San Antonio.[21]

Passage through South America[edit]

Arrival in Brazil[edit]

Pedro Álvares Cabral had claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500, 20 years before Magellan's voyage. This 1922 painting depicts his arrival in Porto Seguro and first encounter with the natives.

On November 29, the fleet reached Cape Saint Augustine[dubious ]. The coastline of Brazil (which Pigafetta refers to as Verzin in his diary, after the Italian term for brazilwood[22]) had been known to the Spanish and Portuguese since about 1500, and in the intervening decades, European powers (particularly Portugal) had been sending ships to Brazil to collect valuable brazilwood; the Armada carried a map of the Brazilian coastline, the Livro da Marinharia (the "Book of the Sea"), and also had a crew member, the Concepción's pilot, João Lopes Carvalho, who had previously visited Rio de Janeiro. Carvalho was enlisted to lead the fleet's navigation down the Brazilian coastline to Rio, aboard the Trinidad, and also helped communicate with the locals, as he had some rudimentary knowledge of their Guarani language.[23]

On December 13, the fleet reached Rio de Janeiro. Though nominally Portuguese territory, they maintained no permanent settlement there at the time. Seeing no Portuguese ships in the harbor, Magellan knew it would be safe to stop.[24] Pigafetta wrote of a coincidence of weather that caused the armada to be warmly received by the indigenous people:

It is to be known that it happened that it had not rained for two months before we came there, and the day that we arrived it began to rain, on which account the people of the said place said that we came from heaven, and had brought the rain with us, which was great simplicity, and these people were easily converted to the Christian faith.[19]

The fleet spent 13 days in Rio, during which they repaired their ships, stocked up on water and food (such as yam, cassava, and pineapple), and interacted with the locals; the expedition had brought with them a great quantity of trinkets intended for trade, such as mirrors, combs, knives and bells. The locals readily exchanged food and local goods (such as parrot feathers) for such items; the crew also found they could purchase sexual favours from the local women. Historian Ian Cameron described the crew's time in Rio as "a saturnalia of feasting and lovemaking".[25]

On December 27, the fleet left Rio de Janeiro. Pigafetta wrote that the natives were disappointed to see them leave, and that some followed them in canoes trying to entice them to stay.[26]

Río de la Plata[edit]

The fleet sailed south along the South American coast, hoping to reach el paso, the fabled strait that would allow them passage past South America to the Spice Islands. On January 11[n 1], a headland marked by three hills was sighted, which the crew believed to be "Cape Santa Maria". Around the headland, they found a wide body of water that extended as far as the eye could see in a west-by-southwest direction. Magellan believed he had found el paso, though in fact he had reached the Río de la Plata. Magellan directed the Santiago, commanded by Juan Serrano, to probe the 'strait', and led the other ships south hoping to find Terra Australis, the southern continent which was then widely supposed to exist south of South America, they failed to find the southern continent, and when they regrouped with the Santiago a few days later, Serrano reported that the hoped-for strait was in fact the mouth of a river. Incredulous, Magellan led the fleet through the western waters again, taking frequent soundings. Serrano's claim was confirmed when the men eventually found themselves in fresh water.[26]

Search for strait[edit]

On February 3, the fleet continued south along the South American coast.[27] Magellan believed they would find a strait (or the southern terminus of the continent) within a short distance.[28] In fact, the fleet would sail south for another eight weeks without finding passage, before stopping to overwinter at St. Julian.

Not wanting to miss the strait, the fleet sailed as close to the coast as feasible, heightening the danger of running aground on shoals; the ships sailed only during the day, with lookouts carefully watching the coast for signs of a passage. In addition to the hazards of shallow waters, the fleet encountered squalls, storms, and dropping temperatures as they continued south and winter set in.

Overwintering[edit]

By the third week of March, weather conditions had become so desperate that Magellan decided they should find a safe harbor in which to wait out the winter, and resume the search for a passage in spring. On March 31, 1520, a break in the coast was spotted. There, the fleet found a natural harbor which they called Port St. Julian.[29]

The men would remain at St. Julian for five months, before resuming their search for the straight. During this time, there was another mutiny attempt, and one ship, the Santiago, was lost in a storm.

