Rishabhanatha Ṛṣabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or Ṛṣabha is the first Tirthankara of the present half cycle of time in Jainism. The word Tīrthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across a sea, the Tirthankara shows the fordable path across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Rishabhanatha is known as Ādinātha which translates into First Lord and he was born to King Nabhi and Queen Marudevi in Ayodhya. He is associated with his Bull emblem, the Nyagrodha tree, Gomukha Yaksha and he had two wives and Sumangala. Sumangala was the mother of sons and one daughter, Brahmi. Sunanda was the mother of Bahubali and Sundari, the sudden fatal death of Nilanjana, one of the dancers of Indra, reminded him of the worlds transitory nature and he developed a desire for renunciation. After being initiated as a Digambara monk, he is said to have wandered without food for a whole year, the day on which he got his first ahara, is celebrated as Akshaya Tritiya by Jains. He is said to have attained Moksha from Mount Kailash, adi Purana contains the information over legends related to Rishabhanatha.
His colossal statues include Statue of Ahimsa and those erected in Gopachal hill, Jain cosmology divides the Worldly Time cycle into two halves with six aras in each half. Twenty-four Tirthankaras grace this part of the universe in the period, known as duşamā-suşamā. The present half cycle being a case, the first tīrthaṅkara was born at the end of the third period itself. This cycle will start reversing at the onset of utsarpinī kāl with the Dukhama-dukhamā being the first period, according to Jain texts, Rishabhanatha was born in the age when there was happiness all around with no work for men to do. Gradually as the cycle moved, and Kalpavriksha disappeared, people rushed to their King for help, Rishabhanatha is said to have taught the men six main professions. These were, Masi, Vidya, Vanijya, in other words, he is credited with introducing karma-bhumi by teaching these professions to householders to enable them to earn a livelihood. The institution of marriage is said to have come into existence after he married to set an example for humans to follow.
In total, Rishabhanatha is said to have taught seventy-two sciences which include, the plastic and visual arts, Jain chronology places the date of Rishabhanatha at an almost immeasurable antiquity in the past. Rishabhanatha is said to be the founder of Jainism in the present half cycle, there is no doubt that Jainism prevailed even before Vardhamāna or Pārśvanātha. The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tīrthaṅkaras - Ṛṣabha, Ajitnātha and Ariṣṭanemi, the Bhāgavata Purāṇa endorses the view that Ṛṣabha was the founder of Jainism
Acharya Kundakunda is a revered Digambara Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts such as, Niyamasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and he occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas. Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century. His proper name was Padmanandin, he is referred to as Kundakunda possibly because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh might represent his native home. Upadhye has shown that possibly apart from the name Elacarya, all the other names ascribed to Kundakunda go against the tradition of the epigraphic records. Acharya Kundakunda belonged to the Mula Sangh order and he is closely associated with the Digambara sect, in recent decades, his books have become popular among Śvētāmbaras also. He is dated to have flourished around second century CE by Natubhai Shah, for Digambaras, his name has auspicious significance and occupies third place after Lord Mahavira and Gautama Ganadhara in the sacred litany.
This would make him the first significant and independent thinker of the period whose views are accepted as representing the Jain thought. The mundane aspect is associated with the qualities of the soul mainly the influx of karmic particles. The ultimate perspective meanwhile, is that of the soul or atman, the jiva, which is blissful, perceptive. According to Long, this view shows influence from Buddhism and Vedanta, the works attributed to Kundakunda, all of them in Prakrit, can be divided in three groups. The first group comprises four original works described as The Essence — namely, the Niyamasara, the Pancastikayasara, the Samayasara, and the Pravachanasara. The second group is a collection of ten bhaktis, short compositions in praise of the acharya, the scriptures, the mendicant conduct, and so forth. The last group consists of eight short texts called Prabhrta, probably compilations from some sources, on such topics as the right view, right conduct, the scripture. Various Jain texts mention that Acharya Kundkunda wrote 84 Pahurs, simandhar Swami Jain, Vijay K.
Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1977-2 Cort, John E
Amoghavarsha I was a Rashtrakuta emperor, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great emperors of India. His reign of 64 years is one of the longest precisely dated monarchical reigns on record, many Kannada and Sanskrit scholars prospered during his rule, including the great Indian mathematician Mahaviracharya who wrote Ganita-sara-samgraha, Virasena and Sri Vijaya. Amoghavarsha I was a poet and scholar. He wrote the Kavirajamarga, the earliest extant literary work in Kannada, and Prashnottara Ratnamalika, during his rule he held such titles as Nrupathunga, Veeranarayana and Srivallabha. He moved the Rashtrakuta regal capital from Mayurkhandi in the Bidar district to Manyakheta in the Gulbarga district in the modern Karnataka state and he is said to have built the regal city to match that of Lord Indra. The capital city was planned to include elaborately designed buildings for the royalty using the finest of workmanship, the Arab traveler Sulaiman described Amoghavarsha as one of the four great kings of the world.
Sulaiman wrote that Amoghavarsha respected Muslims and that he allowed the construction of mosques in his cities, Amoghavarsha seems to have entertained the highest admiration for the language and culture of the Kannada people as testified to in the text Kavirajamarga. Amoghavarsha I was born in 800 CE in Sribhavan on the banks of the river Narmada during the journey of his father, Emperor Govinda III. This information is available from the Manne inscription of 803 and the Sanjan plates of 871, the Sirur plates further clarify that Amoghavarsha I ascended to the throne in 815 at the age of 14 after the death of his father. All his inscriptions thereafter refer to him as Amoghavarsha I and his guardian during his early years as emperor was his cousin, Karka Suvarnavarsha of the Gujarat branch of the empire. This information comes from the Surat records and the Baroda plates of 835, the first to revolt was the Western Ganga feudatory led by King Shivamara II. In the series of battles followed, Shivamara II was killed in 816.
But Amoghavarsha Is commander and confidant, was defeated in Rajaramadu by the next Ganga king, due to the resilience of the Western Gangas, Amoghavarsha I was forced to follow a conciliatory policy. He gave in marriage his daughter, Chandrabbalabbe, to the Western Ganga King Buthuga, more revolts occurred between 818 and 820, but by 821 Amoghavarsha I had overcome all resistance and established a stable kingdom to rule. Vijayaditya II of the Eastern Chalukya family overthrew Bhima Salki, the ruling Rashtrakuta feudatory at Vengi, took possession of the throne and he captured Sthambha, a Rashtrakuta stronghold. From the Cambay and Sangli plates it is known that Amoghavarsha I overwhelmingly defeated the Vengi Chalukyas, the Bagumra records mention a Sea of Chalukyas invading the Ratta kingdom which Amoghavarsha I successfully defended. After these victories he assumed the title Veeranarayana, tranquility was restored temporarily by a marriage between Vijayaditya IIs son, Vishnuvardhana V, and the Ratta princess Shilamahadevi, a sister of Karka of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta branch.
However, Vishnuvardhana V attacked the northern Kalachuri feudatory of the Rashtrakutas in Tripuri, central India, Amoghavarsha I maintained friendly interactions with the Pallava who were busy keeping the Pandyas at bay
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath, the highest mountain of the Parasnath Range. It is a Jain Tirtha believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda. The site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar peak of concentration because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha. The word Parasnath is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara, shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India. It lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state, the earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism, at Shikharji, Māllīnātha, the nineteenth tirthankara, practiced samadhi. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva, the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment.
Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act, leaving the rights of Jains in doubt, use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain. Sports such as paragliding and parasailing may take place at Shikharji, the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 30 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains, the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water, there is an option for parikrama of the entire Parasnath Hill, a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres. The parikrama path is through the forest and is walking only, the temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century. However, the idol itself is very old, sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji, on the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill.
Temples along the track include, In Jainism, the building of temples is seen as auspicious. There is a scale replica of Shikharji at Dadabari, New Delhi. A full size replica was opened on 13 August,2012 in the US, Nearest railway station named Parasnath Station is situated in Isri bazar, Dumri Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, Parasnath station is situated on Delhi-Howrah Grand Chord via Kanpur, Mugalsarai, Asansol
Paryushana or Daslakshana is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is usually celebrated in August or September. It lasts 8–10 days and is a time when Śrāvakas increase their level of spiritual intensity often using fasting, the five main vows are emphasized during this time. There are no set rules, and followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability, Digambaras refer it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana. The duration of Paryushana is for eight days for Śvētāmbara Jains, the festival ends with the celebration of Kshamavani. Paryusana means abiding and coming together and it is a time when the Jains take on vows of study and fasting. The Digambara Jains recite the ten chapters of the sacred Jain text, Digambaras celebrate Ananta chaturdashi on which a special worship is done. Many towns have a procession leading to the main Jain temple, anant Chaturdashi marks the day when Lord Vasupujya attained Moksha. At the conclusion of the festival, followers request forgiveness from others for any offenses committed during the last year.
Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam to others, which means, If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action, I seek your forgiveness. During the 8-day festival, the Śvētāmbaras Murtipujaka recite the Kalpa Sūtra, some Śvētāmbara Sthanakvasis recite the Antagada Sutra, which details the life of great men and women who attained moksha during the eras of Neminatha and Mahavira. During Paryushana, Jains observe a fast, the span of the fast can last from a day to 30 days or even more. At the conclusion of the festival, the Sravakas request each other for forgiveness for all offenses committed during the last year and this occurs on the Paryusha day for the Śvētāmbara and on Pratipada of Ashwin Krashna for the Digambara. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam or Uttam Kshama to each other and it means If I have caused you offence in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought word or deed, I seek your forgiveness. Das-Dharma are mentioned in the Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra and it may be undertaken during Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Bhadrapada, Magh or Chaitra months.
However it is common to do it during Bhadrapada, the Das-dharmas are all prefixed by the word ‘Uttam’ to signify that they are practiced at the highest level by the Jain monks. The householder practises them to a lesser extent and it lasts over a period of ten days, each day being dedicated to one of the ten Dharmas. In the sections below a) stands for the point of view of modes. A) We forgive those who have wronged us and seek forgiveness from those we have wronged, Forgiveness is sought not just from human colleagues, but from all living beings ranging from one sensed to five sensed
Ahimsa in Jainism
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine. The term ahimsa means nonviolence, non-injury or absence of desire to harm any life forms and other nonviolent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of ahimsa. The Jain concept of ahimsa is very different from the concept of found in other philosophies. Violence is usually associated with causing harm to others, but according to the Jain philosophy, violence refers primarily to injuring ones own self – behaviour which inhibits the souls own ability to attain moksha. At the same time it means violence to others because it is this tendency to harm others that ultimately harms ones own soul. Furthermore, the Jains extend the concept of not only to humans but to all animals, micro-organisms. All life is sacred and everyone has a right to live fearlessly to its maximum potential, the living beings do not have any fear from those who have taken the vow of ahimsa. According to Jainism, protection of life, known as abhayadānam, is the charity that a person can make.
Ahimsa does not merely indicate absence of violence, but indicates absence of desire to indulge in any sort of violence. Jains have strongly advocated vegetarianism and nonviolence throughout the ages, Ahimsa being central to the Jain philosophy, Jain Ācāryas have produced, through ages, quite elaborate and detailed doctrinal materials concerning its various aspects. According to Aidan Rankin, the concept of ahimsa is very much intertwined with Jainism, Jain texts expound that there are ten vitalities or life-principles, these are, the five senses, respiration, life-duration, the organ of speech, and the mind. Living beings are classified on the basis of their sensory organs, According to Jain texts, The one-sensed lives possess four vitalities – sense organ of touch, strength of body or energy and life-duration. The two-sensed beings have six, namely the sense of taste, the three-sensed beings have seven with the addition of the sense of smell. The four-sensed beings have eight with the addition of the sense of sight, the five- sensed beings without mind have nine life-principles with the addition of the sense of hearing.
Those endowed with mind are said to have ten vitalities with the addition of the mind, According to Tattvarthasutra, a major Jain text, the severance of vitalities out of passion is injury. Therefore, the higher the number of senses and vitalities a being has, out of the five types of living beings, a householder is forbidden to kill, or destroy, all except the lowest. But, the ascetic is required to avoid injuring the one-sensed form of life to the best of his ability. Hence Jainism enjoins its adherents to completely avoid violence to higher-sensed beings, in Jainism, both ascetics and householders have to follow five major vows
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere. It is a holiday in Fiji, India, Mauritius, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Suriname and Tobago. One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, it signifies the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, knowledge over ignorance. Its celebration includes millions of lights shining on housetops, outside doors and windows, around temples, in the Gregorian calendar, Diwali night falls between mid-October and mid-November. Before Diwali night, people clean and decorate their homes and offices, after puja, fireworks follow, a family feast including mithai, and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Deepavali marks a major shopping period in nations where it is celebrated, the name of festive days as well as the rituals of Diwali vary significantly among Hindus, based on the region of India. Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra, Diwali or Sanskrit dīpāvali means series of lights, and is derived from dīpam light and oli glow of light.
