William Bingham (Pittsburgh)
William Bingham, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1856 to 1857. William Bingham was born in 1808 and for most of his life was involved in the transportation business; the Bingham Brothers Company was a prosperous firm in the freight delivery industry. The Republican Party was formed in Pittsburgh during Bingham's administration. Bingham died in 1873. List of Mayors of Pittsburgh South Pittsburgh Development Corporation Political Graveyard
Henry A. Weaver
Henry Augustus Weaver was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1857 to 1860. Henry A. Weaver was born in Pennsylvania, his father was Benjamin Weaver, Sheriff of Allegheny County in 1840. Henry Weaver had been manager of the Madison Coal Company, he was a staunch Republican. The term of office was extended to two years. President Abraham Lincoln appointed Weaver as Collector of Internal Revenue for Western Pennsylvania. Weaver is said to have had a souvenir rail. In life, Weaver was a real estate dealer. Weaver died at the St. James Hotel. List of mayors of Pittsburgh Political Graveyard
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
William W. Irwin
William Wallace Irwin was Mayor of Pittsburgh and a Whig member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. William Irwin was born in Pittsburgh in 1803, as a boy earned the lifelong nickname "pony Irwin" because of his habit of riding a pony everywhere he went, he graduated from the Western University of Pennsylvania, now known as the University of Pittsburgh, in 1824. He was a graduate of Allegheny College, he became a member of the Allegheny County bar on May 6, 1828, by 1835 was serving as the president of the Western University's alumni association. He ran for Allegheny County District Attorney in 1838. Irwin's first wife was Frances Everallyn Rose Irwin, the niece of Illinois Supreme Court justice Theophilus W. Smith and aunt of bridge engineer Charles Shaler Smith, they were the parents of United States Navy Rear Admiral John Irwin. After his first wife's death, Irwin married again on February 28, 1839 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, his second wife was Sophia Arabella Bache, born November 14, 1815 at Philadelphia and died on March 24, 1904.
She was the daughter of Richard Bache, Jr. who served in the Republic of Texas Navy and was elected as a Representative to the Second Texas Legislature in 1847 and Sophia Burrell Dallas, the daughter of Arabella Maria Smith and Alexander J. Dallas an American statesman who served as the U. S. Treasury Secretary under President James Madison, she was granddaughter of Sarah Franklin Bache and Richard Bache, the great-granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, a niece of George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States, serving under James K. Polk. Irwin had two children with Bache: educator Agnes Irwin and American businessman and the Kingdom of Hawaii's Minister to Japan, Robert Walker Irwin. Upon being elected mayor in 1840 Irwin oversaw the expansion of infrastructure and government in the city to catch up with the regions rapid expansion. Under his administration four additional wards were added to the city. Irwin used his term as mayor as a touchstone for his race as a representative for U.
S. Congress, he was elected as a Whig to the Twenty-seventh Congress. He was not a candidate for reelection in 1842. After his term in Congress, Irwin was United States Ambassador to Denmark 1843-1847, he died in Pittsburgh in 1856. Interment in Allegheny Cemetery. United States Congress. "William W. Irwin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Mayors of Pittsburgh The Political Graveyard William W. Irwin at Find a Grave
History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June
Squirrel Hill (Pittsburgh)
Squirrel Hill is a residential neighborhood in the East End of Pittsburgh, United States. The city divides it into two neighborhoods, Squirrel Hill North and Squirrel Hill South, but it is universally treated as a single neighborhood. Squirrel Hill is located at 40.438072°N 79.922972°W / 40.438072. Squirrel Hill North has five borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Shadyside to the north, Point Breeze to the east, Squirrel Hill South to the south, Central Oakland to the southwest and North Oakland to the west. Squirrel Hill South has nine land borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Squirrel Hill North to the north and northwest, Point Breeze to the northeast, Regent Square to the east, Swisshelm Park to the southeast, Glen Hazel and Hazelwood to the south-southwest, Greenfield to the southwest, South Oakland and Central Oakland to the west. Across the Monongahela River to the south-southeast, Squirrel Hill South runs adjacent with Homestead; as of the 2010 Census, Squirrel Hill North has a population of 11,363, having grown 9% since 2000.
Squirrel Hill North's population is 75% White, 17% Asian, 4% Hispanic, 3% black. Of the 3,892 housing units in Squirrel Hill North, 93% are occupied. Squirrel Hill South has a population of 15,110, up 4% since 2000, of whom 82% are White, 11% are Asian, 3% are Hispanic, 3% are Black. There are 7,514 housing units. In 2010, about 40% of Squirrel Hill's residents were Jewish. According to a 2002 study by the United Jewish Federation, 33% of the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh lives in Squirrel Hill, another 14% lives in the surrounding neighborhoods; the report states that: "The stability of Squirrel Hill, a geographic hub of the Jewish community located within the city limits, is unique in North America." The name "Squirrel Hill" may have been given to the area by the Native Americans who lived in its vicinity. The neighborhood most was named for the abundance of gray squirrels; the growth and development of Squirrel Hill was focused on the riverfront along the Monongahela River. The first recorded house was built in 1760 by a soldier at nearby Fort Pitt, Colonel James Burd, at a place called Summerset on the Monongahela River.
Squirrel Hill's next house was built by Ambrose Newton some time in the 1760s. This house is located in what is now Schenley Park along Overlook Drive, its first "business district" was the intersection of Brown's Hill Beechwood Boulevard. In 1778, John Turner built his estate of Federal Hill nearby, he established the Turner cemetery in 1838 inside his estate, which he donated to the local community when he died in 1840. This cemetery holds the remains of many of the original settlers of Squirrel Hill; the Mary S. Brown Memorial Methodist church was built on adjoining lands donated by Turner; this church was rebuilt several times, but the current building, which dates from 1908, is the oldest standing church in Squirrel HillThe third house in Squirrel Hill, Neill Log House, was built by Robert Neill around 1787 in what is now Schenley Park. This house still exists and is open to the public; the Neills owned 262 acres of land in the northern section of Schenley Park. In 1795, the Neills moved from this house to a location in what is now Market Square in downtown Pittsburgh.
After they died, the house was handed down to two different people before it was sold to General James O'Hara. O'Hara's granddaughter, Mary Schenley, gave the property to the city of Pittsburgh in 1889. For a time, the house was rented out by the city to vacationers, but by 1969, the house was in such poor condition that it was dismantled and rebuilt by the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation, it still is open for tours during the Vintage Grand Prix in July. Around 1820, William "Killymoon" Steward built one of the first tavern/inns in the area, his tavern, located near the intersection of Beechwood and Brown's Hill Road, survived for over 100 years. Squirrel Hill became a prosperous and affluent suburb. Around 1840, the Murdoch family started a farm and nursery business in the part of Squirrel Hill North, known today as Murdoch Farms. Today, this quiet area contains many upscale homes. By the 1860s, the area along Fifth Avenue near Woodland Road had several mansions, including Willow Cottage.
The cottage was built by the industrialist and civic leader Thomas M. Howe, a bank president and member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1851 to 1855. Though neglected for many years and torn down, Willow Cottage has undergone a $2.2 million restoration and renovation into a Chatham University gatehouse and guesthouse. On December 24, 1860, protests broke out in the streets of Squirrel Hill after news arrived that the U. S. Secretary of War, John B. Floyd had ordered 124 cannons to be shipped from Allegheny Arsenal to two forts under construction in Louisiana and Texas; the inhabitants of Pittsburgh predicted that these weapons would be used against them if the South seceded, this did indeed happen at Fort Sumter. Prior to 1868, the Squirrel Hill area was part of Peebles Township; this changed in 1868. Following the Civil War, several of Pittsburgh's richest families built multiple houses in the Woodland Road area between Fifth and Wilkins Avenues. In 1869, a women's college, the predecessor to Chatham University, was established nearby.
Today, Chatham University owns several of these large houses. In 1869, the clubhouse of the Pittsburgh Golf Club was built at the new Schenley Park Golf Course (The present building by Alden and Harlow was constructed in