Islam by country
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group. According to a study in 2015, Islam has 1.8 billion adherents, making up about 24.1% of the world population. Most Muslims are either of two denominations: Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in Central Asia, Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel and some other parts of Asia; the diverse Asia-Pacific region contains the highest number of Muslims in the world surpassing the Middle East and North Africa. South Asia contains the largest population of Muslims in the world. One-third of all Muslims are of South Asian origin. Islam is the largest religion in the Maldives, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, second-largest in India; the various Hamito-Semitic and Iranic countries of the greater Middle East-North Africa region, where Islam is the dominant religion in all countries other than Israel, hosts 23% of world Muslims. The country with the single largest population of Muslims is Indonesia in Southeast Asia, which on its own hosts 13% of the world's Muslims.
Together, the Muslims in the countries of Southeast Asia constitute the world's third-largest population of Muslims. In the countries of the Malay Archipelago Muslims are majorities in each country other than the Philippines and East Timor. About 15% of Muslims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa, sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, China and Europe. Western Europe hosts many Muslim immigrant communities where Islam is the second-largest religion after Christianity, where it represents 6% of the total population or 24 million people. Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Islam is divided into two major religious denominations: Shi'a. Of the total Muslim population, 87–90% are Sunni and 10–13% are Shi'a. Most Shi'as live in four countries: Iran, Azerbaijan and Iraq. Today, many of the Shia sects are extinct; the major surviving Imamah-Muslim Sects are Nizari Ismailism and Alevism. The other existing groups include Zaydi Shi'a of Yemen whose population is nearly more than 0.5% of the world's Muslim population, Musta’li Ismaili, Ibadis from the Kharijites whose population has diminished to a level below 0.15%.
Non-denominational Muslims, Quranist Muslims and Wahhabis exist. According to the Pew Research Center in 2010, there were 50 Muslim-majority countries. Around 62 % of the world's Muslims live with over 1 billion adherents; the largest Muslim population in a country is in Indonesia, a nation home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan, India. About 20% of Muslims live in Arab countries. In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Iran and Turkey are the largest Muslim-majority countries; the study found more Muslims in the United Kingdom than in more in China than in Syria. Indian state of Uttar Pradesh has more Muslims than all the other Muslim majority countries except Indonesia, Bangladesh, Egypt and Turkey. Most of the percentages of Muslim populations of each country, if not stated otherwise, were taken from the study by the Pew Research Center report of 5 facts about the muslim population in Europe, 2017. Islam: Muslim world Muslim population growth Shia Muslims in the Arab world Ahmadiyya by countryOther religions by country: Ahmadiyya Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Judaism No Faith SikhismGeneral List of religious populations United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report CIA World Factbook The World Factbook Adherents.com 43,941 adherent statistic citations Religious Freedom page Religious Intelligence Muslim Population Percentage from U.
S Dept. of State CIA World Factbook Religions BBC News Muslims in Europe: Country guide Official website of the Pew Forum study on Global Muslim Population Muslim Population-A Site with Extensive information regarding worldwide Muslim population
Islamic banking and finance
Islamic banking or Islamic finance or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. Some of the modes of Islamic banking/finance include Mudarabah, Musharaka and Ijara. Sharia prohibits usury, defined as interest paid on all loans of money. Investment in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to Islamic principles is haraam; these prohibitions have been applied in varying degrees in Muslim countries/communities to prevent un-Islamic practices. In the late 20th century, as part of the revival of Islamic identity, a number of Islamic banks formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community, their number and size has grown, so that by 2009, there were over 300 banks and 250 mutual funds around the world complying with Islamic principles, around $2 trillion was sharia-compliant by 2014. Sharia-compliant financial institutions represented 1% of total world assets, concentrated in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Malaysia.
Although Islamic banking still makes up only a fraction of the banking assets of Muslims, since its inception it has been growing faster than banking assets as a whole, is projected to continue to do so. The industry has been lauded for returning to the path of "divine guidance" in rejecting the "political and economic dominance" of the West, noted as the "most visible mark" of Islamic revivalism, its most enthusiastic advocates promise "no inflation, no unemployment, no exploitation and no poverty" once it is implemented. However, it has been criticized for failing to develop profit and loss sharing or more ethical modes of investment promised by early promoters, instead selling banking products that "comply with the formal requirements of Islamic law", but use "ruses and subterfuges to conceal interest", entail "higher costs, bigger risks" than conventional banks. Although Islamic finance contains many prohibitions—such as on consumption of alcohol, uncertainty, etc. -- the belief that "all forms of interest are riba and hence prohibited" is the idea upon which it is based.
