Crisis on Infinite Earths
Crisis on Infinite Earths is an American comic book published by DC Comics. The story, written by Marv Wolfman and pencilled by George Pérez, was first serialized as a twelve-issue maxiseries from April 1985 to March 1986; as the main piece of a crossover event, some plot elements were featured in tie-in issues of other DC publications. Since its initial publication, the series has been reprinted in various editions; the idea for the series stemmed from Wolfman's desire to abandon the DC Multiverse seen in the company's comics—which he thought was unfriendly to readers—and create a single, unified DC Universe. The foundation of Crisis on Infinite Earths developed through a character introduced in Wolfman's The New Teen Titans in July 1982 before the series itself started. Pérez was not the intended artist for the series, but was excited when he learned of it and called illustrating it some of the most fun he had. At the start of Crisis on Infinite Earths, the Anti-Monitor is unleashed on the DC Multiverse and begins to destroy the various Earths that it comprises.
The Monitor tries to recruit heroes from around the Multiverse but is murdered, while Brainiac collaborates with the villains to conquer the remaining Earths. However, both the heroes and villains are united by the Spectre. Crisis on Infinite Earths is infamous for its high death count; the series was a bestseller for DC and has been reviewed positively by comic book critics, who praised its ambition and dramatic events. The story is credited with popularizing the idea of a large-scale crossover in comics, its events caused the entire DCU to be rebooted. Crisis on Infinite Earths is the first installment in; the story will serve as inspiration for the 2019 Arrowverse crossover. DC Comics is an American comic book publisher best known for its superhero stories featuring characters including Batman and Wonder Woman; the company debuted in February 1935 with New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine. Most of DC's comic books take place within a shared universe called the DC Universe, allowing plot elements and settings to crossover with each other.
The concept of the DCU has provided DC's writers some challenges in maintaining continuity, due to conflicting events within different comics that need to reflect the shared nature of the universe. "The Flash of Two Worlds" from The Flash #123, which featured Barry Allen teaming up with Jay Garrick, was the first DC comic to suggest that the DCU was a part of a multiverse. The DC Multiverse concept was expanded in years with the DCU having infinite Earths. For example, the Golden Age versions of DC heroes resided on Earth-Two, while DC's Silver Age heroes were from Earth-One. Since "Crisis on Earth-One!", DC has used the word "Crisis" to describe important crossovers within the DC Multiverse. Over the years, various writers took liberties creating additional parallel Earths as plot devices and to house characters DC had acquired from other companies, making the DC Multiverse a "convoluted mess". DC's comic book sales were far below those of their competitor Marvel Comics. According to ComicsAlliance journalist Chris Sims, "the multiverse... felt old-fashioned, conjuring up images of'imaginary stories' and characters that DC acquired when they bought out Golden Age competitors and shuttled off to their own universes.
Marvel, on the other hand, felt contemporary... and when you stack them up against each other, there's one difference that sticks out above anything else: Marvel feels unified". During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, writer Marv Wolfman became popular among DC's readers for his work on Weird War Tales and The New Teen Titans. George Pérez, who illustrated The New Teen Titans began to rise to prominence in this era. In 1984, Pérez entered into an exclusive contract with DC, extended one year. Although The New Teen Titans was a major success for DC, the company's comic book sales were still below Marvel's. Wolfman began to attribute this to the DC Multiverse, feeling "The Flash of Two Worlds" had created a "nightmare": it was not reader-friendly for new readers to be able to keep track of and writers struggled with the continuity errors it caused. In The New Teen Titans #21, Wolfman introduced a new character: the shadowy villainous Monitor. In 1981, Wolfman was editing Green Lantern, he got a letter from a fan asking why a character did not recognize Green Lantern in a recent issue despite the two having had worked together in an issue three years earlier.
