The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre; the country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border; the Saône formed their eastern border. The Sequani did not reside in the region of the confluence of the Doubs into the Saône and of the latter into the Rhône, as Caesar says that the Helvetii, following the pass between the Jura Mountains and the Rhône southwards, which belonged to the Sequani, plundered the territory of the Aedui; these circumstances explain an apparent contradiction in Strabo, who in one sentence says that the Aedui lived between the Saône and the Doubs, in the next, that the Sequani lived across the Saône. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. Outside of the Roman province and prior to Roman rule, Independent Gaul was occupied by self-governing tribes divided into cantons, each canton was further divided into communes.
The Aedui, like other powerful tribes in the region, had replaced their monarchy with a council of magistrates called grand-judges. The grand-judges were under the authority of the senate; the senate was made up of the descendants of ancient royal families. Free men in the tribes were vassals to the heads of these families in exchange for military and political interests. According to Livy, they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they had attached themselves to the Romans and were honoured with the title of brothers and kinsmen of the Roman people; when the Sequani, their hereditary rivals, with the assistance of a Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus and massacred the Aedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, the Aedui sent Diviciacus, the druid, to Rome to appeal to the senate for help, but his mission was unsuccessful. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. In spite of this, the Aedui joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar, but after the surrender of Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, were glad to return to their allegiance.
Augustus dismantled their native capital Bibracte on Mont Beuvray and substituted a new town with a half-Roman, half-Gaulish name, Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius; the Aedui were the first of the Gauls to receive from the emperor Claudius the distinction of jus honorum, thus being the first Gauls permitted to become senators. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected; the chief magistrate of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus, elected annually, possessed powers of life and death but was forbidden to go beyond the frontier. Certain clientes, or small communities, were dependent upon the Aedui, it is possible that the Aedui adopted many of the governmental practices of the Romans, such as electing magistrates and other officials or it was a natural development in their political system.
It is thought that other Celtic tribes, such as the Remi and the Baiocasses elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. A. E. Desjardins, Geographie de la Gaule, ii. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul
Ariovistus was a leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC. He and his followers took part in a war in Gaul, assisting the Arverni and Sequani in defeating their rivals, the Aedui, they settled in large numbers into conquered Gallic territory, in the Alsace region. They were defeated, however, in the Battle of Vosges and driven back over the Rhine in 58 BC by Julius Caesar. Ariovistus and the events he was part of are known from Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Caesar, as a participant in the events, is a primary source, but as his Commentaries were political, they may be suspected of being self-serving. Historians, notably Dio Cassius, are suspicious of his motives. Ariovistus was a native of the Suebi, he spoke Gaulish fluently. He had two wives; the second, the sister of King Vocion of Noricum, he acquired in an arranged political marriage. Ariovistus is described by Caesar as rex Germanorum; that is translated as "king of the Germans", but as Latin had no definite article, it could be translated as "king of Germans", with no implication that he ruled all Germans.
Indeed, Germania is known to have been divided into many tribal and political groups, many of which were ruled by kings. It is that Ariovistus's authority extended only over those Germans who had settled in Gaul, he was recognised as a king by the Roman Senate, but how the Roman title matched Ariovistus's social status among the Germans remains unknown. What the senate meant by rex at that moment in the history of the Roman Republic is not clear; the word "king" did so throughout Rome's centuries of history. Tacitus says that the Germans made a distinction between kings, who were chosen by birth, military leaders, who were chosen by ability, that kings did not have absolute power; some time before Caesar's governorship of Gaul, the Gaulish Arverni and Sequani enlisted Ariovistus's aid in their war against the Aedui. The latter were a numerous Celtic people occupying the area of the upper Loire river in France, their territory lay between their neighbors to the northeast, the Sequani, who occupied the Doubs river valley, the Arverni in the Massif Central.
Caesar does not say what the cause of the conflict was, but the Sequani controlled access to the Rhine river along the valley of the Doubs. To that end, they had built up an oppidum, or fortified town, at Vesontio. Tradesmen headed up the Rhone and its tributary the Saône could not pass the Doubs at Vesontio without coming to terms with the Sequani, no one could pass from the Rhine to the Rhone but on similar terms; the east of the entire great channel is bordered by the Jura mountains and the west by the Massif Central. Vesontio is 120 kilometres from that stretch of the Rhine between Basel; the Arar formed part of the border between the Sequani. Strabo, who lived a generation after Caesar in the late republic and early empire, does make a statement concerning the cause of the conflict between the Sequani and Aedui, it was in fact commercial, at least in Strabo's view; each tribe claimed the Arar and the transportation tolls from traffic along it, "but now", says Strabo, "everything is to the Romans."