The word "riba" means “excess or addition”, has been translated as "interest", "usury", "excess", "increase" or "addition". According to Islamic economists Choudhury and Malik, the elimination of interest followed a "gradual process" in early Islam, "culminating" with a "fully fledged Islamic economic system" under Caliph Umar. Other sources, do not agree, state that the giving and taking of interest continued in Muslim society "at times through the use of legal ruses more or less openly," including during the Ottoman Empire. In the late 19th century Islamic Modernists reacted to the rise of European power and influence and its colonization of Muslim countries by reconsidering the prohibition on interest and whether interest rates and insurance were not among the "preconditions for productive investment" in a functioning modern economy. Syed Ahmad Khan, argued for a differentiation between sinful riba "usury", which they saw as restricted to charges on lending for consumption, legitimate non-riba "interest", for lending for commercial investment.
However, in the 20th century, Islamic revivalists/Islamists/activists worked to define all interest as riba, to enjoin Muslims to lend and borrow at "Islamic Banks" that avoided fixed rates. By the 21st century this Islamic Banking movement had created "institutions of interest-free financial enterprises across the world”; the movement started with activists and scholars such as Anwar Qureshi,Naeem Siddiqui, Abul A'la Maududi, Muhammad Hamidullah, in the late 1940 and early 1950s. They believed commercial banks were a "necessary evil," and proposed a banking system based on the concept of Mudarabah, where shared profit on investment would replace interest. Further works devoted to the subject of interest-free banking were authored by Muhammad Uzair, Abdullah al-Araby, Mohammad Najatuallah Siddiqui, al-Najjar and Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr; the involvement of institutions and various conferences and studies on Islamic banking were instrumental in applying the application of theory to practice for the first interest-free banks.
At the First International Conference on Islamic Economics, "several hundred Muslim intellectuals, Shari'ah scholars and economists unequivocally declared... that all forms of interest" were riba. By 2004, the strength of this belief was demonstrated in the world's second largest Muslim country—Pakistan—when a minority member of the Pakistani parliament questioned it
Zakat is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer in importance. As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth, it is a mandatory charitable contribution considered to be a tax. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars. Zakat is based on the value of all of one's possessions, it is customarily 2.5% of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor, the needy, Zakat collectors, those sympathetic to Islam, to free from slavery, for debt relief, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller. Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful, zakat is mandated and collected by the state.
Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors. Zakat means "that which purifies". Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul, so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God." The Quran discusses charity in many verses. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is described as obligatory for Muslims, it is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between a Muslim. Verse 2.177 sums up the Quranic view of charity and alms giving: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West.
And those who keep their treaty when they make one, the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they; such are the God fearing. - 2:177 According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the Quran makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, practice zakat they are your brethren in faith". The Quran lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below; each of the most trusted. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24, Sahih Muslim's Book 5, Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much and what; the 2.5% rate is mentioned in the hadiths. The hadiths admonish those. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, God will not accept the prayers of such people; the sunna describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be punished.
The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment; the hadith warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it. The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses; the Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets is 2.5%. Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20%, depending on the type of goods. Zakat is payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops and minerals.
Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Unlike prayers, we observe that the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't; some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for women's jewelry; some require certain minimum for zakat
Muhammad in Islam
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim known as Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam. Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Musa,'Isa, other Prophets; the religious and political tenets that Muhammad established with the Quran became the foundation of Islam and the Muslim world. Muslims refer to Muhammad as Prophet Muhammad, or just The Prophet or The Messenger, regard him as the greatest of all Prophets, he is seen by the Muslims as a possessor of all virtues. As an act of respect, most Muslims follow the name of Muhammad by the Arabic benediction sallallahu'alayhi wa sallam, sometimes abbreviated as SAW or PBUH; the deeds and sayings in the life of Muhammad – known as Sunnah – are considered a model of the life-style that Muslims are obliged to follow.