Soon afterward, Wolfman pitched Crisis on Infinite Earths as The History of the DC Universe, seeing it as a way to simplify the DCU and attract new readers. The History of the DC Universe's title was changed to Crisis of Infinite Earths because its premise, involving the destruction of entire worlds, sounded more like a crisis. Wolfman said when he pitched the series to DC, he realized it was going to be a new beginning for the DCU. "I knew up front, they did too, how big this was going to be," he said. "But, no-one knew whether it would sell at all. It was a risk DC was willing to take, because my thoughts were th
Detective Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first volume, published from 1937 to 2011, is best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27. A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011 but in 2016 reverted to the original volume numbering; the series is the source of its publishing company's name, and—along with Action Comics, the series that launched with the debut of Superman—one of the medium's signature series. The series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States. Detective Comics was the final publication of the entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, whose comics company, National Allied Publications, would evolve into DC Comics, one of the world's two largest comic book publishers, though long after its founder had left it. Wheeler-Nicholson's first two titles were the landmark New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1, colloquially called New Fun Comics #1 and the first such early comic book to contain all-original content, rather than a mix of newspaper comic strips and comic-strip-style new material.
His second effort, New Comics #1, would be retitled twice to become Adventure Comics, another seminal series that ran for decades until issue #503 in 1983, was revived in 2009. The third and final title published under his aegis would be Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, but premiering three months with a March 1937 cover date. Wheeler-Nicholson was in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld, as well a pulp-magazine publisher and a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News. Wheeler-Nicholson took Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1 through the newly formed Detective Comics, Inc. with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Wheeler-Nicholson was forced out a year later. An anthology comic, in the manner of the times, Detective Comics #1 featured stories in the "hard-boiled detective" genre, with such stars as Ching Lung, its first editor, Vin Sullivan drew the debut issue's cover.
The Crimson Avenger debuted in issue #20. In years, the start of this series has been marred by its racism and xenophobia. Detective Comics #27 featured the first appearance of Batman; that superhero would become the star of the title, the cover logo of, written as "Detective Comics featuring Batman". Because of its significance, issue #27 is considered one of the most valuable comic books in existence, with one copy selling for $1,075,000 in a February 2010 auction. Batman's origin is first revealed in a two-page story in issue #33. Batman became the main cover feature of the title beginning with issue #35. Issue #38 introduced Batman's sidekick Robin, billed as "The Sensational Character Find of 1940" on the cover and the first of several characters that would make up the "Batman Family". Robin's appearance and the subsequent increase in sales of the book soon led to the trend of superheroes and young sidekicks that characterize the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books.
Several of Batman's best known villains debuted in the pages of Detective Comics during this era including the Penguin in issue #58, Two-Face in issue #66, the Riddler in issue #140. Batwoman first appeared in Detective Comics #233 Since the family formula had proven successful for the Superman franchise, editor Jack Schiff suggested to Batman co-creator Bob Kane that he create one for the Batman. A female was chosen first, to offset the charges made by Fredric Wertham that Batman and Robin were homosexual. Writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff introduced Bat-Mite in issue #267 and Clayface in #298. In 1964, Julius Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the franchise such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327. Schwartz, Gardner Fox, Infantino introduced, from the William Dozier produced tv series, Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in issue #359.
