The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson, in September 1843, in 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. The publication belongs to the Economist Group and it is 50% owned by the English branch of the Rothschild family and by the Agnelli family through its holding company Exor. The remaining 50% is held by investors including the editors. The Rothschilds and the Agnellis are represented on the board of directors, a board of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed without its permission. Although The Economist has an emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster. For the year to March 2016 the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m, previous major shareholders include Pearson PLC.
The Economist takes a stance of classical and economic liberalism which is supportive of free trade, free immigration. The publication has described itself as a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and it targets highly educated readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers. The publications CEO described this recent global change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century, on the contents page of each issue, The Economists mission statement is written in italics. The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, revenue. Parliamentary reports, with focus on commerce and free trade.
Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade, general news from the Court of St. Jamess, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce, books, confined chiefly, but not so exclusively, to commerce and agriculture, and including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week and inquiries from the news magazines readers. It has long respected as one of the most competent. Its logo was designed in 1959 by Reynolds Stone, in January 2012 The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted exclusively to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942
Socialist economics refers to the economic theories and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems. Where markets are utilized for allocating inputs and capital goods among economic units, when planning is utilized, the economic system is designated a planned socialist economy. Non-market forms of socialism usually include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind or a measure of labor-time as a means to value resources. The term socialist economics may be applied to analysis of former and existing economic systems that call themselves socialist, Socialist economics has been associated with different schools of economic thought. Marxian economics provided a foundation for socialism based on analysis of capitalism, while neoclassical economics, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that hunter-gatherer societies and some primitive agricultural societies were communal, and called this primitive communism. Engels wrote about this at length in the book The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, as such it is commonly regarded as a movement belonging to the modern era.
Marx had viewed the process in a light, referring to it as part of the process of primitive accumulation whereby enough initial capital is amassed to begin capitalist production. The dislocation that Polyani and others describe, triggered natural counter-movements in efforts to re-embed the economy in society and these counter-movements, that included, for example, the Luddite rebellions, are the incipient socialist movements. Over time such movements gave birth to or acquired an array of intellectual defenders who attempted to develop their ideas in theory, as Polanyi noted, these counter-movements were mostly reactive and therefore not full-fledged socialist movements. Some demands went no further than a wish to mitigate the capitalist markets worst effects, later, a full socialist program developed, arguing for systemic transformation. As socialism developed, so did the socialist system of economics, the first theories which came to hold the term socialism began to be formulated in the late 18th century, and were termed socialism early in the 19th century.
The central beliefs of the socialism of this period rested on the exploitation of those who labored by those who owned capital or rented land, Socialist ideas found expression in utopian movements, which often formed agricultural communes aimed at being self-sufficient on the land. These included many religious movements, such as the Christian socialism of the Shakers in America, the Zionist kibbutzim and communes of the counterculture are manifestations of utopian socialist ideas. Utopian socialism had little to offer in terms of a theory of economic phenomena. In theory, economic problems were dissolved by a society which had transcended material scarcity. In practice, small communities with a common spirit could sometimes resolve allocation problems, the first organized theories of socialist economics were significantly impacted by classical economic theory, including elements in Adam Smith, Robert Malthus and David Ricardo. Ricardo argued that the class was parasitic. A key early socialist theorist of political economy was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and he was the most well-known of nineteenth century mutualist theorists and the first thinker to refer to himself as an anarchist
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital programs. It comprises two institutions, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Development Association, the World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group, which is part of the United Nations system. The World Banks stated official goal is the reduction of poverty, the president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American. The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D. C. and work closely with each other, although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations. Before 1974 the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were relatively small, the Banks staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, and loan applications had to meet strict criteria, the first country to receive a World Bank loan was France.
The Banks president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants and Chile, the loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, and it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments. World Bank staff closely monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed, the French government complied with this diktat and removed the Communist coalition government - the so-called tripartisme. Within hours, the loan to France was approved, when the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries, in 1960, the International Development Association was formed, providing soft loans to developing countries.
