Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
The Mac Pro is a series of workstation and server computer cases designed and sold by Apple Inc. since 2006. The Mac Pro, in most configurations and in terms of speed and performance, is the most powerful computer that Apple offers, it is a high-end model of the four desktop computers in the current Mac lineup, the other three being the iMac, iMac Pro, Mac Mini. The first-generation Mac Pro has a rectangular tower case which outwardly resembles the last version of the Power Mac G5, has similar expansion capabilities; the first Mac Pro offered a dual Dual-core Xeon Woodcrest processor. It was replaced by a dual Quad-core Xeon Clovertown model on April 4, 2007, again on January 8, 2008 by a dual Quad-core Xeon Harpertown model; the 2012 Mac Pro is nearly identical to a model, announced on July 27, 2010. It features Nehalem/Westmere architecture Intel Xeon processors; these CPUs offer optionally twelve processing cores. The machine itself at its most evolved is able to accommodate up to four 2 TB hard disk drives or 512 GB solid state drives, as well as the ATI Radeon HD 5770/5870 GPU units, one per slot.
The second-generation design of Mac Pro was announced at the 2013 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference opening keynote on June 10, 2013. Apple states; the redesigned Mac Pro takes up less than one eighth the volume of previous model, being shorter and lighter. The machine supports one central processing unit, four 1866 MHz DDR3 slots, dual AMD FirePro D series GPUs, PCIe-based flash storage. There is updated wireless communication and support for six Thunderbolt displays through the Thunderbolt 2 ports. Reviews have been positive, with caveats. Apple stated that an Intel-based replacement for the PowerPC-based Power Mac G5 machines had been expected for some time before the Mac Pro was formally announced on August 7, 2006 at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference; the iMac, Mac Mini, MacBook, MacBook Pro had moved to an Intel-based architecture starting in January 2006, leaving the Power Mac G5 as the only machine in the Mac lineup still based on the PowerPC processor architecture Apple had used since 1993.
Apple had dropped the term "Power" from the other machines in their lineup, started using "Pro" on their higher-end laptop offerings. As such, the name "Mac Pro" was used before the machine was announced; the Mac Pro is in the Unix workstation market. Although the high-end technical market has not traditionally been an area of strength for Apple, the company has been positioning itself as a leader in non-linear digital editing for high-definition video, which demands storage and memory far in excess of a general desktop machine. Additionally, the codecs used in these applications are processor intensive and threadable, which Apple's ProRes white paper describes as scaling linearly with additional processor cores. Apple's previous machine aimed at this market, the Power Mac G5, has up to two dual-core processors, but lacks the storage expansion capabilities of the newer design. Original marketing materials for the Mac Pro referred to the middle-of-the-line model with 2 × dual-core 2.66 GHz processors.
Apple featured the base model with the words "starting at" or "from" when describing the pricing, but the online US Apple Store listed the "Mac Pro at $2499", the price for the mid-range model. The system could be configured at US$2299, much more comparable with the former base-model dual-core G5 at US$1999, although offering more processing power. Post revision, the default configurations for the Mac Pro includes one quad-core Xeon 3500 at 2.66 GHz or two quad-core Xeon 5500s at 2.26 GHz each. Like its predecessor, the Power Mac G5, the pre-2013 Mac Pro was Apple's only desktop with standard expansion slots for graphics adapters and other expansion cards. Apple received criticism after an incremental upgrade to the Mac Pro line following the 2012 WWDC; the line received more default memory and increased processor speed but still used Intel's older Westmere-EP processors instead of the newer E5 series. The line lacked then-current technologies like SATA III, USB 3, Thunderbolt, the last of, added to every other Macintosh at that point.
An email from Apple CEO Tim Cook promised a more significant update to the line in 2013. Apple stopped shipping the first-generation Mac Pro in Europe on March 1, 2013 after an amendment to a safety regulation left the professional Mac non-compliant; the last day to order was February 18, 2013. The first generation Mac Pro was removed from Apple's online store following unveiling of the redesigned second generation Mac Pro at a media event on October 22, 2013; the 2009 and Mac Pro systems were available with one or two central processing units with options giving four, eight, or twelve cores. As an example, the eight core standard configuration Mac Pro uses two Quad core ×8 Intel E5620 Xeon CPUs at 2.4 GHz, but could be configured with two Hexa Core Intel Xeon X5670 CPUs at 2.93 GHz. The 2008-2009 model CPUs use the LGA 771 socket, while the 2010 and use the LGA 1366 socket, meaning either can be removed and replaced with compatible 64-bit Intel Xeon CPUs; the newer LGA 1366 sockets utilize Intel's QuickPath Interconnect integrated into the CPU in lieu of an independent system bus.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers. Keyboard keys have characters engraved or printed on them, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs, other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software.
Keyboards are used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Although on Pre-Windows 95 Microsoft operating systems this forced a re-boot, now it brings up a system security options screen. A command-line interface is a type of user interface navigated using a keyboard, or some other similar device that does the job of one. While typewriters are the definitive ancestor of all key-based text entry devices, the computer keyboard as a device for electromechanical data entry and communication derives from the utility of two devices: teleprinters and keypunches, it was through such devices. As early as the 1870s, teleprinter-like devices were used to type and transmit stock market text data from the keyboard across telegraph lines to stock ticker machines to be copied and displayed onto ticker tape.