Mike Friedrich wrote the 30th anniversary Batman story in Detective Comics #387, drawn by Bob Brown. Writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams had their first collaboration on Batman on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in issue #395; the duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the character with a series of noteworthy stories reestablishing Batman's dark, brooding nature and taking the books away from the campy look and feel of the 1966–68 ABC TV series. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight." Adams introduced Man-Bat with writer Frank Robbins in Detective Comics #400. O'Neil and artist Bob Brown crafted Batman's first encounter with the League of Assassins in Detective Comics #405 and created Talia al Ghul in issue #411. After publishing on
Gotham Central is a police procedural comic-book series, published by DC Comics. It was written by Ed Brubaker and Greg Rucka, with pencils by Michael Lark; the story focused on the Gotham City Police Department and the difficulties of its officers living and working in Gotham City, home of Batman. Greg Rucka and Ed Brubaker collaborated on the "Officer Down" Batman crossover, they wanted to do a series about the police in Gotham City and obtained approval from DC executives. The writers wanted Michael Lark for pencils and waited nearly a year to get him onboard due to scheduling, but used the opportunity to plan out the storylines, they plotted out the new series' elements and decided to script the first story arc together split the lengthy cast into two shifts: Rucka would write the GCPD's day shift storylines, Brubaker would take the night shift, Lark would pencil them both. Gotham Central's debut yielded Eisner Award nominations in 2003 for Best New Series, Best Writer, Best Writer, Best Penciller/Inker.
Gotham Central failed to break the top 100 comics in sales. DC Comics was encouraged by the improved sales of the trade paperback collected editions, the book was never in danger of cancellation. Lark and Brubaker moved on to other projects, after three years of publication, the series ended amid the Infinite Crisis aftermath, it continued to have sales troubles through to the conclusion: issue #37 ranked 102nd place, issue #38 ranked 120th place on the distributor's charts. Despite this, Ed Brubaker mentioned, in an interview, that the book sold pretty well and was never in danger of cancellation, outselling all of Vertigo's books at the time. Despite fans' reactions, writer Greg Rucka assured that DC would have continued publishing Gotham Central as long as Rucka wanted to do so and that it was his decision to conclude it. Rucka explained that the end for the series was in sight when Lark left after issue #25 and Brubaker left after the "Dead Robin" storyline. Rucka felt that the three of them created the comic together and that he should not continue on without them.
When DC was discussing the Infinite Crisis event and subsequent year-long story break, Rucka thought it would be a good time to end it. At one point, Rucka was in talks to replace Gotham Central with a new series called Streets of Gotham, which would focus on Renee Montoya as a private investigator; those plans were scrapped in favor of making Montoya a major character in the weekly series 52, with Rucka as a co-writer. In 2009, DC released an unrelated series called Batman: Streets of Gotham, described as a mixture of Gotham Central and another canceled Batman series, Batman: Gotham Knights; the Gotham Central cast was divided between the day and night shifts, with arcs alternating between both sets of characters. Main characters among the ranks of the detectives were Marcus Driver, Romy Chandler, Renee Montoya, Crispus Allen and Josephine "Josie Mac" MacDonald, their superiors, Commissioner Michael Akins, Captain Margaret "Maggie" Sawyer and Lieutenant Ron Probson appeared prominently. Jim Corrigan, a corrupt CSI, features near the end of the series.
The supporting cast was pulled from the large roster of the Gotham City Police Department and some characters were subjects of their own story arcs. Long-time supporting characters of Batman, James Gordon and Harvey Bullock made recurring appearances. Batman himself, although not seen, played a prominent role in the series. Michael Akins left the force under unknown circumstances during the one-year gap with James Gordon taking back the role of Police Commissioner, it is implied that Akins had either become corrupt himself, or had done nothing to curb corruption in the GCPD. The deceased Allen became the Spectre during the events of Infinite Crisis, he was turned into a Black Lantern before regaining the Spectre mantle. Renee Montoya became one of the major characters in 52, a series dealing with the aftermath of Infinite Crisis. During the series she takes up the guise of the Question. Josie Mac and Maggie Sawyer have appeared in minor roles in 52 and both have made sporadic appearances in Batman-related comic books, with Sawyer becoming a prominent member of Kate Kane's supporting cast.