Easter mutiny[edit]

Within a day of landing at St. Julian, there was another mutiny attempt. Like the one during the Atlantic crossing, it was led by Juan de Cartagena (former captain of the San Antonio), aided by Gaspar de Quesada and Luiz Mendoza, captains of the Concepción and Victoria, respectively; as before, the Castilian captains questioned Magellan's leadership, and accused him of recklessly endangering the fleet's crew and ships.

The mutiny at St. Julian was more calculated than the fracas that had followed the sodomy trial during the Atlantic crossing. Around midnight of Easter Sunday, April 1, Cartagena and Quesada covertly led thirty armed men, their faces covered with charcoal, aboard the San Antonio, where they ambushed Álvaro de Mesquita, the recently-named captain of the ship. Mesquita was Magellan's cousin, and sympathetic to the captain general. Juan de Elorriaga, the ship's boatswain, resisted the mutineers and attempted to alert the other ships. For this reason, Quesada stabbed him repeatedly (he would die from his wounds months later).[30]

With the San Antonio subdued, the mutineers controlled three of the fleet's five ships. Only the Santiago (commanded by Juan Serrano) remained loyal to Magellan, along with the flag ship, the Trinidad, which Magellan commanded; the mutineers aimed the San Antonio's cannon at the Trinidad, but made no further overtures during the night.

The following morning (April 2), while the mutineers attempted to consolidate their forces aboard the San Antonio and the Victoria, a longboat of sailors drifted off course into the vicinity of the Trinidad; the men were brought aboard and persuaded to divulge the details of the mutineers' plans to Magellan.

Magellan subsequently launched a counteroffensive against the mutineers aboard the Victoria, he had some marines from the Trinidad switch clothing with the stray sailors, and approach the Victoria in their longboat. His alguacil, Gonzalo de Espinosa, also approached the Victoria in a skiff, and announced that he had a message for the captain, Luiz Mendoza. Espinosa was allowed aboard, and into the captain's chambers, based on his claim that he had a confidential letter. There, Espinosa stabbed Mendoza in the throat with his poignard, killing him instantly. At the same time, the disguised marines came aboard the Victoria to support the alguacil.[31]

With the Victoria lost and Mendoza dead, the remaining mutineers realized they were outmanoeuvred. Cartagena conceded and begged Magellan for mercy. Quesada attempted to flee, but was prevented from doing so - sailors loyal to Magellan had cut the San Antonio's cables, causing it to drift toward the Trinidad, and Cartagena was captured.

Mutiny trial[edit]

The trial of the mutineers lasted five days. On April 7, Quesada was beheaded (by his foster-brother and secretary, Luis Molina, who acted as executioner in exchange for clemency); the bodies of Quesada and Mendoza were drawn and quartered and displayed on gibbets for the following three months. Cartagena, along with a priest, Sanchez de Reina, were sentenced to be marooned.[32] On August 11, two weeks before the fleet left St. Julian, the two were taken to a small nearby island and left to die.[33] More than forty[34] other conspirators, including Juan Sebastián Elcano,[35] were put in chains for much of the winter and made to perform the hard work of careening the ships, repairing their structure and scrubbing the bilge.[36]

Loss of Santiago[edit]

On July 17, the Santiago, captained by Juan Serrano, left St. Julian in the dead of winter to scout to the south. Faced with difficult winds and storms, the ship made slow progress, travelling just 50 miles in 16 days. By August 5, they reached the estuary of a river which Serrano named Santa Cruz River; the estuary provided shelter and was well situated with natural resources including fish, penguins, and wood.[37]

After a week exploring Santa Cruz, Serrano set out to return to St. Julian, but was caught in a sudden storm while leaving the harbour; the Santiago was tossed about by strong winds and currents before running aground on a sandbar. All (or nearly all[n 2]) of the crew were able to clamber ashore before the ship capsized. Two men volunteered to set off on foot for St. Julian to get help. After 11 days of hard trekking, the men arrived at St. Julian, exhausted and emaciated. Magellan sent a rescue party of 24 men over land to Santa Cruz.