The teleprinter, in its more contemporary form, was developed from 1907 to 1910 by American mechanical engineer Charles Krum and his son Howard, with early contributions by electrical engineer Frank Pearne. Earlier models were developed separately by individuals such as Royal Earl House and Frederick G. Creed. Earlier, Herman Hollerith developed the first keypunch devices, which soon evolved to include keys for text and number entry akin to normal typewriters by the 1930s; the keyboard on the teleprinter played a strong role in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication for most of the 20th century, while the keyboard on the keypunch device played a strong role in data entry and storage for just as long. The development of the earliest computers incorporated electric typewriter keyboards: the development of the ENIAC computer incorporated a keypunch device as both the input and paper-based output device, while the BINAC computer made use of an electromechanically controlled typewriter for both data entry onto magnetic tape and data output.
The keyboard remained the primary, most integrated computer peripheral well into the era of personal computing until the introduction of the mouse as a consumer device in 1984. By this time, text-only user interfaces with sparse graphics gave way to comparatively graphics-rich icons on screen. However, keyboards remain central to human-computer interaction to the present as mobile personal computing devices such as smartphones and tablets adapt the keyboard as an optional virtual, touchscreen-based means of data entry. One factor determining the size of a keyboard is the presence of duplicate keys, such as a separate numeric keyboard or two each of Shift, ALT and CTL for convenience. Further the keyboard size depends on the extent to which a system is used where a single action is produced by a combination of subsequent or simultaneous keystrokes, or multiple pressing of a single key. A keyboard with few keys is called a keypad. Another factor determining the size of a keyboard is the spacing of the keys.
Reduction is limited by the practical consideration that the keys must be large enough to be pressed by fingers. Alternatively a tool is used for pressing small keys. Standard alphanumeric keyboards have keys that are on three-quarter inch centers, have a key travel of at least 0.150 inches. Desktop computer keyboards, such as the 101-key US traditional keyboards or the 104-key Windows keyboards, include alphabetic characters, punctuation symbols, numbers and a variety of function keys; the internationally common 102/104 key keyboards have a smaller left shift key and an additional key with some more symbols between that and the letter to its right. The enter key is shaped differently. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys, such as the command or Windows keys. There is no standard computer keyboard. There are three different PC keyboards: the original PC keyboard with 84 keys, the AT keyboard with 84 keys and the enhanced keyboard with 101 keys.
The three differ somewhat in the placement of function keys, the control keys, the return key, the shift key. Keyboards on laptops and notebook computers have a shorter travel distance for the keystroke, shorter over travel distance, a reduced set of keys, they may not have a numeric keypad, the function keys may be placed in locations that differ from their placement on a standard, full-sized keyboard. The switch
The MacBook Air is a line of laptop computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. It consists of a full-size keyboard, a machined aluminum case, a thin light structure; the Air is available with a screen size of 13.3-inch, with different specifications produced by Apple. Since 2010, all MacBook Air models have used solid-state drive storage and Intel Core i7 CPUs. A MacBook Air with an 11.6-inch screen was made available in 2010 through late 2016. In the current product line, the MacBook Air sits below the performance-range of the MacBook Pro and compared to the MacBook, its features reflect different priorities; the Air was released as a premium ultraportable positioned above the previous MacBook. Since the Air has become Apple's entry-level laptop due to the MacBook's discontinuation in 2011, as well as lowered prices on subsequent iterations. Steve Jobs introduced the first MacBook Air during a speech at his keynote at the 2008 Macworld conference held on January 15, 2008; the first-generation MacBook Air was a 13.3"-only model promoted as the world's thinnest notebook.
It featured a custom Intel Merom Intel GMA graphics. In late 2008, the CPU was updated to a faster, non-custom Penryn CPU and integrated Nvidia GeForce graphics while the hard drive capacity was increased and the micro-DVI video port was replaced by the Mini DisplayPort. A mid-2009 refresh, introduced alongside the MacBook Pro family, featured a higher-capacity battery, a faster Penryn CPU; the MacBook Air features an anti-glare LED backlit display and a full-size keyboard, as well as a large trackpad that responds to multi-touch gestures such as pinching and rotating. Since the release of Snow Leopard, the Air's trackpad has supported handwriting recognition of Chinese characters; the MacBook Air was the first subcompact laptop offered by Apple since the full-featured 12" PowerBook G4 was discontinued in 2006. It was Apple's first computer with an optional solid-state drive. ArsTechnica found "moderate" performance improvements of the 64 GB solid-state drive of the first-generation Air over the standard 80 GB hard drive in tests.