The Sequani habitually supported the Germans in their previous frequent expeditions across the river, which shows that Ariovistus's subsequent devastation of Sequani lands represented a new policy. The location of the final battle between the Aedui and their enemies, which Caesar names as the Battle of Magetobriga, remains unknown, but Ariovistus's 15,000 men turned the tide, the Aedui became tributary to the Sequani. Cicero writes in 60 BC of a defeat sustained by the Aedui in reference to this battle. Ariovistus seized a third of the Aeduan territory. To avoid infringing on his allies for the moment, Ariovistus must have passed over the low divide between the Rhine and the Doubs in the vicinity of Belfort and have approached the Aedui along the Ognon river valley; that move left the Sequani between him and the Jura mountains, not a tolerable situation for either if they were not going to be allies. Ariovistus made the decision to clear out the Sequani from the strategic Doubs valley and to repopulate it with Germanic settlers.
He demanded a further third of Celtic land for his allies the Harudes. Caesar makes it clear that Germanic tribes were in the land of the Sequani and terrorising them, they are said to have controlled all the oppida, but, not true, as Vesontio was not under Germanic control. However, the country to the north of there was under Germanic control. In 59 BC, while Julius Caesar was consul, Ariovistus had been recognised as "king and friend" by the Roman Senate, he had already crossed the Rhine at this point. Cicero indicates that the Aedui's defeat took place in or before 60 BC. Pliny the Elder mentions a meeting between Caesar's predecessor as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, a king of the Suebi; the sequence of events given by Caesar seems to indicate that, when his governorship began in 58 BC, the Germans had been settled in Gaul for longer than one year. However, without the status of friend, Ariovistus never could have secured Roman tolerance of his Rhine crossing, whenever it was, but would have been treated as hostile.
However, the Aedui were allies of Rome, in 58 BC Diviciacus, one of their senior magistrates, complained of Ariovistus's cruelty and pleaded with Caesar to intervene on their behalf. Caesar sent ambassadors to summon Ariovistus to a conferenc
Battle of Magetobriga
The Battle of Magetobriga was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul. The Aedui tribe was defeated and massacred by the combined forces of their hereditary rivals, the Sequani and Arverni tribes; the Sequani and Arverni enlisted the aid of the Germanic Suebi tribe under their king Ariovistus. Following their defeat, the Aedui sent envoys to their traditional ally, for aid; the Roman general Julius Caesar would subsequently use their request for aid as a basis for furthering his conquest of Gaul. According to Strabo, the cause of the conflict between the Haedui and Sequani was commercial; the Arar River formed part of the border between the hereditary rivals. Each tribe claimed the tolls on trade along it; the Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests. In 63 BC the Sequani and Arverni secured the aid of Ariovistus, a king of the Germanic Suebi tribe, to help settle the hereditary dispute. Ariovistus crossed the Rhine with a confederation of Germanic tribes.
The Battle of Magetobriga, the final battle between the Aedui and their enemies, took place close to the Sequani town of Magetobria 10 km from Luxeuil. Ariovistus' 15,000 Germanic tribesmen turned the tide, the Aedui became tributary to the Sequani. In return, Ariovistus was promised land grants in Gaul. Cicero wrote in 60 BC of a defeat sustained by the Aedui in reference to Magetobriga. N public affairs for the moment the chief subject of interest is the disturbance in Gaul. For the Haedui—"our brethren"—have fought a losing battle, the Helvetii are undoubtedly in arms and making raids upon our province; the senate has decreed that the two Consuls should draw lots for the Gauls, that a levy should be held, all exemptions from service be suspended, legates with full powers be sent to visit the states in Gaul, see that they do not join the Helvetii. In 63 BC, following their defeat, the Aedui statesman and druid Diviciacus traveled to Rome, the Aedui's ally to plead for military aid, he pled the Aedui's case before the Roman senate.