The other 35 survivors from the Santiago remained at Santa Cruz for two weeks, they were unable to retrieve any supplies from the wreck of the Santiago, but managed to build huts and fire, and subsist on a diet of shellfish and local vegetation. The rescue party found them all alive but exhausted, and they returned to St. Julian safely.[38]

Move to Santa Cruz[edit]

After learning of the favourable conditions that Serrano found at Santa Cruz, Magellan decided to move the fleet there for the rest of the austral winter. After almost four months at St. Julian, the fleet left for Santa Cruz around August 24, they would spend six weeks at Santa Cruz before resuming their search for the strait.[39]

Strait of Magellan[edit]

The Strait of Magellan cuts through the southern tip of South America connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

On October 18, the fleet left Santa Cruz heading south, resuming their search for a passage. Soon after, on October 21, they spotted a headland at 52°S latitude which they named Cape Virgenes. Past the cape, they found a large bay. While exploring the bay, a storm erupted; the Trinidad and Victoria made it out to open seas, but the Concepción and San Antonio were driven deeper into the bay, toward a promontory. Three days later, the fleet was reunited, and the Concepción and San Antonio reported that the storm drew them through a narrow passage, not visible from sea, which continued for some distance. Hoping they had finally found their sought-after strait, the fleet retraced the path taken by the Concepción and San Antonio. Unlike at Río de la Plata earlier, the water did not lose its salinity as they progressed, and soundings indicated that the waters were consistently deep; this was the passage they sought, which would come to be known as the Strait of Magellan. At the time, Magellan referred to it as the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints' Day.

On October 28, the fleet reached an island in the strait (likely Elizabeth Island or Dawson Island), which could be passed in one of two directions. Magellan directed the fleet to split up to explore the respective paths, they were meant to regroup within a few days, but the San Antonio would never rejoin the fleet.[40] While the rest of the fleet waited for the return of the San Antonio, Gonzalo de Espinosa led a small ship to explore the further reaches of the strait. After three days of sailing, they reached the end of the strait and the mouth of the Pacific Ocean. After another three days, Espinosa returned. Pigafetta writes that, on hearing the news of Espinosa's discovery, Magellan wept tears of joy;[41] the fleet's remaining three ships completed the journey to the Pacific by November 28, after weeks of fruitlessly searching for the San Antonio.[42] Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness.[43]

Desertion of San Antonio[edit]

The San Antonio failed to rejoin the rest of Magellan's fleet in the strait. At some point, they reversed course and sailed back to Spain; the ship's officers later testified that they had arrived early at the appointed rendezvous location, but it's not clear whether this is true.[44] The pilot of the San Antonio at the time, Álvaro de Mesquita, was Magellan's cousin and loyal to the captain-general, he directed attempts to rejoin the fleet, firing cannons and setting off smoke signals. At some point he was overpowered in yet another mutiny attempt, this one at last successful, he was stabbed by the pilot of the San Antonio, Estêvão Gomes, and put in chains for the remainder of the journey.[45] Gomes was known to have feelings of animosity towards Magellan (as documented by Pigafetta, who wrote that "Gomes... hated the Captain General exceedingly", because he had hoped to have his own expedition to the Moluccas funded instead of Magellan's[46]), and shortly before the fleet was separated, had argued with him about their next course of action. While Magellan and the other officers agreed to continue west to the Moluccas, thinking that their 2-3 months of rations would be sufficient for the journey, Gomes argued that they should return to Spain the way they had come, to muster more supplies for another journey through the strait.[47]

The San Antonio reached Seville approximately six months later, on May 6, 1521. There ensued a trial of the ship's men which lasted six months. With Mesquita being the only one loyal to Magellan, the majority of testimony produced a villainous and distorted picture of Magellan's actions. In particular, in justifying the mutiny at St. Julian, the men claimed that Magellan had tortured Spanish seamen (during the return journey across the Atlantic, Mesquita was tortured into signing a statement to this effect) and claimed that they were merely trying to make Magellan follow the king's orders. Ultimately, none of the mutineers faced charges in Spain. Magellan's reputation suffered as a result, as did his friends and family. Mesquita was kept in jail for a year following the trial, and Magellan's wife, Beatriz, had her financial resources cut off, and was placed under house arrest, along with their son.[48]

Pacific crossing[edit]

The western hemisphere of Johannes Schöner's globe, created in 1520, reflects Europeans' misconception of the proximity of South America and Asia. (Zipangri, the large island outlined in yellow, is Japan)

Magellan (along with contemporary geographers) had no conception of the vastness of the Pacific Ocean, he imagined that South America was separated from the Spice Islands by a small sea, which he expected to cross in as little as three or four days.[49] In fact, they spent three months and twenty days at sea, before reaching Guam and then the Philippines.

