Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said was a well-known Minangkabau woman leader, active in Indonesian nationalist politics. She was born in Agam Regency, close to the town of Bukittinggi in West Sumatra. Rasuna Said became active in the Sarekat Rakyat organisation and became a member of the Union of Indonesian Muslims, she was imprisoned for a period for her activities by the Dutch in 1932 in Semarang in Central Java. After the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945 she became a member of the Sumatra Representative Council. In 1959 she was appointed a member of the Indonesian National Advisory Council, a position she held until her death in Jakarta in 1965. Like the well-known Indonesian female leader Raden Ayu Kartini, Rasuna Said fought for equality between men and women, she was declared a National Hero of Indonesia by president Soeharto in 1974. Her name is used as one of the main arteries of Jakarta, Jalan H. R. Rasuna Said, which runs south from the central district of Menteng towards the busy commercial areas of Kuningan and Mampang.
National Hero of Indonesia is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia. It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens" or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people"; the Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows: Have been an Indonesian citizen, deceased and, during his or her lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state. Nominations must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must make a request to the province's governor; the governor makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles. Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta.
Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November. The legal framework for the title styled National Independence Hero, was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month; this title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have been awarded. Hero of the Revolution was given in 1965 to ten victims of the 30 September Movement that resulted in end of Sukarno reign, while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence. A total of 165 men and 14 women have been deemed national heroes, most Abdurrahman Baswedan, Prince Mohammad Noor, Andi Depu, Depati Amir, Kasman Singodimedjo and Syam'un on 2018; these heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east.
They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, Eurasians. They include prime ministers, government ministers, royalty, a bishop; the following list is presented in alphabetical order. The list is further sortable by year of birth and recognition. Names are standardised using the Perfected Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling
Djuanda Kartawidjaja was an ethnic Sundanese noble from the court of Cirebon, an Indonesian politician and the 11th and the final Prime Minister of Indonesia. Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja referred to as Djuanda, served as Minister of Communications in seven cabinets from 1946 to 1949 and 1950 to 1953. Djuanda was Indonesia's final Prime Minister in Sukarno "Karya" cabinets, the final cabinets of the Liberal Democracy Era and as First Minister from 1959 until his death in 1963. Djuanda's death and the abolition of the post of Prime Minister in the Indonesian Republican system allowed far greater power to be exercised by the President- now being given full ruling power with minimal oversight, as both Head of State and Head of Government; this had an enormous impact on Indonesian politics, allowing the constitutional legality of the autocracy of Sukarno and Suharto. Juanda International Airport, located in Surabaya, is named after him, who suggested development for the airport, he is depicted in the recent 2016 edition of Rp 50,000 Indonesian rupiah banknotes.
Malaya: Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia, Macmillan Southeast Asian reprint, ISBN 0-333-24380-3 Simanjuntak, P. H. H Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-499-8
Adnan Kapau Gani abbreviated as A. K. Gani, was an Indonesian politician. Born in West Sumatra, he spent much of his youth in Java, where he studied medicine and became involved with the nascent nationalist movement before going to South Sumatra to work as a doctor. During the Indonesian National Revolution he served three terms as Minister of Welfare. Afterwards Gani went to Palembang, South Sumatra, where he remained active in politics until his death. In November 2007 Gani was made a National Hero of Indonesia. Gani was born in Palembajan, West Sumatra, west of Bukittinggi, on 16 September 1905; the son of a teacher, he finished his early studies in Bukittinggi in 1923 before going to Batavia, first for his secondary studies and to study medicine. He graduated from STOVIA, a school for prospective doctors, in 1926. From his teens Gani was active in social organisations, he was a member of several groups for native youth, including Jong Sumatera. By the late 1920s he had several enterprises running, including book reseller.
This revenue enabled him to donate funds to the Youth Congress of 1928, where the Youth Pledge was first read and "Indonesia Raya" was first played. In 1931 he joined Partindo, which had split off from the Indonesian National Party shortly after Sukarno's arrest by the colonial government. Gani became acquainted with Sukarno after the latter's release from prison the following year and joined the Indonesian Political Federation with him. Long interested in theatre, in 1941 Gani starred in Union Film's Asmara Moerni after being invited by the film's director, Rd. Ariffien. At the time the country's film industry was beginning to cater to well-educated audiences. Although some of the audience considered Gani's involvement in Asmara Moerni as besmirching the independence movement, Gani considered it necessary to improve how the people viewed local productions; the film, the only one Gani made, was a commercial success. That year Gani received his medical degree. After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Gani refused to collaborate.
As such, he was held until October of the following year. He spent the rest of the occupation as a private practitioner. After the country's independence and during the ensuing revolution, Gani gained greater political power while serving with the military. From 1945 to 1947 he was the commissioner for the PNI in South Sumatra serving on that party's board, he coordinated military efforts in the province. He considered Palembang a viable economic powerhouse for the newly independent nation, arguing that with oil they could gather international support, he negotiated sales with international interests, including the Dutch-owned Shell while smuggling weapons and military supplies past the Dutch blockade. He had numerous connections in the Chinese community in Singapore, which assisted him in these tasks. From 2 October 1946 until 27 June 1947 Gani served as Minister of Welfare under Sutan Sjahrir in the prime minister's third cabinet. While serving as minister of welfare Gani, with Sjahrir and Mohammad Roem, served as the Indonesian delegation to the third plenary session for the Linggadjati Agreement, becoming a signatory on 25 March 1947.