Recognizing Muhammad as God's final messenger is one of the central requirements in Islam, laid down in the second part of the Shahada: Lā ilāha illā l-Lāh, Muhammadun Rasūlu l-Lāh. The Quran, in passages such as 3:132, 48:29 and 66:1 uses the words "messenger" and "prophet" (such as ar-Rasūl or Rasūl Allāh for Muhammad, asks people to follow him, so as to become successful in this hayāt and al-Ākhirah. Born about 570 into a respected Qurayshi family of Mecca, Muhammad earned the title "al-Amin". At the age of 40 in 610 CE, Muhammad is said to have received his first verbal revelation in the cave called Hira, the beginning of the descent of the Quran that continued up to the end of his life; because of persecution of the newly converted Muslims, upon the invitation of a delegation from Medina and his followers migrated to Medina in 622 CE, an event known as the Hijrah. A turning point in Muhammad's life, this Hegira marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad sketched out the Constitution of Medina specifying the rights of and relations among the various existing communities there, formed an independent community, managed to establish the first Islamic state.
Despite the ongoing hostility of the Meccans, along with his followers, took control of Mecca in 630 CE, ordered the destruction of all pagan idols. In years in Medina, Muhammad unified the different tribes of Arabia under Islam, carried out social and religious reforms. By the time he died in 632 all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the Quran enumerates little about Muhammad's early life or other biographic details, but it talks about his prophetic mission, his moral excellence, theological issues regarding Muhammad. According to the Quran, Muhammad is the last in a chain of prophets sent by God. Throughout the Quran, Muhammad is referred to as "Messenger", "Messenger of God", "Prophet"; some of such verses are 2:101, 2:143, 2:151, 3:32, 3:81, 3:144, 3:164, 4:79-80, 5:15, 5:41, 7:157, 8:01, 9:3, 33:40, 48:29, 66:09. Other terms are used, including "Warner", "bearer of glad tidings", the "one who invites people to a Single God"; the Quran asserts that Muhammad was a man who possessed the highest moral excellence, that God made him a good example or a "goodly model" for Muslims to follow.
The Quran disclaims any superhuman characteristics for Muhammad, but describes him in terms of positive human qualities. In several verses, the Quran crystallizes Muhammad's relation to humanity. According to the Quran, God sent Muhammad with truth, as a blessing to the whole world. In Islamic tradition, this means that God sent Muhammad with his message to humanity the following of which will give people salvation in the afterlife, it is Muhammad's teachings and the purity of his personal life alone which keep alive the worship of God on this world; the Quran categorizes some theological issues regarding Muhammad. The most important among them is the edict to follow the teachings of Muhammad; the Quran commands people to "follow God and his Messenger" in verses including 3:31-32, 3:132, 4:59, 4:69. Muhammad, the son of'Abdullah ibn'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim and his young wife Aminah, was born in 570 CE in the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula, he was a member of the family of Banu Hashim, a respected branch of the prestigious and influential Quraysh tribe.
It is said that'Abd al-Muttalib named the child "Muhammad". Muhammad was orphaned; some months before the birth of Muhammad, his father died near Medina on a mercantile expedition to Syria. When Muhammad was six, he accompanied his mother Amina on her visit to Medina to visit her late husband's tomb. While returning to Mecca, Amina died at a desolate place called Abwa, about half-way to Mecca, was buried there. Muhammad was now taken in by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, who himself died when Muhammad was eight, leaving him in the care of his unc
Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life. They are summarized in the famous hadith of Gabriel; the Sunni and Shia agree on the essential details for the performance and practice of these acts, but the Shia do not refer to them by the same name. They make up Muslim life, concern for the needy, self-purification, the pilgrimage, if one is able. Shahada is a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, it is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but God Muhammad is the messenger of God." It is essential to utter it to convert to Islam. Salah is the Islamic prayer. Salah consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the Fajr prayer is performed before sunrise, Dhuhr is performed in the midday after the sun has surpassed its highest point, Asr is the evening prayer before sunset, Maghrib is the evening prayer after sunset and Isha is the night prayer.
All of these prayers are recited while facing in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and form an important aspect of the Muslim Ummah. Muslims must wash before prayer; the prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including. A Muslim may perform their prayer anywhere, such as in offices and fields. However, the mosque is the more preferable place for prayers because the mosque allows for fellowship. Zakāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth; the word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. The principle of knowing that all things belong to God is essential to growth. Zakāt is obligatory for all Muslims, it is the personal responsibility of each Muslim to ease the economic hardship of others and to strive towards eliminating inequality. Zakāt consists of spending a portion of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may donate more as an act of voluntary charity, rather than to achieve additional divine reward.