The fleet entered the Pacific from the Strait of Magellan on November 28, 1520, and initially sailed north, following the coast of Chile. By mid-December, they altered their course to west-north-west,[50] they were unfortunate in that, had their course differed slightly, they could have encountered a number of Pacific islands which would have offered fresh food and water, such as the Juan Fernandez Islands, the Marshall Islands, Easter Island, the Society Islands, or the Marquesas Islands. As it was, they encountered only two small uninhabited islands during the crossing, at which they were unable to land; the first, sighted January 24, they named San Pablo (likely Puka-Puka)[51]. The second, which they sighted February 21, was likely Caroline Island,[52] they crossed the equator on February 13.

Not expecting such a long journey, the ships were not stocked with adequate food and water, and much of the seal meat they had stocked putrified in the equatorial heat. Pigafetta described the desperate conditions in his journal:

we only ate old biscuit reduced to powder, and full of grubs, and stinking from the dirt which the rats had made on it when eating the good biscuit, and we drank water that was yellow and stinking. We also ate the ox hides which were under the main-yard, so that the yard should not break the rigging: they were very hard on account of the sun, rain, and wind, and we left them for four or five days in the sea, and then we put them a little on the embers, and so ate them; also the sawdust of wood, and rats which cost half-a-crown each, moreover enough of them were not to be got.[19]

Moreover, most of the men suffered from symptoms of scurvy, whose cause was not understood at the time. Pigafetta reported that, of the 200 men who embarked on the Pacific crossing, 29 died of scurvy, and twenty-five or thirty were seriously ill.[53] Magellan, Pigafetta, and other officers were not afflicted with scorbutic symptoms, which may have been because they ate preserved quince which (unbeknownst to them) contained the vitamin C necessary to protect against scurvy.[54]

Guam[edit]

On March 6, 1521, the fleet reached the Mariana Islands; the first land they spotted was likely the island of Rota, but the ships were unable to land there, and instead dropped anchor thirty hours later on Guam. They were met by native Chamorro people in proas, a type of outrigger canoe then unknown to Europeans. Dozens of Chamorros came aboard and began taking items from the ship, including rigging, knives, and any items made of iron. At some point, there was a physical confrontation between the crew and the natives, and at least one Chammoro was killed; the remaining natives fled with the goods they had obtained, also taking Magellan's bergantina (the ship's boat kept on the Trinidad) as they retreated.[55][56] For this act, Magellan called the island Isla de los Ladrones (Island of Thieves).[57]

The next day, Magellan retaliated, sending a raiding party ashore which looted and burned forty or fifty Chammoro houses and killed seven men,[58] they recovered the bergantina and left Guam the next day, March 9th, continuing westward.[59]

The Philippines[edit]

The fleet reached the Philippines on March 16, and would remain there until May 1; the expedition represented the first documented European contact with the Philippines.[60] Though the stated goal of Magellan's expedition was to find a passage through South America to the Moluccas, and return to Spain laden with spices, at this point in the journey, Magellan seemed to acquire a zeal for converting the local tribes to Christianity. In doing so, Magellan eventually became embroiled in a local political dispute, and died in the Philippines, along with dozens of other officers and crew.

On March 16, a week after leaving Guam, the fleet first sighted the island of Samar, then landed on the island of Homonhon, which was then uninhabited, they spent nearly two weeks on Homonhon, resting and gathering fresh food and water, before leaving on March 27.[61] On the morning of March 28, they neared the island of Limasawa, and encountered some natives in canoes. For the first time on the journey, Magellan's slave Enrique of Malacca found that he was able to communicate with the natives in Malay (an indication that they had indeed completed a circumnavigation, and were approaching familiar lands),[61] they exchanged gifts with the natives (receiving porcelain jars painted with Chinese designs), and later that day were introduced to their leader, Rajah Kolambu[n 3]. Magellan would become a "blood brother" to Kolambu, undergoing the local blood compact ritual with him.[62]

Magellan and his men noted that the island was rich in gold, and found that the locals were eager to trade it for iron at par. While at Limasawa, Magellan gave some of the natives a demonstration of Spanish armour, weapons, and artillery, by which they were apparently impressed.[63]

