Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage. She is known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his epic, Aeneid. In some sources she is known as Elissa. Many names in the legend of Dido are of Punic origin, which suggests that the first Greek authors who mention this story have taken up Phoenician accounts. One suggestion is that Dido is an epithet from the same Semitic root as David, which means "Beloved". Others state Didô means "the wanderer". According to Marie-Pierre Noël, "Elishat/Elisha" is a name attested on Punic votives, it is composed of the Punic reflex of *ʾil- "god", the remote Phoenician creator god El a name for God in Judaism, "‐issa", which could be either "ʾiš" means "fire", or another word for "woman". Other works state. In Greek it appears as Theiossô; this understanding of the chronology related to Dido and her company resulted in the following dates for Dido and her immediate relations, as derived from F. M. Cross and Wm. H. Barnes: Baal-Eser II 846–841 BC Mattan I 840–832 BC 839 BC: Dido was born in Tyre 831 BC: Pygmalion begins to reign 825 BC: Dido flees Tyre in 7th year of Pygmalion, after the death of Acerbas 825 BC and some time thereafter: Dido and companions on Cyprus Between 825 BC and 814 BC: Tyrians build settlement on island of Cothon 814 BC: Dido founds Carthage on mainland 785 BC: Death of Pygmalion 759 BC: Dido died in Carthage The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily.
Historians gave both for the foundation of Carthage and the foundation of Rome. Appian in the beginning of his Punic Wars claims that Carthage was founded by a certain Zorus and Carchedon, but Zorus looks like an alternative transliteration of the city name Tyre and Carchedon is just the Greek form of Carthage. Timaeus made Carchedon's wife Elissa the sister of King Pygmalion of Tyre. Archaeological evidence of settlement on the site of Carthage before the last quarter of the 8th century BC has yet to be found. Paucity of material for this period may be explained by rejection of the Greek Dark Age theory; that the city is named at least indicates it was a colony. The only surviving full account before Virgil's treatment is that of Virgil's contemporary Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus in his Philippic histories as rendered in a digest or epitome made by Junianus Justinus in the 3rd century AD. Justin quoting or paraphrasing Trogus states, a king of Tyre whom Justin does not name, made his beautiful daughter Dido and son Pygmalion his joint heirs.
But on his death the people took Pygmalion alone as their ruler though Pygmalion was yet still a boy. Dido married Acerbas her uncle who as priest of Heracles—that is, Melqart—was second in power to King Pygmalion. Acerbas can be equated with the Zikarbaal king of Byblos mentioned in the Egyptian Tale of Wenamon. Rumor told that Acerbas had much wealth secretly buried and King Pygmalion had Acerbas murdered in hopes of gaining this wealth. Dido, desiring to escape Tyre, expressed a wish to move into Pygmalion's palace, but ordered the attendants whom Pygmalion sent to aid in the move, to throw all Acerbas' bags of gold into the sea as an offering to his spirit. In fact these bags contained only sand. Dido persuaded the attendants to join her in flight to another land rather than face Pygmalion's anger when he discovered what had become of Acerbas' wealth; some senators joined her in her flight. The party arrived at Cyprus. There the exiles seized about eighty young women who were prostituting themselves on the shore in order to provide wives for the men in the party.
Dido and her followers arrived on the coast of North Africa where Dido asked the Berber king Iarbas for a small bit of land for a temporary refuge until she could continue her journeying, only as much land as could be encompassed by an oxhide. They agreed. Dido cut the oxhide into fine strips so that she had enough to encircle an entire nearby hill, therefore afterwards named Byrsa "hide"; that would become their new home. Many of the local Berbers joined the settlement and both Berbers and envoys from the nearby Phoenician city of Utica urged the building of a city. In digging the foundations an ox's head was found, indicating a city that would be wealthy but subject to others. Accordingly, another area of the hill was dug instead where a horse's head was found, indicating that the city would be powerful in war, but when the new city of Carthage had been established and become prosperous, Iarbas, a native king of the Maxitani or Mauritani, demanded Dido for his wife or he would make war on Carthage.