Sawyer and Kane are engaged to be married. Marcus Driver and Josh Azeveda appeared in the miniseries Tales of the Unexpected, along with the Spectre. Romy Chandler and Stacy made brief cameos. Harvey Bullock is hired back onto the force under disciplinary probation during the "one-year gap"—the exact reasons are never expressly stated—with the understanding that he is not allowed to make a single mistake, he and Batman have set a "clean slate" for their new working relationship. Eisner Award – Best Serialized Story 2004 – Half a Life. Harvey Award – Best Single Issue or Story 2004 – Half a Life. Tied with Love & Rockets #9. Gaylactic Spectrum Award – Best Other Work 2004 – Half a Life. Tied with Angels in America. In an August 2006 interview with the Around Comics podcast, Brubaker said that he was told that many people at Warner Bros. loved the comic, that if they had not had a moratorium on Batman TV shows, they "could have set up Gotham Central at WB in a heartbeat."Fox announced on September 24, 2013 that a television series titled Gotham was in development following the career of Jim Gordon prior to the appearance of Batman.
The series premise bears similarities to Gotham Central. It premiered on September 22, 2014. To coincide with the premiere DC Comics issued a reprint of Gotham Central #1, at a special price of $1. Batman Gotham City Police Department Batman: GCPD, a comic
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
John Byrne (comics)
John Lindley Byrne is a British-born, Canadian raised, American writer and artist of superhero comics. Since the mid-1970s, Byrne has worked on many major superheroes, with noted work on Marvel Comics' X-Men and Fantastic Four and the 1986 relaunch of DC Comics' Superman franchise, the first issue of which featured comics' first variant cover. Coming into the comics profession as penciller, inker and writer on his earliest work, Byrne began co-plotting the X-Men comics during his tenure on them, launched his writing career in earnest with Fantastic Four. During the 1990s he produced a number of creator-owned works, including Next Men and Danger Unlimited, he scripted the first issues of Mike Mignola's Hellboy series and produced a number of Star Trek comics for IDW Publishing. In 2015, Byrne and his X-Men collaborator Chris Claremont were entered into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame, he is the co-creator of such Marvel characters as Kitty Pryde, Emma Frost, Shadow King, Scott Lang, Omega Red and Rachel Summers.
Byrne was born in Walsall and raised in West Bromwich in Staffordshire, where he lived with his parents and his maternal grandmother. While living there, prior to his family emigrating to Canada when Byrne was 8, he was first exposed to comics, saying in 2005, y'journey into comics' began with George Reeves' Superman series being shown on the BBC in England when I was about 6 years old. Not long after I started watching that series I saw one of the hardcover and white'Annuals' that were being published over there at the time, soon after found a copy of an Australian reprint called Super Comics that featured a story each of Superboy, Johnny Quick and Batman; the Batman story hooked me for life. A couple of years my family emigrated to Canada and I discovered the vast array of American comics available at the time, his first encounter with Marvel Comics was in 1962 with Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four #5. He commented that "the book had an'edge' like nothing DC was putting out at the time".
Jack Kirby's work in particular had a strong influence on Byrne and he has worked with many of the characters Kirby created or co-created. Besides Kirby, Byrne was influenced by the naturalistic style of Neal Adams. In 1970, Byrne enrolled at the Alberta College of Design in Calgary, he created the superhero parody Gay Guy for the college newspaper, which poked fun at the campus stereotype of homosexuality among art students. Gay Guy is notable for featuring a prototype of the Alpha Flight character Snowbird. While there, he published his first comic book, ACA Comix #1, featuring "The Death's Head Knight". Byrne left the college in 1973 without graduating, he broke into comics with a "Fan Art Gallery" piece in Marvel's promotional publication FOOM in early 1974 and by illustrating a two-page story by writer Al Hewetson in Skywald Publications' black-and-white horror magazine Nightmare #20. He began freelancing for Charlton Comics, making his color-comics debut with the E-Man backup feature "Rog-2000", starring a robot character he'd created in the mid-1970s that colleagues Roger Stern and Bob Layton named and began using for spot illustrations in their fanzine CPL.
