A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin and baeocystin. Common, colloquial terms for psilocybin mushrooms include psychedelic mushrooms, magic mushrooms and mush. Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Inocybe, Panaeolus, Pholiotina and Psilocybe. Psilocybin mushrooms may have been used in ceremonies, they are depicted in Stone Age rock art in Europe and Africa, but most famously represented in the Pre-Columbian sculptures and glyphs seen throughout Central and South America. Prehistoric rock art near Villar del Humo, offers a hypothesis that Psilocybe hispanica was used in religious rituals 6,000 years ago, that art at the Tassili caves in southern Algeria from 7,000 to 9,000 years ago may show the species Psilocybe mairei. Hallucinogenic species of the Psilocybe genus have a history of use among the native peoples of Mesoamerica for religious communion and healing, from pre-Columbian times to the present day.
Mushroom stones and motifs have been found in Guatemala. A statuette dating from ca. 200 CE. and depicting a mushroom resembling Psilocybe mexicana was found in a west Mexican shaft and chamber tomb in the state of Colima. A Psilocybe species was known to the Aztecs as teōnanācatl and were served at the coronation of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II in 1502. Aztecs and Mazatecs referred to psilocybin mushrooms as genius mushrooms, divinatory mushrooms, wondrous mushrooms, when translated into English. Bernardino de Sahagún reported ritualistic use of teonanácatl by the Aztecs, when he traveled to Central America after the expedition of Hernán Cortés. After the Spanish conquest, Catholic missionaries campaigned against the cultural tradition of the Aztecs, dismissing the Aztecs as idolaters, the use of hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms, like other pre-Christian traditions, was suppressed; the Spanish believed the mushroom allowed the others to communicate with devils. In converting people to Catholicism, the Spanish pushed for a switch from teonanácatl to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist.
Despite this history, in some remote areas, the use of teonanácatl has persisted. The first mention of hallucinogenic mushrooms in European medicinal literature appeared in the London Medical and Physical Journal in 1799: a man had served Psilocybe semilanceata mushrooms that he had picked for breakfast in London's Green Park to his family; the doctor who treated them described how the youngest child "was attacked with fits of immoderate laughter, nor could the threats of his father or mother refrain him." In 1955, Valentina Pavlovna Wasson and R. Gordon Wasson became the first known European Americans to participate in an indigenous mushroom ceremony; the Wassons did much to publicize their discovery publishing an article on their experiences in Life in 1957. In 1956 Roger Heim identified the psychoactive mushroom that the Wassons had brought back from Mexico as Psilocybe, in 1958, Albert Hofmann first identified psilocybin and psilocin as the active compounds in these mushrooms. Inspired by the Wassons' Life article, Timothy Leary traveled to Mexico to experience psilocybin mushrooms firsthand.
Upon returning to Harvard in 1960, he and Richard Alpert started the Harvard Psilocybin Project, promoting psychological and religious study of psilocybin and other psychedelic drugs. After Leary and Alpert were dismissed by Harvard in 1963, they turned their attention toward promoting the psychedelic experience to the nascent hippie counterculture; the popularization of entheogens by Wasson, authors Terence McKenna and Robert Anton Wilson, others has led to an explosion in the use of psilocybin mushrooms throughout the world. By the early 1970s, many psilocybin mushroom species were described from temperate North America and Asia and were collected. Books describing methods of cultivating Psilocybe cubensis in large quantities were published; the availability of psilocybin mushrooms from wild and cultivated sources has made it among the most used of the psychedelic drugs. At present, psilocybin mushroom use has been reported among some groups spanning from central Mexico to Oaxaca, including groups of Nahua, Mixe, Mazatecs and others.
An important figure of mushroom usage in Mexico was María Sabina, who used native mushrooms, such as Psilocybe mexicana in her practice. Present in varying concentrations in about 200 species of Basidiomycota mushrooms, psilocybin evolved from its ancestor, some 10 to 20 million years ago. In a 2000 review on the worldwide distribution of psilocybin mushrooms, Gastón Guzmán and colleagues considered these distributed among the following genera: Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Hypholoma, Pluteus Inocybe, Panaeolina, Agrocybe and Mycena. Guzmán increased his estimate of the number of psilocybin-containing Psilocybe to 144 species in a 2005 review. Many of these are found in Mexico, with the remainder distributed in Canada and the US, Asia and Australia and associated islands. In general, psilocybin-containing species are dark-spored, gilled mushrooms that grow in meadows and woods of the subtropics and tropics in soils rich in humus and plant debris. Psilocybin mushrooms occur on all continents, but the majority of species are found in subtropical humid forests.