Dido's envoys, fearing Iarbas, told Dido only that Iarbas' terms for peace were that someone from Carthage must dwell permanently with him to teach Phoenician ways and they added that of course no Carthaginian would agree to dwell with such savages. Dido condemned any who would feel that way when they should indeed give their lives for the city if necessary. Dido's envoys explained that Iarbas had requested Dido as wife. Dido was trapped by her words. Still, she preferred to stay faithful to her first husband and after creating a ceremonial funeral pyre and sacrificing many victi
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus known as Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and consul, regarded as one of the greatest military commanders and strategists of all time. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of Zama in 202 BC, one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus. Prior to this battle Scipio conquered Carthaginian Iberia, culminating in the Battle of Ilipa in 206 BC against Hannibal's brother Mago Barca. Although considered a hero by the general Roman populace for his contributions in the struggle against the Carthaginians, Scipio was reviled by other patricians of his day. In his years, he was tried for bribery and treason, unfounded charges that were only meant to discredit him before the public. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio withdrew from public life. Publius Cornelius Scipio was born by Caesarean section into the Scipio branch of the gens Cornelia.
His birth year is calculated from statements made by ancient historians of how old he was when certain events in his life occurred and must have been 235/6 BC stated as circa 236 BC. The Cornelii were one of six major patrician families, along with the gentes Manlia, Aemilia, the Claudia, Valeria, with a record of successful public service in the highest offices extending back at least to the early Roman Republic. Scipio's great-grandfather, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, grandfather Lucius Cornelius Scipio, had both been consuls and censors, he was the eldest son of the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio by his wife Pomponia, daughter of plebeian consul Manius Pomponius Matho. Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the first year of Second Punic War when his father was consul. During the Battle of Ticinus, he saved his father's life by "charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring."He survived the disaster at the Battle of Cannae, where his would-be father-in-law, the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, was killed.
After the battle, with the other consul surviving elsewhere and Appius Claudius Pulcher, as military tribunes, took charge of some 10,000 survivors. On hearing that Lucius Caecilius Metellus and other young nobles were planning to go overseas to serve some king, Scipio stormed into the meeting, at sword-point, forced all present to swear that they would not abandon Rome. Scipio offered himself as a candidate for aedilis curulis in 213 BC alongside his cousin Marcus Cornelius Cethegus; the Tribunate of the Plebs objected to his candidacy, saying that he could not be allowed to stand because he had not yet reached the legal age. Scipio known for his bravery and patriotism, was elected unanimously and the Tribunes abandoned their opposition, his cousin won the election. In 211 BC, both Scipio's father, Publius Scipio, uncle, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, were killed at the Battle of the Upper Baetis in Spain against Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal Barca. At the election of a new proconsul for the command of the new army which the Romans resolved to send to Hispania, Scipio was the only man brave enough to ask for this position, no other candidates wanting the responsibility, considering it a death sentence.
In spite of his youth, his noble demeanour and enthusiastic language had made so great an impression that he was unanimously elected. In the year of Scipio's arrival, all of Hispania south of the Ebro river was under Carthaginian control. Hannibal's brothers Hasdrubal and Mago, Hasdrubal Gisco were the generals of the Carthaginian forces in Hispania, Rome was aided by the inability of these three figures to act in concert; the Carthaginians were preoccupied with revolts in Africa. Scipio landed at the mouth of the Ebro and was able to surprise and capture Carthago Nova, the headquarters of the Carthaginian power in Hispania, he obtained an excellent harbour and base of operations. Scipio's humanitarian conduct toward prisoners and hostages in Hispania helped in portraying the Romans as liberators as opposed to conquerors. Livy tells the story of his troops capturing a beautiful woman, whom they offered to Scipio as a prize of war. Scipio was astonished by her beauty but discovered that the woman was betrothed to a Celtiberian chieftain named Allucius.