While in Rome, Diviciacus was a guest of Cicero, who spoke of his knowledge of divination and natural philosophy, named him as a druid. Diviciacus is the only druid from antiquity, his name may mean "avenger." In the wake of victory, to the dismay of his'allies', Ariovistus stayed in Gaul. According to Caesar, he seized a third of the Sequani territory and proceeded to settle 120,000 Germani there as the nucleus of a new Germanic kingdom. Caesar writes: "But a worse thing had befallen the victorious Sequani than the vanquished Aedui, for Ariovistus, a king of the Germani, had settled in their territories, had seized upon a third of their land, the best in the whole of Gaul, was now ordering them to depart from another third part, because a few months 24,000 men of the Harudes had come to him, for whom room and settlements must be provided." To avoid infringing on his allies, at least for the moment, Ariovistus must have passed over the low divide between the Rhine and the Doubs in the vicinity of Belfort and than have approached the Aedui along the Ognon river valley.
That move left the Sequani between him and the Jura mountains, not a tolerable situation for either if they were not going to be allies. Ariovistus made the decision to clear out the Sequani from the strategic Doubs valley and re-populate it with Germanic settlers, he demanded a further third of Celtic land for his allies the Harudes. Caesar makes it clear that Germanic tribes were in the land of the Sequani and were terrorizing them, they are said to control all the oppida, but this statement is not true, as Vesontio was not under Germanic control. The country to the north of there was under Germanic control. Following Caesar’s victory over the Helvetii, the majority of the Gallic tribes congratulated Caesar and sought to meet with him in a general assembly; the Aeduan Druid and statesment Diviciacus, acting as spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, appealed to Caesar to intervene against Ariovistus. Ariovistus' demand, that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate the Harudes people,'concerned' Rome because it would position Ariovistus to take all of the Sequani land and move against the rest of Gaul.
The Gallic request afforded Caesar the perfect pretext to expand his intervention as "the saviour and not the conqueror of Gaul." Caesar would defeat Ariovistus at the Battle of Vosges. In the battle, which took place near Vesontio, the Harudes formed one of the seven tribal divisions of Ariovistus' host. After suffering a crushing defeat at the hands of the Romans, the Germani fled back over the Rhine. Caesar would subjugate the whole of Gaul. Diviciacus Aedui Sequani Arverni Ariovistus Suebi Harudes J. F. C. Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man and Tyrant, Da Capo Press, 1991, ISBN 0-306-80422-0 Adrian Goldsworthy, Caesar: Life of a Colossus, ISBN 0-300-12048-6 Michael Grant, Julius Caesar, ISBN 978-0871317209 Arthur D. Kahn, The Education of Julius Caesar, ISBN 0-595-08921-6 Christian Meier. Caesar: A Biography. Fontana Press. ISBN 0-00-686349-3. Strabo, Geography Gérard Walter, Caesar: A Biography, trans. Emma Craufurd
History of France
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, the Belgae; the Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands; the Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58–51 BC. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was integrated into the Roman Empire. In the stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most by the Germanic Franks; the Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years.
Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged from the western part of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last direct Capetian monarch in 1328 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet; the war formally began in 1337 following Philip VI's attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its hereditary holder, Edward III of England, the Plantagenet claimant to the French throne. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois in the war. Among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine; the war ended with a Valois victory in 1453.
Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a centralized absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. At the height of the French Wars of Religion, France became embroiled in another succession crisis, as the last Valois king, Henry III, fought against rival factions the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise. Henry, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century. French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution; the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy briefly as a Second Republic, as a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany in 1940; the Third Republic was dismantled, most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, many Jews were killed. Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established. France recovered economically, enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its low fertility rate.
Long wars in Indochina and Algeria ended in political defeat. In the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities. Since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO, it played a central role in the unification process after 1945. Despite slow economic growth in recent years, it remains a strong economic, cultural and political factor in the 21st century; the French military has 30,000 troops deployed worldwide performing counter-terrorism missions. Opération Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015. Stone tools discovered at Chilhac and Lézignan-la-Cèbe in 2009 indicate that pre-human ancestors may have been present in France at least 1.6 million years ago. Neanderthals were present in Europe from about 400,000 BC, but died out about 30,000 years ago out-competed by the modern humans during a period of cold weather.
The earliest modern humans – Homo sapiens – entered Europe by 43,000 years ago. The cave paintings of Lascaux and Gargas as well as the Carnac stones are remains of the local prehistoric activity; the first written records for the
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age, inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica and Aquitania. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC. Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486.
While the Celtic Gauls had lost their original identities and language during Late Antiquity, becoming amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture, Gallia remained the conventional name of the territory throughout the Early Middle Ages, until it acquired a new identity as the Capetian Kingdom of France in the high medieval period. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin; the Greek and Latin names Galatia and Gallia are derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. The Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people"; the English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. The name Gaul is derived from the Old Frankish *Walholant "Land of the Foreigners/Romans", in which *Walho- is reflex of Proto-Germanic *walhaz, "foreigner, Romanized person", an exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin-speaking people indiscriminately, making it cognate with the names Wales and Wallachia.
