International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the End of World War II in Europe; the revolt began as a student protest, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament building, calling out on the streets using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the radio building to try to broadcast the students' demands, was detained; when the delegation's release was demanded by the protesters outside, they were fired upon from within the building by the State Security Police, known as the ÁVH. One student was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd; this was the start of the revolution. As the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital.
The revolt spread across Hungary, the government collapsed. Thousands organised into militias, battling the Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned, former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers' councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working People's Party and demanded political changes. A new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had stopped, a sense of normality began to return. Appearing open to negotiating a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded other regions of the country; the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, 200,000 Hungarians fled as refugees. Mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter.
By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions, while strengthening control over the Eastern Bloc, alienated many Western Marxists, leading to splits and/or considerable losses of membership for communist parties in capitalist states. Public discussion about the revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense debate. At the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989, 23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. In 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union; the Red Army was able to force back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders, by 1944 was advancing towards Hungary. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began armistice negotiations with the Allies.
These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up the pro-Axis Government of National Unity. Both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in late 1944. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. After World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy. However, the Hungarian Communist Party, a Marxist–Leninist group who shared the Soviet government's ideological beliefs wrested small concessions in a process named salami tactics, which sliced away the elected government's influence, despite the fact that it had received only 17% of the vote. After the elections of 1945, the portfolio of the Interior Ministry, which oversaw the Hungarian State Security Police, was transferred from the Independent Smallholders Party to a nominee of the Communist Party.
The ÁVH employed methods of intimidation, falsified accusations and torture to suppress political opposition. The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949; the People's Republic of Hungary was declared. The Hungarian Working People's Party set about to modify the economy into socialism by undertaking radical nationalization based on the Soviet model. Writers and journalists were the first to voice open criticism of the government and its policies, publishing critical articles in 1955. By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union, staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution. Hungary became a communist state under the authoritarian leadership of Mátyás Rákosi. Under Rákosi's reign, the Security Police began a series of purges, first within the Communist Party to end opposition to Rákosi's reign.
The victims were labeled as "Titoists", "western agents", or "Trotskyists" for as insignificant a crime as spending time in the West to participate in the Spanish Civil War. In total, about half of all the middle and lower level party officials—at least 7,000 people—were purged. From 1950 to 1952, the Security Police forcibly relocated thousands of people to obtain property and housing for the Working People's Party members, to remove the threat of the intellectual
Politika is a Serbian daily newspaper, published in Belgrade. Founded in 1904 by Vladislav F. Ribnikar, it is the oldest daily newspaper still in circulation in the Balkans and is considered to be Serbia's newspaper of record. Politika is published by Politika novine i magazini, a joint venture between Politika AD and East Media Group. PNM publishes: Sportski žurnal Politikin zabavnik Svet kompjutera Ilustrovana politika Bazar Ever since its launch in January 1904, Politika was published daily, except for several periods: Due to World War I, there were no issues from 14 November 1914 to 21 December 1914, again from 23 September 1915 to 1 December 1919 Due to World War II, there were no issues from 6 April 1941 to 28 October 1944 In protest against government's intentions to turn Politika into a state-owned enterprise, a single issue was not published in the summer of 1992The launch issue had only four pages and a circulation of 2,450 copies, its record high circulation was the 25 December 1973 issue.
Vladislav F. Ribnikar Miomir Milenović i Jovan Tanović Živorad Minović Aleksandar Prlja Boško Jakšić Dragan Hadži Antić Vojin Partonić Milan Mišić Ljiljana Smajlović Radmilo Kljajić Dragan Bujošević Ljiljana Smajlović Žarko Rakić In the run-up to and during the breakup of Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav wars, Politika was under the control of Slobodan Milošević and the League of Communists of Serbia and was used as an information guide to show the truth of what was happening to the Serbs in other republics, together with the Radio Television of Serbia, it blamed the local Kosovo Albanians for sodomizing Đorđe Martinović, published fabricated reader letters claiming that the Albanians were "raping hundreds of Serbian women". Before and during the Croatian War of Independence, it published opinions on how "blood may shed again" in Croatia because of World War II, published claims on how the Vatican funded Croatia to break up Yugoslavia, etc. At the end of the Battle of Vukovar, it ran the fabricated story of the Vukovar children massacre.