On October 14, 2008, new models were announced with improved capacities of 128 GB SSD and 120 GB hard drive. The CPU was a custom Intel Core 2 Duo Merom, 40% of the size of the standard chip package. For models of late 2008, the CPU was replaced with a low-voltage Penryn chip with 6MB of cache, running on a 1066 MHz bus. Following its introduction, the MacBook Air received a mixed reception. Reviews criticized the compromises made in terms of features; the full-sized keyboard, weight and Multi-Touch trackpad were appreciated in reviews, while the limited configuration options and ports, slow speed, non-user-replaceable battery, small hard drive, price were criticized. The flip-down hatch on the side of the original MacBook Air is a tight fit for some headphone plugs and USB devices, requiring users to purchase an extension cable. Apple removed the flip-down hatch on the late 2010 model in favor of open connection ports, as is the case with most other laptops; some users have complained of CPU lockup caused by overheating.
Apple released a software update in early March 2008 to fix the problem with mixed results: the deactivation of one CPU core was corrected. The problem is aggravated by system-intensive tasks such as video video chatting. At the launch of the MacBook Air in January 2008, Apple claimed it to be the thinnest laptop in the world. While this was true of laptops on sale at the time, the 2003 Sharp Actius MM10 Muramasas was thinner at some points than the MacBook Air, being 0.54 inches thick at its minimum. It, like the MacBook Air, was a tapered design, with a maximum height of 0.78 inches —slightly thicker than the MacBook Air — shown above as 0.76 inches. The Sony Vaio X505, released in 2004, had a minimum thickness of 0.38 inches and a maximum of 0.8 inches. Since the release of the MacBook Air, other thinner laptops have been released, such as the Dell Adamo, launched in March 2009, a constant 0.65 inches thick. Apple subsequently removed the claim of being "the world's thinnest notebook" from their marketing materials.
On October 20, 2010, Apple released a redesigned 13.3-inch model with a tapered enclosure, higher screen resolution, improved battery, flash storage instead of a hard drive. In addition, a new 11.6-inch model was introduced, offering reduced cost, battery life, performance relative to the 13.3-inch model, but better performance than typical netbooks of the time. On July 20, 2011, Apple released updates to the 11.6-inch and 13.3-inch models of the MacBook Air, which became Apple's entry-level laptops due to lowered prices and the discontinuation of the white MacBook around the same time. The mid-2011 MacBook Airs were powered by the new Sandy Bridge 1.6 or 1.7 GHz dual-core Intel Core i5, or 1.8 GHz dual-core Intel Core i7 processors, that came with an Intel HD Graphics 3000 processor, with a backlit keyboard, two USB 2.0 ports, FaceTime camera, a standard of 2 GB of RAM, Thunderbolt which shares function with Mini DisplayPort and Bluetooth was upgraded to v4.0. Maximum SSD flash memory storage options were increased up to 256 GB.
Both 11-inch and 13-inch models had an analog audio output/headphone minijack, but only the 13-inch model had an integrated SDXC-capable SD Card slot. These models use a less expensive "Eagle Ridge"
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
IPad is a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; as of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018; the user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi. IPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by third parties. There have been eight versions of the iPad; the first generation established design precedents. The 2nd-generation iPad introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G. The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector; the iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; the iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price. There have been five versions of the iPad Mini; the first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, the Apple M7 motion coprocessor matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air.
The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple M8 motion coprocessor; the 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC. There have been three generations of the iPad Pro; the first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs said in a 1983 speech that the company's strategy was simple: "What we want to do is we want to put an great computer in a book that you can carry around with you and learn how to use in 20 minutes... and we want to do it with a radio link in it so you don't have to hook up to anything and you're in communication with all of these larger databases and other computers." Apple's first tablet computer was the Newton MessagePad 100, introduced in 1993, powered by an ARM6 processor core developed by ARM, a 1990 spinout of Acorn Computers in which Apple invested.
Apple developed a prototype PowerBook Duo based tablet, the PenLite, but decided not to sell it in order to avoid hurting MessagePad sales. Apple released several more Newton-based PDAs. Apple re-entered the mobile-computing markets in 2007 with the iPhone. Smaller than the iPad, but featuring a camera and mobile phone, it pioneered the multi-touch finger-sensitive touchscreen interface of Apple's iOS mobile operating system. By late 2009, the iPad's release had been rumored for several years; such speculation talked about "Apple's tablet". The iPad was announced on January 27, 2010, by Steve Jobs at an Apple press conference at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco. Jobs said that Apple had begun developing the iPad before the iPhone. Jonathan Ive in 1991 had created an industrial design for a stylus-based tablet, the Macintosh Folio, as his first project for Apple. Ive stated that after seeking to produce the tablet first, he came to agree with Jobs that the phone was more important, as the tablet's innovations would work as well in it.
The iPad's internal codename was K48, revealed in the court case surrounding leaking of iPad information before launch. Apple began taking pre-orders for the first-generation iPad on March 12, 2010; the only major change to the device between its announcement and being available to pre-order was the change of the behavior of the side switch to perform either sound muting or screen rotation locking. The Wi-Fi version of the iPad went on sale in the United States on April 3, 2010; the Wi-Fi + 3G version was released on April 30. 3G service in the United States is provided by AT&T and was sold with two prepaid contract-free data plan options: one for unlimited data and the other for 250 MB per month at half the price. On June 2, 2010, AT&T announced that effective June 7 the unlimited plan would be replaced for new