From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the needs of people in the developing world. The size and number of loans to borrowers was greatly increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and these changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, who was appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the banks that had been the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the bond market to increase the capital available to the bank. One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an annual rate of 20%
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
University of the Punjab
The University of the Punjab or Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Pakistan. It is the oldest public university in Pakistan, approximately 30,000 enrolled students are currently attending the university, the PU has total of 13 faculties within which there are 63 academic departments, research centers, and institutes. The Punjab University has ranked first amongst large-sized multiple faculty universities by the HEC in 2012, there are two Nobel Laureates amongst the universitys alumni and former staff. Additionally, the university is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom, the University of the Punjab was given its initial impetus by Woods despatch in 1854. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner was the founder of the university, contrary to the three previously established universities, which were only examining institutions, the University of the Punjab was both teaching as well as examining body right from the beginning. From its formation in 1882 until 1947, the University of the Punjab served the needs of the entire region of pre-independence Punjab.
Mohindra College, Patiala was the first college of higher learning to affiliate with University of Punjab in 1882, followed by St. Stephens College, Delhi. The independence of Pakistan in 1947 reduced the jurisdiction of the university. The Indian portion of the university is referred to as Panjab University, the current Institute of Administrative Sciences was created in 1962. The campus houses the Senate, the Syndicate, the Selection Board, quaid-i-Azam Campus, known as the new campus, it is named after the founder of Pakistan and is located 12 kilometres to the south of the Allama Iqbal Campus. Spread over an area of 1,700 acres of green landscape this campus is the centre of academic. A canal divides the academic blocks from the student lodgings, gujranwala Campus, the faculties of Commerce and Management Sciences and Science all conduct teaching in the campus. Khanspur Campus, the campus is located at a height of about 7,000 ft in the Himalayan range near Ayubia. This campus, in addition to providing facilities, is used as a recreational center for the faculty.
Jhelum Campus, having opened in 2012, it offers studies relating to the faculties of Commerce and Management Sciences, Law. At present PU has 28 dorms 17 for male and 11 for female students, most of these students are accommodated in the dorms at the Quaid-e-Azam Campus. Total number of residents is 6961. On-campus housing facilities include 89 houses for teachers and University officers and 249 houses for staff of the University
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.
In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s
For other forms of development, see Development. International development or global development is a concept concerning the level of development on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as developed country, developing country, There are, many schools of thought and conventions regarding which are the exact features constituting development of a country. Historically it has been synonymous with economic development. Recently it is often used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development as well as other concepts like competitiveness. International development is different from simple development in that it is composed of institutions. These institutions focus on alleviating poverty and improving living conditions in previously colonised, the start of the Cold War and the desire of the United States and its allies to prevent the Third World from drifting towards communism. International Development in its meaning is geared towards colonies that gained independence.
The governance of the independent states should be constructed so that the inhabitants enjoy freedom from poverty, hunger. It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20,1949 and this agenda was given conceptual support during the 1950s in the form of modernization theory espoused by Walt Rostow and other American economists. By the late 1960s, dependency theory arose analysing the relationship between the West and the Third World. In response various parts of the UN system led a counter movement and they were led initially by the International Labour Organization, influenced by Paul Streeten, by UNICEF. By the 1990s, there were writers for whom development theory had reached an impasse. The Cold War had ended, capitalism had become the dominant mode of social organization, nevertheless, a large portion of the worlds population were still living in poverty, their governments were crippled by debt and concerns about the environmental impact of globalization were rising. The critics have suggested that this integration has always been part of the agenda of development.