He returned the woman to her fiancé, along with the money, offered by her parents to ransom her. This humanitarian act encouraged local chieftains to both reinforce Scipio's small army; the woman's fiancé, who soon married her, responded by bringing over his tribe to support the Roman armies. In 209 BC, Scipio fought his first set piece battle, driving back Hasdrubal Barca from his position at Baecula on the upper Guadalquivir. Scipio surround his small army. Scipio's objective was, therefore, to eliminate one of the armies to give him the luxury of dealing with the other two piecemeal; the battle was decided by a determined Roman infantry charge up the centre of the Carthaginian position. Roman losses are uncertain but may have been considerable in light of an effort by the infantry to scale an elevation defended by Carthaginian light infantry. Scipio orchestrated a frontal attack by the rest of his infantry to draw out the remainder of the Carthaginian forces. Hasdrubal had not noticed Scipio's hidden reserves of cavalry moving behind enemy lines, a Roman cavalry charge created a double envelopment on either flank led by cavalry commander Gaius Laelius and Scipio himsel
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three wars between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. It was one of the deadliest human conflicts of ancient times. Fought across the entire Western Mediterranean region for 17 years and regarded by ancient historians as the greatest war in history, it was waged with unparalleled resources and hatred, it saw hundreds of thousands killed, some of the most lethal battles in military history, the destruction of cities, massacres and enslavements of civilian populations and prisoners of war by both sides. The war began with the Carthaginian general Hannibal's conquest of the pro-Roman Iberian city of Saguntum in 219 BC, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in the spring of 218. Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia to cross the Alps and invade Roman Italy, followed by his reinforcement by Gallic allies and crushing victories over Roman armies at Trebia in 218 and on the shores of Lake Trasimene in 217.
Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal at Cannae annihilated the largest army the Romans had assembled. After the death or imprisonment of 130,000 Roman troops in two years, 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage, giving her control over most of southern Italy. Macedon and Syracuse joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae and the conflict spread to Greece and Sicily. From 215–210 the Carthaginian army and navy launched repeated amphibious assaults to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia but were repulsed. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans adopted the Fabian strategy – the avoidance of battle against Hannibal and defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead. Roman armies recaptured all of the great cities that had joined Carthage and defeated a Carthaginian attempt to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus in 207. Southern Italy was devastated by the combatants, with hundreds of thousands of civilians killed or enslaved. In Iberia, which served as a major source of silver and manpower for the Carthaginian army, a Roman expeditionary force under Publius Cornelius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, Carthage's capital city in Iberia, in 209.
Scipio's destruction of a Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206 permanently ended Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, inflicting two severe defeats on Carthage and her allies at Utica and the Great Plains that compelled the Carthaginian senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy; the final engagement between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202 and resulted in Hannibal's defeat and the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a great power and became a Roman client state until its final destruction by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War. The Second Punic War overthrew the established balance of power of the ancient world and Rome rose to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin for the next 600 years. Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated 241 BC Treaty of Lutatius. Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica to Rome in 238 BC.
Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca and his family, Carthage defeated the rebels and began the Barcid conquest of Hispania from 237 BC onward. Control over Spain gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence; the Second Punic War was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome. After great tension within the city government, culminating in the assassination of the supporters of Carthage, Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum in 219 BC; the city called for Roman aid. Following a prolonged siege of eight months and a bloody struggle, in which Hannibal himself was wounded, the Carthaginians took control of the city. Many of the Saguntians chose to commit suicide rather than face subjugation by the Carthaginians; the loss of Saguntum as a potential base of operations in Carthaginian Iberia was a serious setback to the main Roman strategic objective in Spain: the eviction of the Carthaginians from the peninsula.