The article was however retracted with a statement published the following day. In 1987, Politika published a controversial text known as Vojko i Savle. List of newspapers in Serbia Media in Serbia Official website Politika AD Digital archive of Politika editions, 1904 - 1941
Hard Metal (magazine)
Hard Metal was a Yugoslav music magazine, notable as the first magazine in the country dedicated to heavy metal music. Hard Metal was published by Novi Sad publishing company Dnevnik; the Editor-in-Chiefs was Konstantin Polzović. The first issue of Hard Metal was released in May 1991, the last, sixth issue was released in May 1992. In 1992, Hard Metal joined with another music magazine published by Bum; the new magazine was entitled Rock Starz, only three issues were published, after which, due to hyperinflation in Yugoslavia, the magazine ceased to exist. The magazine featured reviews of new hard rock and heavy metal releases and concert reviews, covering international, as well as Yugoslav heavy metal scene. Hard Metal published exclusive interviews with the members of W. A. S. P. Megadeth, Guns N' Roses, Bon Jovi, Skid Row, others
Sport was a Serbian daily sports newspaper. Тhе first edition was published on 5 May 1945 under the name Fiskultura and the last edition went out on 17 September 2016. Since the mid-2000s it was billed as "Dnevni sportski list", while it used to be known as "Jugoslovenski sportski list". Editions were written in Serbian Cyrillic, at 24 to 32 pages, publishing news, reports, interviews from Serbia and the rest of the world, following more than 60 sports. Since 1957, Sport had given out the Golden Badge award for the best athlete in Yugoslavia, now Serbia. In addition, Sport selected the best young athletes, the most beautiful sportswoman and sportsman, the fair play trophy. Olivera Jevtić is the only winner for the best professional athlete. Jasna Šekarić is the only winner for the athlete of the year in two different countries, 1988. in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and 1994. in FR Yugoslavia. Awards of Olympic Committee of Serbia
Ritam was a Serbian and Yugoslav popular culture magazine. Started in February 1989, it continued under various subtitles and publishing companies until 1995. A monthly publication, Ritam's publishing frequency became irregular from the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991 until the end of its run. Ritam was founded in 1989 with the subtitle of Mesečni vodič kroz popularnu muziku, video, strip... I još više!. It was co-published by ROID Vuk Karadžić from Paraćin; the magazine's first editor-in-chief was Momčilo Rajin. The first Ritam issue, featuring U2 band members, actor Jackie Chan, comic book character Corto Maltese on the cover, was released on February 1, 1989; until June 1990, 14 issues were released. From September 1990, the magazine adopted a new name, Novi Ritam, as well as a shortened subtitle, Mesečni vodič kroz popularnu kulturu, Rajin's post was taken over by Branko Vukojević; the magazine staffers registered their own publishing company called Ritam, continued to cooperate with Paraćin's Vuk Karadžić.
This lasted until May 1991. At the end of 1992, following a year-and-a-half long gap, the magazine's third incarnation appeared, entitled Ritam again. Under editorship of Dragan Ambrozić, in addition to Ritam publishing company, record label Sorabia Disc was listed as the magazine's publisher. Only two issues appeared under this setup, the first in October, with Rambo Amadeus on the cover, the second in December, with Michael Stipe on the cover. In 1993, Ritam's fourth incarnation appeared. Again with Ambrozić as editor-in-chief, with the subtitle Vodič kroz popularnu kulturu, the annual issue was published for the year 1993. Five more issues came out from May 1994 until June 1995 with irregular frequency. In 2004, online magazine Popboks was founded. Ritam archive at Popboks.com
Kurir is daily tabloid published in Belgrade. Its tone is abrasive and irreverent, running sensationalist stories that other newspapers won't touch. Although the paper relies on celebrity gossip, it achieved considerable political influence. Kurir first issue appeared at the news stands on May 6, 2003. While Kurir's history is short, it is a checkered one, it goes back to the state of emergency, declared following the assassination of Serbia's Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić, when another daily tabloid named Nacional was shut down. Using its broad powers under the state of emergency act, Serbian government's Ministry of Culture and Information headed by Branislav Lečić issued a temporary ban on publication of Nacional daily on 18 March 2003 for "publishing a number of articles relating to the state of emergency and for questioning the reasons behind the state of emergency". On April 1, 2003, the Belgrade city commercial court started liquidation proceedings against Nacional's publisher in Belgrade, Info Orfej.
Despite an appeal, the company's equipment, including 118 computers, was seized on April 21, 2003, two days before the state of emergency ended. Many of the former Nacional staffers found employment in newly formed Kurir, including Dragan J. Vučićević, ex Nacional deputy-editor-in-chief who took the same post at Kurir. New paper bore an uncanny resemblance both in tone and layout; this led many critics to conclude. In addition to Kurir, another similar daily tabloid Balkan attempted to move into the void left by Nacional's ban; the original Nacional sort of reappeared - under the same financial backing, new staff, a new name Internacional. However, neither publication could keep up commercially. Balkan folded in early 2005 while Internacional changed its name to Srpski nacional along with a format makeover. Many credit Kurir for providing the final nudge to Prime Minister Zoran Živković's shaky government, in effect forcing it to call early elections for December 28, 2003. Throughout fall of 2003, Kurir ran stories of dodgy voting practices in Serbian parliament and blasted the ruling coalition MP Neda Arneric for misusing her parliamentary voting rights.
They wrote to no end about Minister of the Interior Dušan Mihajlović's alleged shady deals done through his own Lutra company. Sources that supplied Kurir with all this insider info appear to be members of G17 Plus which led some observers to accuse this party's leadership of deliberate character-assassination by feeding information to a tabloid they knew would publish anything. Kurir, for their part turned on G17 too, as soon as they came into power. Tabloid wrote about their party's president Miroljub Labus' conflict of interest in arranging for his daughter to get a scholarship through Ericsson company while taking part in negotiations between that corporation with state-owned Telekom Srbija, they turned on National Bank of Serbia governor Radovan Jelašić. The issue was his plush villa in the elite Belgrade suburb of Dedinje that governor said he bought for 350,000 euros. Kurir on the other hand claimed it could not have cost under million and a half and even found a buyer who offered Jelasic a million for the house.
This buyer was, it turned out, business tycoon Bogoljub Karic, strong opponent of G17 plus policies, during this period Kurir was influenced by Bogoljub Karic. Kurir info Ltd, become a leader publishing house in daily newspapers and custom publishing business in Serbia and the West Balkans region. Đoko Kesić Antonije Kovačević Đuro Bilbija Rade Jerinić Jovica Krtinić Branislav Bjelica Saša Milovanović Milan Lađević Ratko Femić Nemanja Pajić List of newspapers in Serbia Media in Serbia Official Page