This approach is embraced by organizations such as the Gamelan Council seeking to empower entrepreneurs, while some critics have been debating the end of development others have predicted a development revival as part of the War on Terrorism. There are a number of overarching theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved, a truly sustainable development project is one which will be able to carry on indefinitely with no further international involvement or support, whether it be financial or otherwise. International development projects may consist of a single, transformative project to address a problem or a series of projects targeted at several aspects of society
Bangladesh Liberation War
It resulted in the independence of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The war began after the Pakistani military junta based in West Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight against the people of East Pakistan on the night of 25 March 1971 and it pursued the systematic elimination of nationalist Bengali civilians, intelligentsia, religious minorities and armed personnel. The junta annulled the results of the 1970 elections and arrested Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and urban areas across East Pakistan saw extensive military operations and air strikes to suppress the tide of civil disobedience that formed following the 1970 election stalemate. The Pakistan Army, which had the backing of Islamists, created radical religious militias – the Razakars, Al-Badr, members of the Pakistani military and supporting militias engaged in mass murder and genocidal rape. The capital Dhaka was the scene of massacres, including the Dhaka University killings. An estimated 10 million Bengali refugees fled to neighbouring India, while 30 million were internally displaced, sectarian violence broke out between Bengalis and Urdu-speaking immigrants.
An academic consensus prevails that the committed by the Pakistani military were a genocide. The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence was proclaimed from Chittagong by members of the Mukti Bahini – the national liberation army formed by Bengali military, the East Bengal Regiment and the East Pakistan Rifles played a crucial role in the resistance. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders and they liberated numerous towns and cities in the initial months of the conflict. The Pakistan Army regained momentum in the monsoon, Bengali guerrillas carried out widespread sabotage, including Operation Jackpot against the Pakistan Navy. The nascent Bangladesh Air Force flew sorties against Pakistani military bases, by November, the Bangladesh forces restricted the Pakistani military to its barracks during the night. They secured control of most parts of the countryside, the Provisional Government of Bangladesh was formed on 17 April 1971 in Mujibnagar and moved to Calcutta as a government in exile.
Bengali members of the Pakistani civil and diplomatic corps defected to the Bangladeshi provisional government, thousands of Bengali families were interned in West Pakistan, from where many escaped to Afghanistan. Bengali cultural activists operated the clandestine Free Bengal Radio Station, the plight of millions of war-ravaged Bengali civilians caused worldwide outrage and alarm. The Indian state led by Indira Gandhi provided substantial diplomatic, British and American musicians organised the worlds first benefit concert in New York City to support the Bangladeshi people. India joined the war on 3 December 1971, after Pakistan launched preemptive air strikes on North India, the subsequent Indo-Pakistani War witnessed engagements on two war fronts. With air supremacy achieved in the theatre and the rapid advance of the Allied Forces of Bangladesh and India. The war changed the landscape of South Asia, with the emergence of Bangladesh as the seventh-most populous country in the world
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan, was a Pakistani civil servant and a bureaucrat who served as the 7th President of Pakistan from 1988 until his resignation in 1993. Raised in Bannu, Ghulam Ishaq graduated from Peshawar University and entered the Indian Civil Service, appointed the first chairman of the Water and Power Development Authority by President Ayub Khan in 1961, Ghulam Ishaq served as Finance Secretary from 1966 to 1970. A year later, he was appointed Governor of the State Bank by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, before being made Defence Secretary in 1975 and he was retained by President Zia-ul-Haq as Finance Minister in 1977, overseeing the countrys highest GDP growth average. Elected Chairman of the Senate in 1985, Ghulam Ishaq was elevated to the presidency after Zias death in an air crash on August 17,1988 and he was elected president on December 13, as the consensus candidate of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad and Pakistan Peoples Party. The oldest person to serve as president, Ghulam Ishaq played a role against Communist Afghanistan.
