Campione dItalia is a comune of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy, and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino. In the first century BC the Romans founded the town of Campilonum to protect their territories from Helvetii invasions. In 777, Toto of Campione, a local Lombard lord, ownership was transferred to the abbey of Sant’Ambrogio. In 1512, the area of Ticino was transferred from the ownership of the bishop of Como to Switzerland by Pope Julius II. However, the abbey maintained control over what is now Campione dItalia, when Ticino chose to become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1798, the people of Campione chose to remain part of Lombardy. In 1800, Ticino proposed exchanging Indemini for Campione, in 1814 a referendum was held, and the residents of Campione opposed it. In 1848, during the wars of Italian unification, Campione petitioned Switzerland for annexation and this was rejected due to the Swiss desire for neutrality. After Italian unification in 1861, all land west of Lake Lugano and half of the lake were given to Switzerland so that Swiss trade and transport would not have to pass through Italy.
The dItalia was added to the name of Campione in the 1930s by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and this was to assert the exclaves Italian-ness. During World War II, the US Office of Strategic Services — partly through Berne OSS chief Allen Welsh Dulles — maintained a unit in Campione for operations in Italy, at the time the pro-Nazi Italian regime did not have control over the exclave. The Swiss ignored the situation as long as the Americans kept a low profile, postage stamps were issued during this period inscribed Campione dItalia and valued in Swiss currency. Campione has an amount of economic and administrative integration with Switzerland. Because of its status, legal tender in the town is the Swiss franc. Mail may be sent using either a Swiss postal code or an Italian one using Switzerland or Italy as destination country respectively, like the Italian town of Livigno, it is exempt from EU VAT. Campione takes advantage of its status by operating a casino, the Casinò di Campione, security is provided by the Carabinieri and the city has a Polizia Locale group.
However and ambulances are Swiss, schools within the comune are the Scuola Materna G. Garibaldi, the Scuola Elementare, and the Scuola Media. List of communes of the Province of Como List of enclaves and exclaves Media related to Campione dItalia at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Friedberg is a town and the capital of the Wetteraukreis district, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 16 miles north of Frankfurt am Main, in 1966, the town hosted the sixth Hessentag state festival, in 1979 the 19th. The city initially rivaled Frankfurt am Main economically, with an important annual trading fair, in central Italy and Lombardy similar struggles between count and commune fueled the politics of Guelf and Ghibelline parties. The city became a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire with a given in 1211. Under Napoleon, it was incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Friedberg sits atop a basalt plateau overlooking the Usa and has been populated at least since Roman times. The relics of a Mesolithic settlement have been found in Bruchenbrücken, the crown and ports atop the Adolfsturm was restored during the 1980s. Friedbergs old town quarter once housed a prosperous Jewish community that was wiped out during World War II. Many of Friedbergs Jews fled to South Africa and the United States before the Holocaust, the Judenbad contains a memorial to the fallen Jewish soldiers who fought for their fatherland during World War I.
Today, only the medieval Jewish ceremonial bath, old synagogue arson memorial, sir Ernest Oppenheimer, diamond mining entrepreneur and former owner of De Beers was born and raised in Friedberg. Friedberg was the home to the U. S. Army installation Ray Barracks, from approximately 1956 to 2007, Ray Barracks was the home of 3rd Brigade 3rd Armored Division. Elvis Presley served in 1st Bn 32nd Armor, whose motor pool, the 1st Brigade 1st Armor Division was located here as well as in Gießen, Germany. The 1st Brigade was located at Ray Barracks from 1992 to 2007 when the installation was closed permanently and was returned to the city of Friedberg, the base is notable as the duty station of Elvis Presley during his military stint in Europe, who lived in nearby Bad Nauheim. Elvis Presley Platz was named for the American star and is in the shopping center of the town. Ray Barracks is further known for being the first duty station of former US Secretary of State and retired four-star General, Colin Powell who was stationed there as a Second Lieutenant in 1958.