Psilocybe species found in the tropics include P. cubensis and P
Acornsoft was the software arm of Acorn Computers, a major publisher of software for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron. As well as games, it produced a large number of educational titles, extra computer languages and business and utility packages – these included word processor VIEW and the spreadsheet ViewSheet supplied on ROM and cartridge for the BBC Micro/Acorn Electron and included as standard in the BBC Master and Acorn Business Computer. Acornsoft was formed in late 1980 by Acorn Computers directors Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry, David Johnson-Davies, author of the first game for a UK personal computer and of the official Acorn Atom manual "Atomic Theory and Practice". David Johnson-Davies was managing director and in early 1981 was joined by Tim Dobson and Chris Jordan, Publications Editor. While some of their games were clones or remakes of popular arcade games, they published a number of original titles such as Aviator and Revs which went on to spawn entire genres. Acornsoft published text adventures by authors such as Peter Killworth, including Philosopher's Quest and Countdown to Doom, that remain regarded within the interactive fiction community.
Acornsoft ceased to operate as a separate company upon the departure of David Johnson-Davies in January 1986. Past this date, Acorn Computers used the Acornsoft name on office software it released in the VIEW family for the BBC Master series. In 1986 Superior Software was granted a licence to publish some Acornsoft games and rereleased many, individually and as compilations such as the Play It Again Sam and Acornsoft Hits series. By agreement, the Acornsoft name was used on the packaging of some of the subsequent Superior games. Superior chose not to take on Acornsoft's text adventure games, most of which were released in updated versions by Topologika along with some sequels from the same authors. Acornsoft titles extended their consistent branding to the software's loading screens. Acheton – A text adventure Arcadians – A Galaxian clone Aviator – A Spitfire flight simulator. With aliens... Bouncer – A Q*Bert clone Business Games – An educational package Carousel – A Carnival clone Castle of Riddles – A text adventure Countdown to Doom – A text adventure.
Elite – A 3D space battle and trading game Firebug – A platform and ladders game Free Fall – Survival game set in an out of control space station Gateway to Karos – A text adventure Hopper – A Frogger clone JCB Digger – A scrolling 2D dig-em-up Kingdom of Hamil – A text adventure Labyrinth – A 2D maze based shoot-em-up Magic Mushrooms – A platform and ladders game with built-in level editor Meteor Mission – A Lunar Rescue clone Meteors – An Asteroids clone Missile Base – A Missile Command clone Monsters – A Space Panic clone Philosopher's Quest – A text adventure Planetoid – A Defender clone released as Defender Revs – A Formula Three racing car simulation Rocket Raid – A Scramble clone Snapper – A Pac-Man clone Sphinx Adventure – A text adventure Starship Command – A 2D space battle game Super Invaders – A Space Invaders clone Volcano – A game in which you rescue people from the other side of an active volcano with a helicopter Including all arcade, text adventure and board games. All games were compatible with the BBC Micro Model B. Games followed by Model A & B were compatible with both machines.
Games followed by Electron were released separately for the Acorn Electron. Games are listed by their catalogue numbers which are the order of release of the BBC versions. G01 Philosopher's Quest G02 Defender deleted for legal reasons and re-released as Planetoid G02 Aviator released with G26-G28 but re-used the deleted Defender's number G03 Monsters G04 Snapper G05 Rocket Raid G06 Arcade Action 4 games: Invaders, Breakout and Snake G07 Sphinx Adventure G08 Cube Master G09 JCB Digger G10 Chess G11 Maze G12 Sliding-Block Puzzles G13 Meteors G14 Arcadians G15 Planetoid G16 Super Invaders G17 Castle of Riddles G18 Missile Base G19 Countdown to Doom G20 Draughts & Reversi G21 Snooker G22 Starship Command G23 Hopper G24 Carousel G25 Kingdom of Hamil G26 Crazy Tracer G27 Drogna G28 Free Fall G29 Meteor Mission G30 Gateway to Karos G31 Boxer G32 Tetrapod G33 Volcano G34 Black Box & Gambit – Ben Finn, developer of Black Box, went on to co-write Sibelius G35 Bouncer G36 The Seventh Star G37 Acheton G38 Elite G39 Firebug G40 Quondam G41 Labyrinth G42 Go G43 Revs G44 Revs 4 Tracks extra tracks for the main game G45 Elite original BBC Micro 6502 Second Processor version G46 Magic Mushrooms G47 Elite enhanced incl.