A Rog-2000 story written by Stern, with art by Byrne and Layton, had gotten the attention of Charlton Comics editor Nicola Cuti, who extended Byrne an invitation. Written by Cuti, "Rog-2000" became one of several alternating backup features in the Charlton Comics superhero series E-Man, starting with the eight-page "That Was No Lady" in issue #6. While, Byrne's first published color-comics work, "My first professional comic book sale was to Marvel, a short story called Dark Asylum'... which languished in a flat file somewhere until it was used as filler in Giant-Size Dracula #5, long after the first Rog story." The story was written by David Anthony Kraft. After the Rog-2000 story, Byrne went on to work on the Charlton books Wheelie and the Chopper Bunch, Space: 1999, Emergency!, co-created with writer Joe Gill the post-apocalyptic science-fiction series Doomsday + 1. Byrne additionally drew a cover for the supernatural anthology The Many Ghosts of Doctor Graves #54. Byrne said he broke into Marvel comics after writer Chris Claremont...saw my work and began agitating for me to draw something he had written.
When Pat Broderick missed a deadline on the'Iron Fist' series in Marvel Premiere, John Verpoorten fired him and offered the book to me.... I turned around the first script in time to meet the deadline, so started getting more work from Marvel, until I was able to leave Charlton and focus on the Marvel stuff." Byrne soon went on to draw series including The Champions and Marvel Team-Up. Byrne first drew the X-Men in Marvel Team-Up #53. For many issues, he was paired with Claremont, with whom he teamed for some issues of the black-and-white Marvel magazine Marvel Preview featuring Star-Lord; the Star-Lord story was inked by Terry Austin, who soon afterward teamed with Claremont and Byrne on X-Men. Byrne joined Claremont beginning with The X-Men #108, their work together, along with inker Terry Austin, on such classic story arcs as "Proteus", "Dark Phoenix Saga", "Days of Future Past" would make them both fan favorites. Byrne insisted that the title keep its Canadian character and contributed a series of story elements to justify Wolverine's presence which made the character among the most popular in Marvel's publishing history.
With issue #114, Byrne beg
The New 52
The New 52 was the 2011 revamp and relaunch by DC Comics of its entire line of ongoing monthly superhero comic books. Following the conclusion of the "Flashpoint" crossover storyline, DC cancelled all of its existing titles and debuted 52 new series in September 2011 with new first issues. Among the renumbered series were Action Comics and Detective Comics, which had retained their original numbering since the 1930s; the relaunch included changes to the publishing format. New titles were released to bring the number of ongoing monthly series to fifty-two. Various changes were made to DC's fictional universe to entice new readers, including changes to DC's internal continuity to make characters more modern and accessible. In addition, characters from the Wildstorm and Vertigo imprints were absorbed into the DC Universe; the New 52 branding ended after the completion of the "Convergence" storyline in May 2015, although the continuity of The New 52 continued. In June 2015, 24 new titles were launched, alongside 25 returning titles, with several of those receiving new creative teams.
In February 2016, DC announced their Rebirth initiative with the release of an 80-page one-shot on May 25, 2016, continuing through late 2016. Following the conclusion of the Flashpoint limited series, all titles set in the DC Universe were cancelled and relaunched with new #1 issues; the new continuity features new outfits and backstories for many of DC's long-established heroes and villains. An interview with DC Comics executive editor Eddie Berganza and editor-in-chief Bob Harras revealed that the new continuity did not constitute a full reboot of the DC Universe but rather a "soft reboot". While many characters underwent a reboot or revamp, much of the DC Universe's history remained intact. Many major storylines such as "War of the Green Lanterns", "Batman: A Death in the Family" and Batman: The Killing Joke remained part of the new continuity, while others have been lost in part or in whole. DC editorial constructed a timeline that details the new history and which storylines to keep or ignore.
On August 31, 2011, Midtown Comics Times Square held a midnight event at which they began selling Justice League #1 and Flashpoint #5. On hand to sign the books were DC Chief Creative Officer Geoff Johns, the writer of both titles, Co-publisher and writer/artist Jim Lee, who illustrated Justice League. On January 12, 2012, DC announced that after their eighth issues, Blackhawks and Dove, Men of War, Mister Terrific, O. M. A. C. and Static Shock would be cancelled and replaced with six new titles, which would reveal more of The New 52 DC Universe. The new titles were dubbed the Second Wave: Dial H, Earth 2, G. I. Combat, World's Finest and Batman Incorporated, absent from the initial line of Batman titles, would continue Grant Morrison's storyline from before The New 52 involving the conflict between Batman and Talia al Ghul. On June 8, 2012, DC announced that in September 2012, the first anniversary of The New 52 launch, all titles would get a zero issue, dubbed "Zero Month". In addition, the Third Wave of titles was announced: Talon, Sword of Sorcery, Phantom Stranger, Team 7.
With these additions to the line, Justice League International, Captain Atom, Resurrection Man, Voodoo were cancelled. In October and November 2012, DC announced new titles Threshold, Justice League of America, Justice League of America's Vibe, Constantine. Threshold would be published in January 2013, Constantine in March 2013, while the others would be published in February 2013. DC consolidated these new titles as the Fourth Wave of The New 52. G. I. Combat, Agent of S. H. A. D. E. Grifter, Blue Beetle, Legion Lost were cancelled as a result. Young Romance: A New 52 Valentine's Day Special #1 was published as the 52nd title in February 2013. In January 2013, DC Comics announced the cancellation of I, Vampire and DC Universe Presents in April 2013. To celebrate the 60th birthday of Mad Magazine mascot Alfred E. Neuman, DC solicited variants drawn by Mad artists for 13 titles being published in April 2013. Starting with titles released on January 28, 2013, all printed New 52 publications featured advertisements for fictional news channel, Channel 52.
The two page back-ups, titled Channel 52, appear in all books, starting in February 2013, replaced the previous "DC Comics: All Access" features. This news feature stars Bethany Snow, Ambush Bug and Calendar Man as reporters and anchors on the fictional in-universe news show; the art is provided by Freddie E. Williams II; each week brings new content regarding the future goings-on in the DC universe. Channel 52 and Bethany Snow make an appearance in the second season of Arrow. On January 30, 2013, DC announced that all titles released in April 2013 would be "WTF Certified"; each title would feature a gatefold cover and story lines and moments that will leave readers in a state of shock, including the return of Booster Gold. However, DC dropped the "WTF Certified" branding and did not feature it on any of The New 52 books. In February 2013, it was announced that DC Comics would launch two new politically motivated books as parts of the Fifth Wave: The Green Team: Teen Trillionaires and The Movement.
These would explore concepts similar to the Occupy Movement and the role money has in a world of superheroes. A wave of cancellations was announced for May 2013 including: The Savage Hawkman, The Fury of Firestorm: The Nuclear Man, Sword of Sorcery, Team 7, The Ravagers. In March 2013, DC announced that it would launch four new titles in June 2013, making up the rest of the Fifth Wave: Superman Unchained, Batman/Superman and Trinity of Sin: Pandora. In April 2013, the cancellation of Bat
Alexander Joseph "Lex" Luthor is a fictional supervillain appearing in publications by the publisher DC Comics. The character was created by Joe Shuster. Lex Luthor first has since endured as the archenemy of Superman. Introduced as a mad scientist whose schemes Superman would foil, Lex's portrayal has evolved over the years and his characterisation has deepened. In contemporary stories, Lex is portrayed as a wealthy, power-mad American business magnate, ingenious engineer, philanthropist to the city of Metropolis, one of the most intelligent people in the world. A well-known public figure, he is the owner of a conglomerate called LexCorp, he is intent on ridding the world of the alien Superman, whom Lex Luthor views as an obstacle to his plans and as a threat to the existence of humanity. Given his high status as a supervillain, however, he has come into conflict with Batman and other superheroes in the DC Universe; the character has traditionally lacked superpowers or a dual identity and appears with a bald head.
He periodically wears his Warsuit, a high-tech battle suit giving him enhanced strength, advanced weaponry, other capabilities. The character was introduced as a diabolical recluse, but during the Modern Age, he was reimagined by writers as a devious, high-profile industrialist, who has crafted his public persona in order to avoid suspicion and arrest, he is well known for his philanthropy, donating vast sums of money to Metropolis over the years, funding parks and charities. The character was ranked 4th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time and as the 8th Greatest Villain by Wizard on its 100 Greatest Villains of All Time list. Luthor is one of a few genre-crossing villains whose adventures take place "in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are suspended". Scott James Wells, Sherman Howard, John Shea, Michael Rosenbaum, Jon Cryer have portrayed the character in Superman-themed television series, while Lyle Talbot, Gene Hackman, Kevin Spacey, Jesse Eisenberg have portrayed the character in major motion pictures.
Clancy Brown, Powers Boothe, James Marsters, Chris Noth, Anthony LaPaglia, Steven Blum, Fred Tatasciore, Jason Isaacs, Kevin Michael Richardson, Mark Rolston, John DiMaggio, James Woods and Rainn Wilson, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In his first appearance, Action Comics #23, Luthor is depicted as a diabolical genius and is referred to only by his surname, he resides in a flying city suspended by a dirigible and plots to provoke a war between two European nations. Lois Lane and Clark Kent investigate. Luthor battles Superman with a green ray but Luthor is defeated by Superman, Lois is rescued. Superman destroys Luthor's dirigible with him still on it, implying Luthor may have died, although stories ending with Luthor's apparent death are common in his earliest appearances. Luthor returns in Superman #4 and steals a weapon from the U. S. Army, capable of causing earthquakes. Superman battles and defeats Luthor, the earthquake device is destroyed by Superman.
The scientist who made the device commits suicide to prevent its reinvention. In a story in the same issue, Luthor is shown to have created a city on the sunken Lost Continent of Pacifo and to have recreated prehistoric monsters, which he plans to unleash upon the world. Superman thwarts his plans, Luthor appears to have been killed by the dinosaurs he created. Luthor returns in Superman #5 with a plan to place hypnotic gas in the offices of influential people, he intends to throw the nation into a depression with the help of corrupt financier Moseley, but the story ends with Superman defeating him. In these early stories, Luthor's schemes are centered around financial gain or megalomaniacal ambitions. Luthor's obsessive hatred of Superman came in the character's development. In Luthor's earliest appearances, he is shown as a middle-aged man with a full head of red hair. Less than a year however, an artistic mistake resulted in Luthor being depicted as bald in a newspaper strip; the original error is attributed to Leo Nowak, a studio artist who illustrated for the Superman dailies during this period.
One hypothesis is that Nowak mistook Luthor for the Ultra-Humanite, a frequent foe of Superman who, in his Golden Age incarnation, resembled a balding, elderly man. Other evidence suggests Luthor's design was confused with that of a stockier, bald henchman in Superman #4; the character's abrupt hair loss has been made reference to several times over the course of his history. When the concept of the DC Multiverse began to take hold, Luthor's red-haired incarnation was rewritten as Alexei Luthor, Lex's counterpart from the Earth-Two parallel universe. In 1960, writer Jerry Siegel altered Luthor's backstory to incorporate his hair loss into his origin. In 1944 Lex Luthor was the first character in a comic book to use an atomic bomb; the United States Department of War asked this story line be delayed from publication, which it was until 1946, to protect the secrecy of the Manhattan Project. The War Department asked for dailies of the Superman comic strip to be pulled in April 1945 which depicted Lex Luthor bombarding Superman with the radiation from a cyclotron.
Luthor vanished for a long time, coming back in Superboy #59 (Sept. 19