Friedbergs main station is on the Main-Weser Railway and is the terminal of Frankfurts S-Bahn line S6 and a stop for German Intercity trains. Sir Ernest Oppenheimer and gold mining entrepreneur and philanthropist, who controlled De Beers and founded the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Milan, Lombardys capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy, the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz, equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, Lombardy referred during the early Middle Ages to the entire territory of Italy ruled by the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who conquered much of the Italian peninsula beginning in the 6th century. During the late Middle Ages, the term shifted meaning and was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy, with a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region, mountains and plains – the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa.
Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands, from west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, sycamore, willow, in the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers.
The highlands are characterized by the vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow, on the slopes beech trees grow at the lowest limits. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone, Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. In addition, there is a seasonal temperature variation. A peculiarity of the climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an Oceanic climate, numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, in the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continental
Bellagio is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region of Lombardy. It is located on Lake Como, known by its Latin-derived name, the arms of the lake form an inverted Y. The triangular land mass at the base of the inverted Y is the Larian Triangle, the Como arm of the lake lies to its south west, the Lecco arm of the lake to its south east. At the northern point of the triangle sits Bellagio, looking across to the arm of the lake and, behind it. It has always been famous for its location, Bellagio is situated upon the cape of the land mass that divides Lake Como in two. The city centre occupies the tip of the promontory, while other districts are scattered along the lake shores, from the ancient glacial blanket only the highest tops emerged, one of them Mount St. Primo, which obliged the glaciers to divide into two arms. Nowadays, a luxuriance of trees and flowers is favoured by a mild, the historic centre of Bellagio shelters 350m southwest of the promontory of the Larian Triangle, between the Villa Serbelloni on the hill and the Como arm of the lake.
At the far tip of the promontory are a park and a marina, parallel to the shore are three streets, Mazzini and Garibaldi in ascending order. Cutting across them to form a grid are seven medieval stone stairs running uphill. The Basilica of San Giacomo and a tower, sole relic of medieval defences. In 225 BC, the territory of the Gallo-Insubres was occupied by the Romans, the Romans, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeated the Gallo-Insubres in a fierce battle near Camerlata, occupying Como and the shores of the lake. Insubre hopes of independence were raised by an alliance with Hannibal during the Second Punic War, Bellagio became both a Roman garrison and a point of passage and wintering for the Roman armies on their way through to the province of Raetia and the Splügen pass. Troops wintered at the foot of the present Villa Serbelloni, sheltered from north winds, such variant Latin names as Belacius and Bislacus suggest Bellagio was originally Bi-lacus. Between 81 and 77 BC Cornelius Scipio brought 3,000 Latin colonists to Lake Como, from 59 BC Julius Caesar, as pro-consul, brought up another 5000 colonists, most importantly 500 Greeks from Sicily.
Their names are borne by their descendants. Bellagio became a mixture of races which became more and more complex in the following centuries, it increased its strategic importance because, as well as a place for wintering, it sheltered warships especially at Loppia, where the natural creek made it easy to repair them. Around Loppia there formed one of the first suburbs of Bellagio, the Romans introduced many Mediterranean crops, including the olive and laurel, from the name of the latter derives the Latin name of Lake Como. In the early decades of the Empire, two great figures brought fame to the lake and Bellagio and Pliny the Younger, the Latin poet, visited Bellagio and remembered the lake in the second book of the Georgics, verse 155
Regions of Italy
The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. There are 20 regions, of five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes. Each region, except for the Aosta Valley, is divided into provinces, regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution. As the administrative districts of the state during the Kingdom of Italy. The original draft list comprised the Salento region and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as regions in the first draft. They were merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the constitution of 1948. Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970, the ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted. Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a reform in 2001.
In June 2006 the proposals, which had been associated with Lega Nord. The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55. 3% in favour in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria, number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995, Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union. These regions, whose statutes are approved by their councils, were created in 1970. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers, the regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law. Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest, they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants to five regions home rule, acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War. Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol constitutes a special case, the region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the regions statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region and South Tyrol.
In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role, the latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council. Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives a majority of seats on the council