Diwali is known as festival of lights. Diwali dates back to ancient times in India, as a festival after the summer harvest in the Hindu calendar month of Kartika. The diyas are mentioned in Skanda Purana to symbolically represent parts of sun, the giver of light and energy to all life. Hindus in some regions of India associate Diwali with the legend of Yama, the Nachiketa story about right versus wrong, true wealth versus transient wealth, knowledge versus ignorance is recorded in Katha Upanishad composed in 1st millennium BC. King Harsha in the 7th century Sanskrit play Nagananda mentions Deepavali as Deepapratipadutsava, the Persian traveller and historian Al Biruni, in his 11th century memoir on India, wrote of Deepavali being celebrated by Hindus on New Moon day of the month of Kartika. Diwali is one of the happiest holidays in India and Nepal with significant preparations, people clean their homes and decorate them for the festivities. People buy gifts for family members and friends which typically include sweets, dry fruits and it is the period when children hear ancient stories, legends about battles between good and evil or light and darkness from their parents and elders.
Girls and women go shopping and create rangoli and other creative patterns on floors, near doors and adults alike help with lighting and preparing for patakhe. There is significant variation in practices and rituals. Depending on the region, prayers are offered one or more deities, with most common being Lakshmi – the goddess of wealth. On Diwali night, fireworks light up the neighborhood skies, family members and invited friends celebrate the night over food and sweets
Mahavir Jayanti, known as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, is the most important religious festival for Jains. It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of Avasarpiṇī, on the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in March or April. Most modern historians consider Vasokund as Mahaviras birthplace, according to Jain texts, Mahavira was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra in the year 599 BCE. Mahavira was born in a kingdom, where the king was chosen by votes. As a child, Mahavira was called with the name Vardhamana, in Vasokund, Mahavira is much revered by the villagers. A place called Ahalya bhumi has not been ploughed for hundreds of years by the family that owns it, Mahavira was born into Ikshvaku dynasty as the son of King Siddhartha of Kundagrama and Queen Trishala. During her pregnancy, Trishala was believed to have had a number of auspicious dreams, the exact number of dreams differs according to the school of Jainism, Svetambaras generally believe that the actual number is fourteen while Digambaras claim sixteen instead.
Regardless, the astrologers who interpreted these dreams claimed that the child would become either a Chakravartin or a Tirthankara, the idol of Mahavira is carried out on a chariot, in a procession called rath yatra. On the way bhajans are recited, local statues of Mahavira are given a ceremonial bath called the abhisheka. During the day, most members of the Jain community engage in some sort of charitable act, many devotees visit temples dedicated to Mahavira to meditate and offer prayers. Lectures by monks and nuns are held in temples to preach the path of virtue as defined by Jainism, donations are collected in order to promote charitable missions like saving cows from slaughter or helping to feed poor people. Ancient Jain temples across India typically see a high volume of practitioners come to pay their respects. Ahimsa runs and rallies preaching the Mahaviras message of Ahiṃsā are taken out on this day, many political leaders and government officials extend their greetings on this occasion.
Jalaj, Dr. Jaykumar Jalaj History of Jainism Lord Mahavira Sayings Mahavira Jayanti
Rashtrakuta was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and this clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753. At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively, an Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh, called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world. The early kings of this dynasty were influenced by Hinduism and the kings by Jainism. During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada, Amoghavarsha I, the most famous king of this dynasty wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language.
Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora in modern Maharashtra. Other important contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, the origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. The relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. Scholars debate over which ethnic/linguistic groups can claim the early Rashtrakutas, possibilities include the north western ethnic groups of India, the Kannadiga, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab region. Scholars however concur that the rulers of the dynasty in the 8th to 10th century made the Kannada language as important as Sanskrit.
Rashtrakuta inscriptions use both Kannada and Sanskrit, and the rulers encouraged literature in both languages, the earliest existing Kannada literary writings are credited to their court poets and royalty. Though these Rashtrakutas were Kannadigas, they were conversant in a northern Deccan language as well, the heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. He helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, dantidurgas successor Krishna I brought major portions of present-day Karnataka and Konkan under his control. During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780 and he led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. He brought the Eastern Chalukyas and Gangas of Talakad under his control, according to Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas became a pan-India power during his rule.
The ascent of Dhruva Dharavarshas third son, Govinda III, to the throne heralded an era of success like never before, there is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at this time. During his rule there was a three way conflict between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for control over the Gangetic plains and his military exploits have been compared to those of Alexander the Great and Arjuna of Mahabharata