Ghulam Ishaq invoked the Eight Amendment and dismissed Benazirs government after just 20 months, on charges of rampant corruption, Sharif was elected Prime Minister in 1990, but Ghulam Ishaq dismissed his government on similar charges three years later. The Supreme Court overturned the dismissal, but the gridlock ultimately led to both men resigning in 1993, retiring from public service, Ghulam Ishaq served as rector of the GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology in his native province, dying from pneumonia in 2006. He has been cited as the most powerful civilian president in history of Pakistan and he was an ethnic Bangash Pashtun. His family remains active in politics, his son-in-law is former federal minister Anwar Saifullah Khan while another son-in-law is former Sindh minister and advisor, Irfanullah Khan Marwat. A granddaughter of his is married to Haroon Bilour of the ANP and another to Omar Ayub Khan, after his schooling in Bannu, Khan first attended the Islamia College before making transfer to Peshawar University.
He obtained double BSc, in Chemistry and in Botany, initially looking for a university job, Khan joined the Indian Civil Service in 1941, serving in various provincial assignments on behalf of British India. After independence in 1947, Khan opted for Pakistan and was assigned to the bureaucracy of the government of North-West Frontier Province in 1947. He took over the provincial secretariat as the secretary of the irrigation department, in 1956, Khan was appointed Home Secretary of Sindh, but was appointed Secretary of Department of Development and Irrigation by the Sindh government. In 1958, he was elevated to federal government level, and assigned secretariat control of the Ministry of Agriculture, since 1958, Khan had been serving in the board of governors of the Water and Power Development Authority, before being elevating to Chairman in 1961. As Chairman, he played a role in the construction and financial development of Mangla Dam. In 1966, Khan left the chairmanship to be appointed Finance Secretary of the Finance Ministry until 1970, after Pakistans loss to India in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Khan was called to administer all retail and commercial services pertaining to the national economy tattered by war.
In 1971, Bhutto appointed him Governor of State Bank of Pakistan when he was tasked to carry out monetary, in 1975, Prime Minister Bhutto subsequently removed him from the State Bank, instead posting him at the Ministry of Defence. Khan was appointed Defence Secretary, which was fortuitous in that it brought him into contact with the Pakistani military establishment
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Saybrook Colony to train Congregationalist ministers, it is the third-oldest institution of education in the United States. The Collegiate School moved to New Haven in 1716, and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century the school introduced graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools, the undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each schools faculty oversees its curriculum, the universitys assets include an endowment valued at $25.4 billion as of June 2016, the second largest of any U. S. educational institution.
The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States, Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all faculty teach courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents,19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices,20 living billionaires, and many heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress,57 Nobel laureates,5 Fields Medalists,247 Rhodes Scholars, and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University. Yale traces its beginnings to An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School, passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9,1701, the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut.
Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregationalist ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, the group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as The Founders. Originally known as the Collegiate School, the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, the school moved to Saybrook, and Wethersfield. In 1716 the college moved to New Haven, the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College, meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale. The 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, philosophy and it had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Lockes works and developed his original theology known as the new divinity
Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the second most populous city in Pakistan and the 32nd most populous city in the world, the city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistans Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is ranked as a world city, and is one of Pakistans wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2014. Lahore is the cultural centre of the Punjab region, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghurids. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, the city was contested between the Maratha Empire and Durrani Empire, became capital of the Sikh Empire, before becoming the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Lahore became the capital of Pakistans Punjab province, Lahore is one of Pakistans most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a strong influence over Pakistan.
Lahore is a centre for Pakistans publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistans literary scene. The city is a centre of education in Pakistan. Lahore is home to Pakistans film industry, and is a centre of Qawwali music. The city is much of Pakistans tourist industry, with major attractions including the old Walled City. Lahore is home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Lahore Fort, the etymology of Lahore is uncertain, but according to legend the city was once known as Lavapura, in honour of Prince Lava of the Hindu epic poem, the Ramayana. Lahore Fort contains a vacant Lava temple, dedicated to the founder of the city. Lahore was called by different names throughout history, to date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Lahore is described as a Hindu principality in the Rajput accounts, the founder of Suryavansha, is believed to have migrated out from the city. The Solanki tribe, belonging to Amukhara Pattan, which included the Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer, Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.
Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century, the sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated