Nasi campur refers to a Indonesian dish of a scoop of nasi putih accompanied by small portions of a number of other dishes, which includes meats, peanuts and fried-shrimp krupuk. Depending on origin, a nasi campur vendor might serve several side dishes, including vegetables and meats, it is a staple meal from Indonesia and popular in Malaysia, Singapore and southern Thailand, the Netherlands through its colonial ties with Indonesia. A similar form called. Nasi campur is a ubiquitous dish around Indonesia and as diverse as the Indonesian archipelago itself, with regional variations. There is no exact rule, recipe, or definition of what makes a nasi campur, since Indonesians and by large Southeast Asians consume steamed rice surrounded with side dishes consisting of vegetables and meat; as a result, the question of origin or recipe is obscure. Yet nasi campur is perceived as steamed rice surrounded with dishes that might consists of vegetables and meats, served in personal portions, in contrast to tumpeng, served in larger collective portions or rijsttafel, presented in lavish colonial banquets.
There are several local variations throughout Southeast Asia: from Java, Malay Peninsular, Borneo and Indo colonial to Chinese Indonesian versions of nasi campur. A similar Minangkabau counterpart is called nasi Padang and prominent in Sumatra region. In Bali, the mixed rice called Nasi campur Bali or nasi Bali is a favorite among tourists; this Balinese version of nasi campur is the most internationally well-known version due to the "Bali factor", the Balinese popularity as the island resort among international visitors. The tastes are distinctly local, punctuated by basa genep, the typical Balinese spice mix used as the base for many curry and vegetable dishes; the Balinese version of mixed rice may have grilled tuna, fried tofu, spinach, beef cubes, vegetable curry, chili sauce on the bed of rice. Mixed rice is sold by street vendors, wrapped in a banana leaf; as a Hindu majority island, the Balinese version might add lawar and babi guling in their nasi campur fares. The halal version is available, with ayam betutu, sate lilit, eggs to accompany the rice.
In Java, nasi campur is called nasi rames, wide variations are available across the island. One dish that found in a Javanese nasi campur is fried noodle; the combination known as nasi rames is a dish created in West Java during World War II by the Indo cook Truus van der Capellen, who ran the Bandung soup kitchens during the Japanese occupation. She opened a restaurant in the Netherlands and made the dish popular there. In Yogyakarta a Javanese version of nasi campur is called nasi ingkung, which consist of a whole cooked chicken dish called ayam ingkung, urapan kasultan, empal gapit, sate tusuk jiwo, tumpeng rice; some people who reside in Jakarta and other major cities with significant Chinese population area use the term nasi campur loosely to refer to Chinese Indonesian's nasi campur Tionghoa, a dish of rice with an assortment of barbecued meats, such as char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage, pork satay. This dish is served with simple Chinese chicken soup or sayur asin, an Indonesian clear broth of pork bones with fermented mustard greens.
However, a name for a similar dish does not exist in mainland China, Malaysia, or most other areas of Indonesia outside of Jakarta. In reality, the usage of the name nasi campur here is only for marketing and convenience purposes for the locals, should not be included in the category of nasi campur; this categorization of nasi campur makes as much sense as categorizing all buffets with rice in them as rijsttafel just because of the presence of any rice and assortment of dishes. The name nasi campur Tionghoa is only a shortened version of "nasi dengan daging campur cara Tionghoa". Furthermore, most Chinese vendors and food-court stalls in the region serve only one kind of meat with rice and a bowl of broth. Hence, in most cases, those Chinese vendors' menu refers to the specific meat accompanying plain rice, for example char siew rice or roast pork rice; the nasi campur Tionghoa in this respect, is the combo set menu of various Chinese barbecued meats. In most cases, nasi campur refers to the Indonesian and Malaysian versions of rice with assortments of side dishes.
In Indonesia, it refers to any kind of rice surrounded by various dishes. In Malaysia, it refers more to Malay mixed rice. In Japan, United States, most foreign countries, nasi campur refers to the Balinese version, while in the Netherlands it most refers to Indo-colonial nasi rames; the side dishes themselves might vary among regions and eating establishments. Media related to Nasi campur at Wikimedia Commons
A lime is a citrus fruit, round, green in color, 3–6 centimetres in diameter, contains acidic juice vesicles. There are several species of citrus trees whose fruits are called limes, including the Key lime, Persian lime, kaffir lime, desert lime. Limes are a rich source of vitamin C, sour and are used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages, they are grown year-round. Plants with fruit called; the difficulty in identifying which species of fruit are called lime in different parts of the English-speaking world is increased by the botanical complexity of the citrus genus itself, to which the majority of limes belong. Species of this genus hybridise and it is only that genetic studies have started to throw light on the structure of the genus; the majority of cultivated species are in reality hybrids, produced from the citron, the mandarin orange, the pomelo and in particular with many lime varieties, the micrantha. Australian limes Australian desert lime Australian finger lime Australian lime Blood lime Kaffir lime.
Key lime is one of three most produced limes globally. Musk lime, a kumquat × mandarin hybrid Persian lime a key lime × lemon hybrid, is the single most produced lime globally, with Mexico being the largest producer. Rangpur lime, a mandarin orange × citron hybrid Spanish lime. Although the precise origin is uncertain, wild limes are believed to have first grown in Indonesia or Southeast Asia, were transported to the Mediterranean region and north Africa around 1000 CE. To prevent scurvy during the 19th century, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus, such as lemon, switched to lime; the use of citrus was a guarded military secret, as scurvy was a common scourge of various national navies, the ability to remain at sea for lengthy periods without contracting the disorder was a huge benefit for the military. The British sailor thus acquired the nickname, "Limey" because of their usage of limes. In 2016, global production of lemons and limes was 17.3 million tonnes, led by India with 17% of the world total.
Mexico and China were other major producers. Limes have higher contents of acids than lemons do. Lime juice may be squeezed from fresh limes, or purchased in bottles in both unsweetened and sweetened varieties. Lime juice is used to make limeade, as an ingredient in many cocktails. Lime pickles are an integral part of Indian cuisine. South Indian cuisine is based on lime. In cooking, lime is valued both for the floral aroma of its zest, it is a common ingredient in authentic Mexican and Thai dishes. Lime soup is a traditional dish from the Mexican state of Yucatan, it is used for its pickling properties in ceviche. Some guacamole recipes call for lime juice; the use of dried limes as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Persian Gulf-style baharat. Lime is an ingredient of many cuisines from India, many varieties of pickles are made, e.g. sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, lime chutney. Key lime gives the character flavoring to the American dessert known as Key lime pie.
In Australia, desert lime is used for making marmalade. Lime is an ingredient in several highball cocktails based on gin, such as gin and tonic, the gimlet and the Rickey. Freshly squeezed lime juice is considered a key ingredient in margaritas, although sometimes lemon juice is substituted. Lime extracts and lime essential oils are used in perfumes, cleaning products, aromatherapy. Raw limes are 10 % carbohydrates and less than 1 % each of fat and protein. Only vitamin C content at 35% of the Daily Value per 100 g serving is significant for nutrition, with other nutrients present in low DV amounts. Lime juice contains less citric acid than lemon juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lime pulp and peel contain diverse phytochemicals, including polyphenols and terpenes, many of which are under basic research for their potential properties in humans. Contact with lime peel or lime juice followed by exposure to ultraviolet light may lead to phytophotodermatitis, sometimes called margarita photodermatitis or lime disease.
Bartenders handling limes and other citrus fruits while preparing cocktails may develop phytophotodermatitis. A class of organic chemical compounds ca
Nasi goreng meaning "fried rice" in Indonesian, is an Indonesian rice dish with pieces of meat and vegetables added. It can refer to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in a small amount of cooking oil or margarine spiced with kecap manis, garlic, ground shrimp paste and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients egg and prawns. There is another kind of nasi goreng, made with ikan asin, popular across Indonesia. Nasi goreng is sometimes described as Indonesian stir-fried rice, although it is popular in Southeast Asia. Beyond the Malay Archipelago, it has gained popularity through Indonesian influence in Sri Lanka and via Indonesian immigrant communities in Suriname and the Netherlands, it is distinguished from other Asian fried rice recipes by its aromatic and smoky flavor, owed to generous amount of caramelized sweet soy sauce and powdered shrimp paste, the taste is stronger and spicier compared to Chinese fried rice. Nasi goreng has been called the national dish of Indonesia.
It can be enjoyed in simple versions from a tin plate at a roadside food stall, eaten on porcelain in restaurants, or collected from the buffet tables of Jakarta dinner parties. In 2011 an online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International chose Indonesian nasi goreng as number two on their'World’s 50 Most Delicious Foods' list after rendang. Nasi goreng had the same beginnings as other versions of fried rice. Frying the rice could prevent the propagation of dangerous microbes in pre-refrigeration technology Indonesia and avoid the need to throw out precious food. Nasi goreng is traditionally served at home for breakfast and it is traditionally made out of leftover rice from the night before. Besides ingredients like shallot, tomato and chili, the rice is fried with scraps of chicken or beef. Nasi goreng is described as Indonesia's twist on fried rice, and as with other fried rice recipes in Asia, it has been suggested that it can trace its origin from Southern Chinese fried rice. However, it is not clear when Indonesians began to adopt the Chinese fried rice and create their own version.
The trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago flourished from the era of Srivijaya around the 10th century and intensified in the Majapahit era around the 15th century. By that time Chinese immigrants had begun to settle in the archipelago, bringing along with them their culture and cuisine. Chinese people favor freshly cooked hot food, in their culture it is taboo to throw away uneaten foodstuffs; as a result, the previous day's leftover rice was recooked in the morning. Indonesians simply sun-dried the leftover rice to make intip or rengginang, the dried rice could be ground to make rice flour; the Chinese influences upon Indonesian cuisine can be seen in mie goreng that appeared with the introduction of the stir frying technique that required the use of a Chinese wok. In China, the stir frying technique became popular during Ming dynasty; the introduction of stir frying technique, Chinese wok, soy sauce took place around or after this period, circa 17th century. The common soy sauce has its origin in 2nd century CE China, kecap manis was developed in Indonesia with a generous addition of local palm sugar.
Sweet soy sauce plus the addition of shrimp paste are the elements that distinguish Indonesian nasi goreng from Chinese fried rice. Other than Chinese influence, there is another theory suggested that nasi goreng was inspired by a Middle Eastern dish called pilaf, rice cooked in seasoned broth; this suggestion is quite plausible in regard to a particular variant—the Betawi nasi goreng kambing, which uses mutton or goat meat, rich spices and minyak samin, which demonstrates Middle Eastern-Indian influence. Nasi goreng was considered as part of the Indies culture during the colonial period; the mention of nasi goreng appear in colonial literature of Dutch East Indies, such as in the Student Hidjo by Marco Kartodikoromo, a serial story published in Sinar Hindia newspaper in 1918. It was mentioned in a 1925 Dutch cookbook Groot Nieuw Volledig Oost Indisch Kookboek. Trade between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies during that time has increased the popularity of nasi goreng to the world. After the independence of Indonesia, nasi goreng was popularly considered as a national dish, albeit unofficial.
It is in the menu, introduced and served in Indonesian Theater Restaurant within the Indonesian pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. Howard Palfrey Jones, the US ambassador to Indonesia during the last years of Sukarno's reign in mid 1960s, in his memoir "Indonesia: The Possible Dream", said that he like nasi goreng, he described his fondness for nasi goreng cooked by Hartini, one of Sukarno's wives, praise it as the most delicious nasi goreng he tasted. Nasi goreng is ubiquitous in Indonesia, popular in neighboring Malaysia and Singapore, as well as the Netherlands through its colonial ties with Indonesia. Today microwave-heated frozen nasi goreng is available in convenience stores, such as 7-Eleven and Lawson in Indonesia. Nasi goreng is distinguished from other Asian fried rice recipes by its aromatic and smoky flavour, owed to generous amount of caramelized kecap manis and ground powdered terasi, the flavour is stronger and spicier compared to Chinese fried
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Ayam kecap or ayam masak kicap is a Maritime Southeast Asia chicken dish poached or simmered in sweet soy sauce found in Indonesia and Malaysia. In Indonesia, ayam kecap is pieces of chicken simmered in kecap manis, spiced with shallot or onion, ginger, pepper and tomato. Other version might add richer spices, including nutmeg and cloves. In Indonesia, the term ayam kecap is interchangeable with ayam goreng kecap and semur ayam, Indonesian sweet soy stew which uses chicken instead of beef. Since all of them are similar — if not identical, recipes of chicken cooked in sweet soy sauce. However, semur ayam add richer spices, which includes clove and star anise. On the other hand, ayam goreng kecap has thicker sweet soy sauce and added with slices of fresh lime or splash of lime juices; the main difference is its water content, despite quite moist, both ayam kecap and ayam goreng kecap are dryer and has thicker soy sauce compared to semur ayam, more watery. In Indonesian, fried chicken in sweet soy sauce is a typical chicken dish served across Indonesia.
However, it is more of Javanese-Chinese origin. The recipe follows the production of Indonesian kecap manis. Soy sauce production is linked to Chinese influence in the archipelago. However, Indonesian Javanese version of soy sauce has its own twist, a generous addition of thick liquid palm sugar with consistency of molasses; the ayam kecap pedas is a spicier version which add generous amount of chili pepper. In Indonesia, ayam kecap is poached chicken cut in pieces, which includes its bones. However, there is a variant called ayam panggang kecap which uses identical sweet soy sauce and spices, but the chicken is boneless fillet and being grilled instead of being fried; the Malay ayam masak kicap is different from the Chinese version of soy sauce chicken as the chicken meat is cut into pieces and mixed with its own spices. Ayam bakar Ayam goreng Ayam taliwang Babi kecap Soy sauce chicken List of chicken dishes
Rendang is a Southeast Asian spicy meat dish, which originated in Indonesia the ethnic group of Minangkabau people, is now served across the country. One of the characteristic foods of Minangkabau culture, it is served at ceremonial occasions and to honour guests. Rendang is served among the Malay community. Rendang is traditionally prepared by the Minangkabau community during festive occasions such as traditional ceremonies, wedding feasts and Hari Raya. Although culinary experts describe rendang as a curry, rendang is not considered as such in Indonesia since it is richer and contains less liquid than is normal for Indonesian curries. In 2011 an online poll of 35,000 people by CNN International chose rendang as the number one dish of their "World's 50 Most Delicious Foods" list. In 2018, rendang is recognised as one of 5 national dishes of Indonesia; the cooking technique flourished because of its role in preserving meat in a tropical climate. Prior to refrigeration technology, this style of cooking enabled preservation of the large amount of meat.
Rendang is rich in spices. Along with the main meat ingredient, rendang uses coconut milk and a paste of mixed ground spices, including ginger, turmeric leaves, garlic, shallots and other spices; this spice mixture is called pemasak in Minangkabau. The spices, shallot and galangal used in rendang have antimicrobial properties and serve as natural organic preservatives. If cooked properly, dry rendang can last for as long as four weeks. Traditionally the term rendang does not refer to a certain type of dish; the verb merendang refers to a method of slow cooking. Traditional Padang rendang takes hours to cook. Cooking rendang involves pounding and grinding ingredients as well as slow cooking, so is time-consuming and requires patience; the meat pieces are cooked in coconut milk and spices until all the liquid is gone, allowing the meat to become tender and absorb the condiments. The cooking process changes from boiling to frying as the liquid evaporates. Cooking the meat until tender with all the liquid evaporated requires great care, keeping it from not getting burnt.
Because of its generous use of numerous spices, rendang is known for having a complex and unique taste. Rendang is served with steamed rice, ketupat or lemang, accompanied with vegetable side dishes such as boiled cassava leaf, cabbage gulai and lado. Rendang is revered in Minangkabau culture as an embodiment of the philosophy of musyawarah and consultation with elders, it has been claimed that the four main ingredients represent Minangkabau society as a whole: The meat symbolises the Niniak Mamak, the traditional clan leaders such as the datuk, the nobles and revered elders. The coconut milk symbolises the Cadiak Pandai, teachers and writers; the chilli symbolises the Alim Ulama, clerics and religious leaders. The hotness of the chilli symbolises Sharia; the spice mixture symbolises the rest of Minangkabau society. In Minangkabau tradition, rendang is a requisite dish for special occasions in traditional Minang ceremonies, from birth ceremonies to circumcision, Qur'an recitals, religious festivals such as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
Rendang originated in the Sumatran Minangkabau region. One of the earliest written records of rendang is from the early 16th century literary work, Hikayat Amir Hamzah; the making of rendang spreads from Minangkabau region to Mandailing, Jambi, across the strait to Malacca and Negeri Sembilan, resulting in a variety of rendang traditions. The popularity of rendang has spread from its original domain because of the merantau culture of Minangkabau people. Overseas Minangkabau leave their home town to start a career in other Indonesian cities as well as neighbouring countries, Padang restaurants, Minangkabau eating establishments that are ubiquitous in Indonesian cities, spring up; these Padang restaurants have introduced and popularised rendang and other Padang food dishes across Indonesia, Malaysia and the wider world. Andalas University historian, Prof. Gusti Asnan suggests that rendang began to spread across the region when Minangkabau merchants and migrant workers began to trade and migrate to Malacca in the 16th century, "Because the journey through the river waterways in Sumatra took much time, a durable preserved dry rendang is suitable for long journey."
The dried Padang rendang is a durable food, good to consume for weeks when left at room temperature. In Minangkabau culinary tradition, there are three recognised stages in cooking meat in spicy coconut milk; the dish which results is categorised according to the liquid content of the cooked coconut milk, which ranges from the most wet and soupy to the most dry: Gulai — Kalio — Rendang. The ingredients of gulai and rendang are identical with the exceptions that gulai has less red chilli pepper and more turmeric, while rendang has richer spices. If pieces of meat are cooked in spicy coconut milk and the process stopped right when the meat is done and the coconut milk has reached its boiling point, the dish is called gulai. If the process continues until the coconut milk is evaporated and the meat has started to brown, the dish is called kalio. For a traditional dry rendang, the process continues hours beyond this, until the liquid has all but evaporated and the colour turn
Rojak or Rujak is a traditional fruit and vegetable salad dish from Southeast Asia found in Indonesia and Singapore. Other than referring to this fruit salad dish, the term rojak means "mixture" or "eclectic mix" in colloquial Malay. Rujak is available everywhere across Indonesia, there are rich variations within the country. However, the most popular rujak variant is rujak buah, mixed sliced fruit and vegetables served with spicy palm sugar dressing. Unlike common fruit salads, rujak is described as tangy and spicy fruit salad, due to its sweet and spicy dressing made from ground chili pepper, palm sugar and peanuts, it is a popular street fare in Bali. Indonesian rujak is made from fresh ingredients fruits and vegetables. Rojak in Malaysia and Singapore, however, is of Indian influence, mixed with fried tofu, cracker and fritter. Rujak is a vegetarian dish which does not contain any animal products, except the sweet and tangy dressing that might contain shrimp paste; some recipes may contain seafood or meat.
Rojak in Malaysia and Singapore contains sotong, while certain rujak recipes in Indonesia may contain seafood or meat. The origin of rujak is unclear, there are numbers of rujak variants in Southeast Asia in Indonesia and Malaysia, it is possible that since ancient times, the natives of the Malay archipelago have consumed sour-tasting seasonal tropical fruits—especially Java apple and young mango—together with palm sugar and salt, to ease its sourness. In Indonesia, certain fruit plants have their own fruit-bearing season within late dry season to the wet season, thus the time of fruit harvest coincides with the time of having rujak in Indonesian villages; the fruit species seasonally anticipated for rujak feasts are mango, Java apple and kedondong. Rujak is one of the oldest dish, the earliest identified food of ancient Java, it was mentioned as rurujak in ancient Javanese Taji inscription from the era of Mataram Kingdom in Central Java. The Javanese in Indonesia have incorporated rujak into their prenatal ceremony called Naloni Mitoni.
According to local traditions, young mango and other sour-tasting fruits are craved by pregnant women as the counterpart of pickles in the West. The introduction of hot and spicy chili pepper and peanuts may have taken place during the early colonial era in the 16th century, since these products were brought by Spanish and Portuguese traders from the Americas. It's suggested that rujak might be related to Indonesian gado-gado, while the rojak in Malaysia and Singapore demonstrate Indian influences with orange-colored peanut sauce as a dip for fried dough and potatoes. In Indonesia, rujak is a traditional fare, sold in traditional marketplaces, warungs or travelling gerobak pushcart by locals. In Malaysia, rojak is associated with Mamak stall, a Muslim Malaysian Indian foodstall, where Mamak rojak is one of its popular fares. In Singapore, rojak is sold by Chinese hawkers. Today, they are sold in most hawker centre in the city. In Indonesia, among the Javanese, rujak is an essential part of the traditional prenatal ceremony called tujuh bulanan.
The ritual was meant to wish the mother-to-be a safe and successful labour. Special fruit rujak is made for this occasion, served to the mother-to-be and her guests her female friends, it is known that the sweet and sour tastes of rojak are adored by pregnant women. The recipe of rujak for this ceremony is similar to typical Indonesian fruit rujak, with the exceptions that the fruits are shredded instead of thinly sliced, that jeruk bali is an essential ingredient, it is believed that if the rujak overall tastes sweet, the unborn would be a girl, if it is spicy, the unborn baby is a boy. Mangarabar, or rujak making, is a special event for the inhabitants of the Batak Mandailing region in Tapanuli, North Sumatra, after the harvest; the whole village will be involved in making and consuming the rujak. In Malaysia and Singapore, the term "rojak" is used as a colloquial expression for an eclectic mix, in particular as a word describing the multi-ethnic character of Malaysian and Singaporean society.
Rujak buah is Indonesian fruit rujak known as rujak manis. The typical Indonesian fruit rujak consists of slices of assorted tropical fruits such as jambu air, raw mangos, cucumber and raw red ubi jalar. Sometimes Malang variants of green apple and jeruk Bali are added; the sweet and spicy-hot bumbu rujak dressing is made of water, gula jawa, asem jawa, ground sauteed peanuts, salt, bird's eye chili, red chili pepper. All of the fruits are sliced to bite-size, put in the dish; the bumbu rujak or thick sweet spicy rujak dressing is poured on the fruit slices. An addition of sambal garam powder is put on side as the alternative for those who prefer a salty taste for their rujak; the Javanese people call this kind of rujak as lotis. Rujak cuka means "vinegared rujak", it is a specialty of Sundanese cuisine of West Java, noted for its sour freshness, it is made of shredded fruits. It is quite similar to asinan its sour and spicy dressing, since both employ vinegar, palm sugar, chili pepper; this is another variant of Indonesi