The Germanic w- is rendered as gu- / g- in French, the historic diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. French Gaule or Gaulle cannot be derived from Latin Gallia, since g would become j before a, the diphthong au would be unexplained. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived from the name of the Volcae. Unrelated, in spite of superficial similarity, is the name Gael; the Irish word gall did mean "a Gaul", i.e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to "foreigner", to describe the Vikings, still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib; as adjectives, English has the two variants: Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as "pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls", although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish. There is little written information concerning the peoples that inhabited the regions of Gaul, save what can be gleaned from coins.
Therefore, the early history of the Gauls is predominantly a work in archaeology and the relationships between their material culture, genetic relationships and linguistic divisions coincide. Before the rapid spread of the La Tène culture in the 5th to 4th centuries BC, the territory of eastern and southern France participated in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture out of which the early iron-working Hallstatt culture would develop. By 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. Out of this Hallstatt background, during the 7th and 6th century representing an early form of Continental Celtic culture, the La Tène culture arises under Mediterranean influence from the Greek and Etruscan civilizations, spread out in a number of early centers along the Seine, the Middle Rhine and the upper Elbe. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads across the entire territory of Gaul; the La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia and Hungary.
Farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. The major source of materials on the Celts of Gaul was Poseidonios of Apamea, whose writings were quoted by Timagenes, Julius Caesar, the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus, the Greek geographer Strabo. In the 4th and early 3rd century BC, Gallic clan confederations expanded far beyond the territory of what would become Roman Gaul, into Pannonia, northern Italy and Asia Minor. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans descr
Sequani, in ancient geography, were a Gallic people who occupied the upper river basin of the Arar, the valley of the Doubs and the Jura Mountains, their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté and part of Burgundy. Sequani is an exonym assigned by the Romans, most based on a similar-sounding endonym; the endonym is not known for certain. Sequani is like Sequana, Caesar's name for the Seine, but the country of the Sequani is not in the Seine's watershed. Strabo was responsible for the folk-etymologic connection by supposing that the Sequana flowed through the country of the Sequani, a geographic error; the French name of the Saône, the river forming the western border of the Sequani, derives from Celtic Souconna. The Romans called it the Arar. William Smith hypothesized that Souconna were related; the country of the Sequani can be defined by the reports of the ancient writers. The Jura Mountains separated the Sequani from the Helvetii on the east, but the mountains belonged to the Sequani, as the narrow pass between the Rhone and Lake Geneva was Sequanian.
They did not occupy the confluence of the Saône into the Rhone, as the Helvetii plundered the lands of the Aedui there. Extending a line westward from the Jura estimates the southern border at about Mâcon, but Mâcon belonged to the Aedui. Strabo says that the Arar separates the Sequani from the Aedui and the Lingones, which means that the Sequani were on the left, or eastern, bank of the Saône only. On the northeast corner the country of the Sequani touched on the Rhine. Before the arrival of Julius Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the side of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them. Although his assistance enabled them to defeat the Aedui, the Sequani were worse off than before, for Ariovistus deprived them of a third of their territory and threatened to take another third, while subjugating them into semi-slavery; the Sequani appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germanic tribesmen, but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui.
This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix and shared in the defeat at Alesia. Under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica. After the death of Vitellius, the inhabitants refused to join the Gallic revolt against Rome instigated by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus, drove back Sabinus, who had invaded their territory. A triumphal arch at Vesontio, which in return for this service was made a colony commemorates this victory. Diocletian added Helvetia, part of Germania Superior to Sequania, now called Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, Vesontio receiving the title of Metropolis civitas Vesontiensium; the southern reach of this territory was known as Sapaudia, which developed into Savoy. Fifty years Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, Vesontio sacked. Under Julian, it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals; when Rome was no longer able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul, the Sequani became merged in the newly formed Kingdom of Burgundy.
Vesontio Luxovium Loposagium Portus Abucini Segobudium Epamanduodurum Ariolica Magetobria / Admagetobria Pons Dubis Castro Vesulio Sigynnae Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sequani". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Endnotes: T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, p. 483. A. Holder, Altceltischer Sprachschatz, ii.. Mommsen, Hist. of Rome, bk. v. ch. vii. Dunod de Charnage, Hist. des Séquanois J. D. Schöpflin, Alsatia illustrata, i