The Roman Senate sent an embassy to the Carthaginian Senate that declared war on Carthage in early 218 BC over the attack on Rome's Saguntine ally. Before the war and Hasdrubal the Fair had made a treaty. Livy reports that it was agreed that the Iber should be the boundary between the two empires and that the liberty of the Saguntines should be preserved; the highest priority in Carthaginian strategy was to keep the war away from Carthage's agricultural heartland in Africa and protect the property of the wealthy Carthaginian landowners who controlled Carthaginian politics. Spanish mines and sources of manpower comprised the second pillar of the Carthaginian power base and their protection was essential to maintaining Carthage's status as an independent continental great power. Hannibal's invasion of Italy forced the Romans to abandon their intended invasion of Africa and de-prioritize the reinforcement of Roman armies in Spain. Most Roman troops during the war fought in Italy, which became the main theater of the war as a result of Hannibal's offensive.
Africa remained undisturbed by a Roman invasion army until 204 BC and the Roman military presence in Spain was confined to its northeastern corn
For the Renaissance painter Sofonisba Anguissola, see Sofonisba Anguissola. For the American activist Sophonisba Breckinridge, see Sophonisba Breckinridge. Sophonisba was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis. In an act that became legendary, Sophonisba poisoned herself rather than be humiliated in a Roman triumph; the form of the name Sophonisba is not known until the fifteenth century, in a few late manuscripts of Livy, but it is the better known form because of literature. Dio Cassius tells us that Sophoniba was a great beauty, betrothed to King Masinissa until 206. Masinissa was the leader of the Massylii Numidians. However, in 206, Masinissa allied himself to Rome. Dio Cassius suggests that this was because Hasdrubal found a better ally in Syphax, king of the Masaesyli, as was normal in those days, Hasdrubal used his daughter to conclude the diplomatic alliances with Syphax, who had himself been allied to Rome; because Masinissa meets Sophonisba for the first time after the defeat of Syphax, this account is criticized as being "most improbable" by H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard.
Syphax was defeated and captured in 203 BC by Masinissa and Scipio Africanus in the Battle of the Great Plains on the Bagradas. Masinissa married her. Scipio, refused to agree to this arrangement, insisting on the immediate surrender of the princess so that she could be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. Masinissa, upbraided by Scipio for his weakness, was urged to leave her. Masinissa feared the Romans more. Thus, he swore his love to her, he told her that he could not free her from captivity or shield her from Roman wrath, so he asked her to die like a true Carthaginian princess. With great composure, she drank a cup of poison, her story much embellished, is told indirectly in Polybius. Polybius, never refers to Sophonisba by name in his allusions to her marriage to Syphax, in his extensive account of Laelius' maneuvers against Syphax; the historian had met Masinissa. It has been proposed that Polybius' account provides the basis for the Sophonisba story; when Polybius does refer to her, he uses the diminutive in a tone.
In one passage, Polybius ridicules Syphax for being less courageous than his own "child bride". Petrarch elaborated her story in his epic poem Africa, published posthumously in 1396; the playwright John Marston wrote The Wonder of Women a Roman tragedy based on the story of Sophonisba, in 1606 for the Children of the Queen's Revels. There are a number of paintings of Sophonisba drinking her poison, but the subject is very similar to that of Artemisia II of Caria drinking her husband's ashes, the Rembrandt in the Prado and a Donato Creti in the National Gallery are examples of works where the intended subject remains uncertain between the two. Sophonisba became the subject of tragedies from the 16th to the 19th centuries, along with the story of Cleopatra, furnished more dramas than any other; the first tragedy is credited to the Italian Galeotto Del Carretto, written in 1502, but issued posthumously in 1546. The first to appear, was Gian Giorgio Trissino's play of 1515 which, "in codifying the forms of Italian classical tragedy, helped consign Del Carretto's Sofonisba to oblivion."