There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt: The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt. The zakāt must be paid on the day. After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means. Payment must be in kind; this means if one is wealthy he or she needs to pay a portion of their income. If a person does not have much money they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others; the zakāt must be distributed in the community. Three types of fasting are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance, ascetic fasting. Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month, are to be mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim; the fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness and to look for forgiveness from God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, to remind them of the needy.
During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, envy, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided. Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be dangerous and excessively problematic; these include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance; the Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
When the pilgrim is around 10 km from Mecca, he/she must dress in Ihram clothing, for men, consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja; the main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba termed Tawaf, touching the Black Stone termed Istilam, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah termed Sa'yee, symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina termed Ramee. The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in the Muslim community. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God, not a means to gain social standing; the beli
Salah called salat and namaz, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times; when they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates himself, concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses and prayers; the word "salah" is translated as "prayer". Given how that word is used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship", as it is worship rather than petition. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words; the number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances. Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "communication". In its English usage, the reference of the word is always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ in Islamic usage. Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used; the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia, the term solat is used. Indonesia uses the term shalat. ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ Translation:2.
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, spend out of what We have provided for them,4, and who believe in what has been revealed to you, what was revealed before you, of the Hereafter they are certain.5. Those are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the successful. وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱرْڪَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰڪِعِينَ Translation: And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow. Guard your communication and middle communication. If you fear on foot or riding, and offer communication at the two ends of day and at the approach of night. Offer communication at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee. Say call God or call Merciful, and offer communication and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite, revealed to you as a book and offer communication; the chief purpose of salah is to remembrance of God.
By reciting "The Opening", the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise him, ask for guidance along the "Straight Path". In addition, daily worship reminds Muslims to give thanks for God's blessings and that submission to God takes precedence over all other concerns, thereby revolving their life around God and submitting to His will. Worship serves as a formal method of dhikr or remembering God. Muslims believe that all prophets of God offered daily prayers and were humble in submission to the oneness of God. Muslims believe that the main duty of the prophets of God is to teach mankind to humbly submit themselves to oneness of God. In Quran, it is written that: "For, Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, when they hear his signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, put their trust in their Lord.
Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both abstract, it does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces: Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth as being abstract, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels, as personified. Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are considered as the first creation of God, they are created from a luminous substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.
Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances endowed with life and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who is, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but mortal animals. In chapter 10 of Sahih Muslim The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a hadith states: The Angels were born out of light and the Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined for you and many Islamic sources talk of angels being created from light, based on the hadith by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. However, many scholars have argued. According to the famous exegete al-Tabari, God may have created angels from fire and other things, as well as from light; some angels are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire those who carry the Throne of God. According to the Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, Muhammad met an angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature.
Islamic scholars evaluated — in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time that angels were created by God from fire — whether angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light. Al-Suyuti stated that angels are composed either of light. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi divided the angels into two groups: The angels of mercy created from light, angels of Punishment created from the fire. Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtle matter, equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the angels are created from the light of a fire, the jinn from the tongue of fire and the demons from its smoke. Furthermore, scholars such as al-Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminous origin of angels which should not be taken literally. Angels as abstract concepts belong to Al-Ghaib.
Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws. They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative angels, who perform for a specific function. Qazwini portrays the earthly angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these angels could be proven by reason and the things these angels affect. Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential demon. Depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon. Angels may give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from Satan; the modern astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.
A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion. Advocates of angels' infallibility cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and angels, they are not arrogant". However, these verses cannot prove the impeccability for all angels at any time and in any situation; the motif of erring angels is known to Islam. This is supported by verses being tested. Al-Baydawi argued, angels are only impeccable. Others speak of Islamic angels as continuously obedient and refer to Ijma. One of the first scholars who asserted the doctrine of impeccable angels was Hasan of Basra, he not only advocated the impeccability of angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but reinterpreted verses, which speak against the impeccability of angels. With the discussion whether angels are able to or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or angels are the superior.
Hasa of Basra advocated that angels are better than both humans and prophets because of their purity, a position, opposed by Sunnis and Shias. On the other hand, the prostration of angels before Adam is seen a