6502 Second Processor and Master 128 versionsThere are a number of complet
Amanita muscaria known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete of the genus Amanita. It is a muscimol mushroom. Native throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern Hemisphere as a symbiont with pine and birch plantations, is now a true cosmopolitan species, it associates with various coniferous trees. Arguably the most iconic toadstool species, the fly agaric is a large white-gilled, white-spotted red mushroom, is one of the most recognisable and encountered in popular culture. Although classified as poisonous, reports of human deaths resulting from its ingestion are rare. After parboiling—which weakens its toxicity and breaks down the mushroom's psychoactive substances—it is eaten in parts of Europe and North America. Amanita muscaria is noted for its hallucinogenic properties, with its main psychoactive constituents being the compounds ibotenic acid and muscimol; the mushroom was used as an intoxicant and entheogen by the peoples of Siberia, has a religious significance in these cultures.
There has been much speculation on possible traditional use of this mushroom as an intoxicant in other places such as the Middle East, North America, Scandinavia. The name of the mushroom in many European languages is thought to derive from its use as an insecticide when sprinkled in milk; this practice has been recorded from Germanic- and Slavic-speaking parts of Europe, as well as the Vosges region and pockets elsewhere in France, Romania. Albertus Magnus was the first to record it in his work De vegetabilibus some time before 1256, commenting vocatur fungus muscarum, eo quod in lacte pulverizatus interficit muscas, "it is called the fly mushroom because it is powdered in milk to kill flies." The 16th-century Flemish botanist Carolus Clusius traced the practice of sprinkling it into milk to Frankfurt in Germany, while Carl Linnaeus, the "father of taxonomy", reported it from Småland in southern Sweden, where he had lived as a child. He described it in volume two of his Species Plantarum in 1753, giving it the name Agaricus muscarius, the specific epithet deriving from Latin musca meaning "fly".
It gained its current name in 1783, when placed in the genus Amanita by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a name sanctioned in 1821 by the "father of mycology", Swedish naturalist Elias Magnus Fries. The starting date for all the mycota had been set by general agreement as January 1, 1821, the date of Fries's work, so the full name was Amanita muscaria Hook; the 1987 edition of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature changed the rules on the starting date and primary work for names of fungi, names can now be considered valid as far back as May 1, 1753, the date of publication of Linnaeus's work. Hence and Lamarck are now taken as the namers of Amanita muscaria Lam.. The English mycologist John Ramsbottom reported that Amanita muscaria was used for getting rid of bugs in England and Sweden, bug agaric was an old alternative name for the species. French mycologist Pierre Bulliard reported having tried without success to replicate its fly-killing properties in his work Histoire des plantes vénéneuses et suspectes de la France, proposed a new binomial name Agaricus pseudo-aurantiacus because of this.
One compound isolated from the fungus is 1,3-diolein. It has been hypothesised that the flies intentionally seek out the fly agaric for its intoxicating properties. An alternative derivation proposes that the term fly- refers not to insects as such but rather the delirium resulting from consumption of the fungus; this is based on the medieval belief that flies could enter a person's head and cause mental illness. Several regional names appear to be linked with this connotation, meaning the "mad" or "fool's" version of the regarded edible mushroom Amanita caesarea. Hence there is oriol foll "mad oriol" in Catalan, mujolo folo from Toulouse, concourlo fouolo from the Aveyron department in Southern France, ovolo matto from Trentino in Italy. A local dialect name in Fribourg in Switzerland is tsapi de diablhou, which translates as "Devil's hat". Amanita muscaria is the type species of the genus. By extension, it is the type species of Amanita subgenus Amanita, as well as section Amanita within this subgenus.
Amanita subgenus Amanita includes all Amanita with inamyloid spores. Amanita section Amanita includes the species with patchy universal veil remnants, including a volva, reduced to a series of concentric rings, the veil remnants on the cap to a series of patches or warts. Most species in this group have a bulbous base. Amanita section Amanita consists of A. muscaria and its close relatives, including A. pantherina, A. gemmata, A. farinosa, A. xanthocephala. Modern fungal taxonomists have classified Amanita muscaria and its allies this way based on gross morphology and spore inamyloidy. Two recent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed this classification as natural. Amanita muscaria varies in its morphology, many authorities recognize several subspecies or varieties within the species. In The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, German mycologist Rolf Singer listed three subspecies, though without description: A. muscaria ssp. muscaria, A. muscaria ssp. americana, A. muscaria ssp. flavivolvata.
However, a 2006 molecular phylogenetic study of different regional populations of A. muscaria by mycologist József Geml and colleagues found three distinct clades within this species representing Eurasian, Eurasian "subalpine", North American populations. Specimens belonging to all three clades have been fou