First Mass[edit]

On Sunday March 31, Easter Day, Magellan and fifty of his men came ashore to Limasawa to participate in the first Catholic Mass in the Philippines, given by the armada's chaplain. Kolambu, his brother (who was also a local leader), and other islanders joined in the ceremony, and expressed an interest in their religion. Following Mass, Magellan's men raised a cross on the highest hill on the island, and formally declared the island, and the entire archipelago of the Philippines (which he called the Islands of St Lazarus) as a possession of Spain.[64]

Cebu[edit]

On April 2, Magellan held a conference to decide the fleet's next course of action, his officers urged him to head south-west for the Mollucas, but instead he decided to press further into the Philippines. On April 3, the fleet sailed north-west from Limasawa towards the island of Cebu, which Magellan learned of from Kolambu; the fleet was guided to Cebu by some of Kolambu's men.[65] They sighted Cebu April 6, and made landfall the next day. Cebu had regular contact with Chinese and Arab traders, and normally required that visitors pay tribute in order to trade. Magellan convinced the island's leader, Rajah Humabon, to waive this requirement.

As he had in Limasawa, Magellan gave a demonstration of the fleet's arms in order to impress the locals. Again, he also preached Christianity to the natives, and on April 14, Humabon and his family were baptised and given an image of the Holy Child (later known as Santo Niño de Cebu). In the coming days, other local chieftains were baptised, and in total, 2,200 locals from Cebu and other nearby islands were converted.[66]

When Magellan learned that a group on the island of Mactan, led by Lapu-Lapu, resisted Christian conversion, he ordered his men to burn their homes; when they continued to resist, Magellan informed his council on April 26 that he would bring an armed contingent to Mactan and make them submit under threat of force.[67]

Battle of Mactan[edit]

19th century artist's depiction of Magellan's death at the hands of Mactan warriors.

Magellan mustered a force of 60 armed men from his crew to oppose Lapu-Lapu's forces; some Cebuan men followed Magellan to Mactan, but were instructed by Magellan not to join the fight, but merely to watch.[68] He first sent an envoy to Lapu-Lapu, offering him a last chance to accept the king of Spain as their ruler, and avoid bloodshed. Lapu-Lapu refused. Though they had the benefit of relatively advanced armour and weaponry, Magellan's forces were greatly outnumbered. Pigafetta (who was present on the battlefield) estimated the enemy's number at 1,500.[69] Magellan's forces were driven back and decisively defeated. Magellan died in battle, along with several comrades, including Cristovao Rebelo, Magellan's illegitimate son.[70]

May 1 Massacre[edit]

Following Magellan's death, the remaining men held an election to select a new leader for the expedition, they selected two co-commanders: Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law, and Juan Serrano. Magellan's will called for the liberation of his slave, Enrique, but Barbosa and Serrano demanded that he continue his duties as an interpreter for them, and follow their orders. Enrique had some secret communication with Humabon which caused him to betray the Spaniards.

On May 1, Humabon invited the men ashore for a great feast, it was attended by around thirty men, mostly officers, including Serrano and Barbosa. Towards the end of the meal, armed Cebuans entered the hall and murdered the Europeans. Twenty-seven men were killed. Juan Serrano, one of the newly-elected co-commanders, was left alive and brought to the shore facing the Spanish ships. Serrano begged the men on board to pay a ransom to the Cebuans; the Spanish ships left port, and Serrano was (presumably) killed. In his account, Pigafetta speculates that Joao Carvalho, who became first in command in the absence of Barbosa and Serrano, abandoned Serrano (his one-time friend) so that he could remain in command of the fleet.[71]

Moluccas[edit]

With just 115 surviving men, out of the 277 who had sailed from Seville, it was decided the fleet did not have enough men to continue operating three ships. On May 2, the Concepcion was emptied and set on fire.[71]. With Carvalho as the new captain-general, the remaining two ships, the Trinidad and Victoria, spent the next six months meandering through Southeast Asia in search of the Moluccas. On the way, they stopped at several islands including Mindanao and Brunei. During this time, they engaged in acts of piracy, including robbing a junk bound for China from the Moluccas.[72]

On September 21, Carvalho was made to step down as captain-general, he was replaced by Martin Mendez, with Gonzalo de Espinosa and Juan Sebastián Elcano as captains of the Trinidad and Victoria, respectively.[73]

The ships finally reached the Moluccas on November 8, when they reached the island of Ternate, they were greeted by the island's leader, al-Mansur (known to the officers by the Spanish name Almanzor).[74] Almanzor was a friendly host to the men, and readily claimed loyalty to the king of Spain. A trading post was established in Ternate and the men set about purchasing massive quantities of cloves in exchange for goods such as cloth, knives, and glassware.[75]

Around December 15, the ships attempted to set sail from Ternate, laden with cloves, but the Trinidad, which had fallen into disrepair, was found to be taking on water. The departure was postponed while the men, aided by the locals, attempted to find and repair the leak; when these attempts were unsuccessful, it was decided that the Victoria would leave for Spain via a western route, and that the Trinidad would remain behind for some time to be refitted, before heading back to Spain by an eastern route, involving an overland passage across the American continent.[76] Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and attempted to return to Spain via the Pacific route; this attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese, and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.[citation needed]

Return to Spain[edit]

The Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano. By 6 May the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put into Cape Verde, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crew on 9 July in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon).

On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Spain (Sanlúcar de Barrameda) aboard the last ship in the fleet, Victoria, almost exactly three years after they departed.

Survivors[edit]

When Victoria, the one surviving ship and the smallest carrack in the fleet, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board.[n 4] Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) was a Genoese or Savonese[78] Chief Steward,[79] his history is preserved in the nominative registers at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is referred to with the exact Latin patronymic, "de Judicibus". Martino de Judicibus, initially assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of five ships of the Spanish fleet of Magellan, had embarked on the expedition with the rank of captain.[citation needed]

18 men returned to Seville aboard Victoria in 1522[citation needed]:
Name Rating
Juan Sebastián Elcano, from Getaria (Spain) Master
Francisco Albo, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia) Pilot
Miguel de Rodas (in Tui, Galicia) Pilot
Juan de Acurio, from Bermeo Pilot
Antonio Lombardo (Pigafetta), from Vicenza Supernumerary
Martín de Judicibus, from Genoa Chief Steward
Hernándo de Bustamante, from Alcántara Mariner
Nicholas the Greek, from Nafplion Mariner
Miguel Sánchez, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia) Mariner
Antonio Hernández Colmenero, from Huelva Mariner
Francisco Rodrigues, Portuguese from Seville Mariner
Juan Rodríguez, from Huelva Mariner
Diego Carmena, from Baiona (Galicia) Mariner
Hans of Aachen, (Holy Roman Empire) Gunner
Juan de Arratia, from Bilbao Able Seaman
Vasco Gómez Gallego, from Baiona (Galicia) Able Seaman
Juan de Santandrés, from Cueto (Cantabria) Apprentice Seaman
Juan de Zubileta, from Barakaldo Page

Accounts of voyage[edit]

Antonio Pigafetta's journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan's expedition; the other direct report of the voyage was that of Francisco Albo, the last Victoria's pilot, who kept a formal logbook. The first printed report of the circumnavigation was a letter written by Maximilianus Transylvanus, a relative of sponsor Christopher de Haro, who interviewed survivors in 1522 and published his account in 1523.[80]

Legacy[edit]

Subsequent expeditions[edit]

Since there was not a set limit to the east, in 1524 both kingdoms had tried to find the exact location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres and to resolve the "Moluccas issue". A board met several times without reaching an agreement: the knowledge at that time was insufficient for an accurate calculation of longitude, and each gave the islands to their sovereign. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spain and Portugal, it assigned the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. The course that Magellan charted was followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake. In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.[citation needed]

In 1525, soon after the return of Magellan's expedition, Charles V sent an expedition led by García Jofre de Loaísa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas; this expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano, who, along with many other sailors, died of malnutrition during the voyage, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore; the Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternate and the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the "possession." (occupied by indigenous peoples.)[citation needed]

Scientific accomplishments[edit]

Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan's name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.

Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a "camel without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego; the llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black "goose" that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.[citation needed]

The full extent of the globe was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi); the global expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon returning the expedition found its date was a day behind, although they had faithfully maintained the ship's log, they lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth's daily rotation.[81] This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pope to explain the oddity to him.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Cameron 1974, p. 96) gives a date of January 11 for this, whereas (Bergreen 2003, p. 105) gives January 10.
  2. ^ (Cameron 1974, p. 156) says that "all her crew except one were able to leap ashore". (Bergreen 2003, p. 157) says "all the men aboard ship survived".
  3. ^ Variously romanized in different sources as Kolambu, Colembu, Kulambu, Calambu etc.
  4. ^ Some sources give the number of survivors as 19 rather than 18.[77]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 211,214.
  2. ^ Mervyn D. Kaufman (2004), Ferdinand Magellan, Capstone Press, pp. 13, ISBN 978-0-7368-2487-3
  3. ^ Castro 2007
  4. ^ "Marvellous countries and lands" (Notable Maps of Florida, 1507–1846), Ralph E. Ehrenberg, 2002, webpage: BLib3: notes some head mapmakers Archived 12 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Castro 2007, pp. 329–332
  6. ^ Vial, Ignacio Fernandez (2001). La Primera Vuelta al Mundo: La Nao Victoria. Servilla: Munoz Moya Editores.
  7. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 36.
  8. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 74.
  9. ^ "Unique Facts about Oceania: Ferdinand Magellan". www.sheppardsoftware.com. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  10. ^ Joyner 1992, p. 93.
  11. ^ Nancy Smiler Levinson (2001), Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-395-98773-5, retrieved 31 July 2010, Personnel records are imprecise. The most accepted total number is 270.
  12. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 61.
  13. ^ Beaglehole 1966, p.22
  14. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 84.
  15. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 87.
  16. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 86.
  17. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 91.
  18. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 88-89.
  19. ^ a b c Pigafetta, Antonio. The First Voyage Round the World. Translated by Stanley, Henry.
  20. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 92-93.
  21. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 94-95.
  22. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 97.
  23. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 95-98.
  24. ^ Bergreen 2003.
  25. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 95.
  26. ^ a b Cameron 1974, p. 96.
  27. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 123.
  28. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 97.
  29. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 101-103.
  30. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 115-117.
  31. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 108-109.
  32. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 109-111.
  33. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 170.
  34. ^ HILDEBRAND, Arthur Sturges (1925). Magellan. A general account of the life and times and remarkable adventures ... of ... Ferdinand Magellan, etc. [With a portrait.] London; printed in U.S.A. OCLC 560368881.
  35. ^ Murphy, Patrick J.; Coye, Ray W. (2013). Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300170283.
  36. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 113.
  37. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 116-117.
  38. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 157-159.
  39. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 170-173.
  40. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 189-190.
  41. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 133.
  42. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 136.
  43. ^ "Ferdinand Magellan", Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent, retrieved 14 January 2007
  44. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 191.
  45. ^ Bergreen, p. 192.
  46. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 188.
  47. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 187-188.
  48. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 297-312.
  49. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 145.
  50. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 149.
  51. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 159.
  52. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 218.
  53. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 215.
  54. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 217-218.
  55. ^ Bergreen 2004, pp. 224-226.
  56. ^ Cameron 1974, pp. 167-169.
  57. ^ Bergreen 2004, p. 229.
  58. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 226.
  59. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 229-231.
  60. ^ Suárez 1999, p. 138
  61. ^ a b Cameron 1974, p. 173.
  62. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 244-245.
  63. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 243,245.
  64. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 177.
  65. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 180.
  66. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 271.
  67. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 187.
  68. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 277.
  69. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 279.
  70. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 281.
  71. ^ a b Cameron 1974, p. 197.
  72. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 198.
  73. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 330.
  74. ^ Bergreen 2003, p. 341.
  75. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 349-350.
  76. ^ Bergreen 2003, pp. 363-365.
  77. ^ Cameron 1974, p. 209.
  78. ^ Documents related to the questioning performed by the Spanish authorities after the 18 survivors of the voyage returned to Seville in 1522 report that de Judicibus was born in Savona, Italy.
  79. ^ A. Pigafetta, "Il viaggio di Magellano intorno al mondo", review by James Alexander Robertson, Cleveland, 1906, Ed. Arthur Clark
  80. ^ Joyner 1992, p. 349.
  81. ^ Maps of the Magellan Strait and a brief history of Ferdinand Magellan, London, retrieved 10 March 2006

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]