In France, Trissino's version was adapted by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, may have served as the primary model for versions by Antoine de Montchrestien and Nicolas de Montreux. The tragedy by Jean Mairet is one of the first monuments of French "classicism", was followed by a version from Pierre Corneille; the story of Sophonisba served as subject for works by John Marston, David Murray, Nathaniel Lee, Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein, Henry Purcell, Antonio Caldara, Leonardo Leo, Luca Antonio Predieri, James Thomson, Niccolò Jommelli, Baldassare Galuppi, Tommaso Traetta, Antonio Boroni, Christopher Gluck, Maria Teresa Agnesi, Mattia Vento, François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel, revised by Voltaire, Christian Gottlob Neefe, António Leal Moreira, Joseph Joaquín Mazuelo, Vittorio Alfieri, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Marcos Portugal, Ferdinando Paer, Vincenzo Federici, Luigi Petrali, Emanuel Geibel, Jeronim de Rada, Giuseppe Brunati, Dimitrie Cuclin, Vasco Graça Moura, others. Sophonisba appears in film, first in Giovanni Pastrone's 1914 silent film Cabiria and again in Carmine Gallone's 1937 epic movie Scipio Africanus: The Defeat of Hannibal.
Livy, Ab urbe condita libri xxix.23, xxx.8, 12-15.8 Livius.org: Sophoniba
Sagunto is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia. It is located c. 30 km north of Valencia, close to the Costa del Azahar on the Mediterranean Sea. It is best known for the remains of the ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, which played a significant part in the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and the Romans. During the 5th century BC, the Iberians built a walled settlement on the hill overseeing the plain; the city traded with coastal colonies in the western Mediterranean such as Carthage and, under their influence, minted its own coins. During this period, the city was known as Arse. By 219 BC, Saguntum was a large and commercially prosperous town, which sided with the local colonists and Rome against Carthage, drew Hannibal's first assault, his siege of Saguntum, which triggered the Second Punic War, one of the most important wars of antiquity. After stiff resistance over the course of eight months, related by the Roman historian Livy and in more detail by Silius Italicus, Saguntum was captured in 219 BC by the armies of Hannibal.
Seven years the town was retaken by the Romans. In 214 BC, it became a municipium, was flourished. Hispania was not pacified and Romanised, as the Iberian career of Quintus Sertorius makes clear. Saguntum minted coins under his protection, but continued to house a mint in Roman times; the Romans built a great circus in the lower part of the city and a theatre seating 8,000 spectators. Texts found indicate that the city had about 50,000 inhabitants; this prosperity lasted for most of the empire, is attested by inscriptions and ruins. Under the Arian Visigothic kings, Saguntum received its Catholic patron saint, a bishop named Sacerdos, "the priest", who died peacefully of natural causes about AD 560. In the early 8th century, the Muslim Arabs came and the city became part of the Caliphate of Cordoba and at that time the city reached an era of splendor, with baths, palaces and schools open for its cosmopolitan population; the town was known as Morvedre, a name derived from Latin muri veteres "ancient walls."
However, as Valencia grew, Saguntum declined. In 1098, the city was conquered by El Cid but the Muslims recovered it shortly thereafter; the city had been under the Muslim Arab rule for over 500 years when James I of Aragon conquered it in 1238. During the Peninsular War, a Spanish attempt to raise the French siege of the castle failed in the Battle of Saguntum on 25 October 1811. In the weeks before the battle, the Spanish garrison made a successful defense. Historian Charles Oman stated that the site was converted into a fortress in 1810–1811 by General Joaquín Blake at the suggestion of British officer Charles William Doyle. At that time, much of the intact Roman theater was dismantled to provide stone for restoring the old walls. Saguntum has retained many Valencian Gothic structures. In the late 19th century, a steel-making industry grew up that supported the modern city, which extends in the coastal plain below the citadel hill; the last steel oven closed in April 1984. It is now a tourist attraction.
The remains of Sagunto Castle may be seen on top of the hill. It preserves much of its walled ramparts, of Moorish origin. A Roman theater restored in late 20th century, it is found on the northern slope of the citadel hill. It was the first official; the Gothic Esglèsia de Santa Maria, in the Plaça Major. The Palau Municipal, or town hall; the early Gothic Esglèsia del Salvador. The narrow streets of the Juderia, on the hillside on the way up to the citadel; the 13th century Santa Ana convent adjacent to the Plaça de Pi. The Sagunto History Museum, located in the house of Mestre Peña, a building in the Jewish quarter dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; the largest collection is from the Ibero-Roman Period. The famed composer Don Joaquín Rodrigo, who composed Concierto de Aranjuez, among others, was born in Sagunt. Ripollès i Alegre, P. P.. Arse-Saguntum: historia monetaria de la ciudad y su territorio. Fundación Bancaja. ISBN 8484710270. Oman, Charles. A History of the Peninsular War Volume V. 5.
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole. ISBN 1-85367-225-4. Sagunt, a virtual trip Sagunto: City of Ruins
Gaius Flaminius C. f. L. n. was a leading Roman politician in the third century BC. Twice consul, in 223 and 217, Flaminius is notable for his Lex Flaminia land reform of 232, the construction of the Circus Flaminius in 221, his battle against Hannibal's army in 217 during the Second Punic War where he was defeated and killed. Flaminius is celebrated by ancient sources as being a skilled orator and a man possessed of great piety and determination, he is, however criticised by ancient writers such as Cicero and Livy for his popular policies and disregard of Roman traditions during the terms of his tribunate and second consulship. Flaminius was elected as tribune of the plebs in 232 BC. Cicero writes that Flaminius was an accomplished orator before the people, a skill that helped him achieve the tribunate. During his term Flaminius proposed the Lex Flaminia de Agro Gallico et Piceno viritim dividundo, a controversial agrarian law proposing the settlement of Roman citizens in the Ager Gallicus Picenus lands around Picenum and Ariminum, made available by Rome's defeat of their previous occupants, the Senones, in 283.
It is unclear from the ancient sources. Polybius suggests that the law caused problems with the Boii as the Romans began settling near their territory leading to the Gallic rebellion in 225. 2,580 square kilometres had been made ager publicus following the Roman victory, although the law did not distribute all the available territory and some was in fact privatised prior to Flaminius' reform. The land was reasonably valuable, it is not clear from the ancient sources how many people were settled there, although estimates suggest 19,000 citizens, not including their families. It would have been problematic to transport and settle this many people to a distant area from Rome so scholars have argued that transportation must have been made by sea as land would have been difficult; this transportation has been linked to the Roman conflict with Illyrian pirates as raids now directly affected Roman citizens. Ancient sources describe resistance from the senate to these measures including opposition from Quintus Fabius Maximus, a rival of Flaminius, although Cicero notes that Spurius Carvilius, Fabius Maximus' colleague for his second consulship, did not join the opposition.
Valerius Maximus writes that Flaminius persisted in pushing it through despite threats and pleas from the senate, against the possibility of an army being levied against him if he continued. Roman historians use the opposition to the law from the senate to portray Flaminius as a populares style leader, alienated from the senate in the tradition of the Gracchi, although this narrative is challenged by modern historians. One tradition suggests that as Flaminius was proposing his agrarian law he was dragged from the rostra by his father. Cicero writes that Flaminius' father was subsequently tried for maiestas for this action, but argued that he was exerting his authority as a father over a son rather than a citizen acting against an elected tribune of the plebs. Valerius Maximus follows this tradition, listing Flaminius as an example of male piety for respecting his father's private authority over him as he allowed his father to remove him from the rostra when nothing else would sway him. Valerius Maximus claims the crowd respected Flaminius' pietas in this event and does not mention the subsequent maiestas trial described by Cicero.
This has led some modern scholars to argue that the law was never passed, although contemporary sources indicate that it did. Early scholarly thinking compared Flaminius with Tiberius Gracchus as they both pushed through land laws against the wishes of the senate; this led to view that the senatorial opposition stemmed from an economic motivation to keep this land for the nobiles, exploiting it since its capture, the portrayal of Flaminius as a democratic leader campaigning for the common people against the greedy nobiles. Fraccaro rejected this explanation and began looking for a political motivation instead, arguing that there was senatorial opposition as the law proposed a new style of settlement. Colonists kept their Roman citizenship if the land was connected to the ager Romanus, as otherwise Rome founded a Latin colony and colonists lost Roman citizenship, while through this law colonists kept their citizenship despite the distance from Rome. Meyer argues against this, citing citizenship given to other peoples including the Sabines and Picentes despite their distance from Rome.
Corbett proposes instead that Rome had a manpower problem, the senate was therefore unwilling to distribute citizens so far away to a place sufficiently guarded. Feig Vishnia argues against this idea as the people settled had lost land and therefore were ineligible for the army, so by giving them land Rome would increase its manpower possibilities and protect the border with the Boii, an idea supported by the fact that the area became a key source of manpower in the Second Punic War. Develin claims that the law never passed due to the intervention of Flaminius' father, that the senate settled Latin colonies there to prevent complaints from the potential settlers, but no names of these colonies are found in the ancient evidence and his argument is not supported by the ancient evidence on the law, he argues that it impossible to reconstruct factional support within the senate for the law. Kramer however suggests that Flaminius was manipulating factional rivalries by aligning with the Aemilii to gain an advantage for the plebs he hoped to settle.
He views choice of territory as part of an aggressive policy
Hannibal Barca was a general and statesman from Ancient Carthage, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, all commanded Carthaginian armies. Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father to never be a friend of Rome; the Second Punic War broke out in 218 after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. He made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his African elephants. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, Cannae.
He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, to plan battles accordingly. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, he defeated Rome's nemesis at the Battle of Zama, having driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. After the war, Hannibal ran for the office of sufet, he enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome. During this time, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III the Great in his war against Rome. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia.
His flight ended in the court of Bithynia, where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamon. He was afterwards betrayed to the committed suicide by poisoning himself. Hannibal is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists in history and one of the greatest generals of Mediterranean antiquity, together with Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Scipio Africanus. Plutarch states that Scipio asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus himself" Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy", because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into its own strategic arsenal. Hannibal has been cited by various subsequent military leaders, such as Napoleon Bonaparte, as an inspiration and the greatest strategist of all time; the English form of the name is derived from the Latin. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas Bárkas. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian masculine given name.
The name was recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBʿL. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal, its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. Suggested readings include Ḥannobaʿal, Ḥannibaʿl, or Ḥannibaʿal, meaning "Baʿal/The Lord is Gracious", "Baʿal Has Been Gracious", or "The Grace of Baʿal". Barca was the Semitic surname of his aristocratic family, meaning "shining" or "lightning", it is thus the Phoenician equivalent to the Arabic name Barq or the Hebrew name Barak or the ancient Greek epithet Keraunos, given to military commanders in the Hellenistic period. In English, his clan are sometimes collectively known as the Barcids; as with Greek and Roman practice, patronymics were a common part of Carthaginian nomenclature, so that Hannibal would have been known as "Hannibal son of Hamilcar". Hannibal was one of the sons of a Carthaginian leader, he was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia.
He had several sisters and two brothers and Mago. His brothers-in-law were the Numidian king Naravas, he was still a child when his sisters married, his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father's struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. In light of Hamilcar Barca's cognomen, historians refer to Hamilcar's family as the Barcids. However, there is debate as to whether the cognomen Barca was applied to Hamilcar alone or was hereditary within his family. If the latter Hannibal and his brothers bore the name "Barca". After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state. According to Polybius, Hannibal much said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and dem