He worked to establish a national banking network, the BTC, as well as several trade organisations. With Amir Sjarifuddin and Setijadji, Gani was a formateur for the new cabinet, which received its mandate on 3 July, he stayed on as Minister of Welfare while serving as a deputy prime minister under Sjarifuddin. Gani was the first cabinet member arrested during Operation Product, a Dutch assault on Indonesian-held territory in mid-July, but was released, he attended a trade conference in Havana, Cuba. In Sjarifuddin's second cabinet, Gani continued to serve as a deputy prime minister and minister of welfare until the cabinet collapsed on 29 January 1948 owing to dissatisfaction with the Renville Agreement. After the revolution ended in 1949, Gani became the Military Governor of South Sumatra. In 1954, while still involved in politics as minister of transportation in the First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet, he became the rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, he was buried in Siguntang Heroes' Cemetery in Palembang.
Sukarno was the first President of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands, he was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, Sukarno was appointed as first president, he led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgement of Indonesian independence in 1949. Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote "Sukarno was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood."After a chaotic period of parliamentary democracy, Sukarno established an autocratic system called "Guided Democracy" in 1957 that ended the instability and rebellions which were threatening the survival of the diverse and fractious country.
The early 1960s saw Sukarno veering Indonesia to the left by providing support and protection to the Communist Party of Indonesia to the irritation of the military and Islamists. He embarked on a series of aggressive foreign policies under the rubric of anti-imperialism, with aid from the Soviet Union and China; the failure of the 30 September Movement led to the destruction of the PKI and his replacement in 1967 by one of his generals, he remained under house arrest until his death. The spelling Soekarno, based on Dutch orthography, is still used because he signed his name in the old spelling. Sukarno himself insisted on a "u", not "oe", but said that he had been told in school to use the Dutch style, he said that it was too difficult to change his signature, so still wrote it with an "oe". Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, printed his name using the 1947 spelling; the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport which serves near Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, still uses the Dutch spelling.
Indonesians remember him as Bung Karno or Pak Karno. Like many Javanese people, he had only one name. According to author Pramoedya Ananta Toer in several interviews, "bung" is an affectionate title meaning "friend" creatively used to be an alternative way of addressing person in equal manner, as an opposite word of old-form "tuan", "mas" or "bang", he is sometimes referred to in some variation thereof. The fictitious first name may have been added by western journalists confused over someone with just a single name, or by Indonesian supporters of independence to attract support from Muslim countries; the son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, his Hindu Balinese wife from the Brahmin varna named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born at Jalan Pandean IV/40, East Java, in the Dutch East Indies. He was named Kusno Sosrodihardjo. Following Javanese custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to the Europeesche Lagere School in Mojokerto.
Subsequently, in 1916, Sukarno went to a Hogere Burgerschool in Surabaya, where he met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam. In 1920, Sukarno married Tjokroaminoto's daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921, he began to study civil engineering at the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng, where he obtained an Ingenieur degree in 1926. During his study in Bandung, Sukarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the owner of the boarding house where he lived as a student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. In March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit. Sukarno divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati. After graduation in 1926, Sukarno and his university friend Anwari established the architectural firm Sukarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel, where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker.
Sukarno designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. On, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent Gedung Pola in Jakarta. Atypically among the country's small educated elite, Sukarno was fluent in several languages. In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Sundanese, Balinese and of Indonesian, was strong in Dutch, he was quite comfortable in German, French and Japanese, all of which were taught at his HBS. He was helped by precocious mind. In his studies, Sukarno was "intensely modern", both in politics, he despised both the tr
Izaak Huru Doko is a National Hero of Indonesia. The title was granted on 3 November 2006. Doko was born in Sabu, Timor, on 20 November 1913, he completed his primary education at Dutch-run schools in Kupang before going to Bandung, West Java, to study at a school for teachers. There he met Herman Johannes. During the Japanese occupation, following the overthrow of the Dutch colonial government, Doko wrote extensively on the condition of the Timorese people. On 17 August 1945, following Japan's defeat in the Pacific, Indonesia proclaimed its independence. During the ensuing revolution Doko organised Timorese youth to put up an armed struggle against the invading Dutch forces. After the Dutch recognised Indonesia's independence in 1949, Doko organised the Indonesian Democracy Party and spoke out extensively against the formation of an independent State of East Indonesia, he helped establish Udayana University in Denpasar and the University of Nusa Cendana in Kupang. He served as a school supervisor in Timor from the 1950s and worked at building educational infrastructure in that area.
For this, he spent eight months in Australia in 1958, learning about different school systems which could be used. In the 1970s he was head of the Timorese office of the Ministry of Culture. Doko died on 29 July 1985. On 3 November 2006 he was granted the title National Hero of Indonesia by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. A street in Kupang is named after him. Aco Manafe. Pahlawan Nasional I. H. Doko: Berjuang Hingga Akhir. Artha Wacana Press
Soepomo was Indonesia's first Minister of Justice, serving in the Presidential Cabinet from 19 August to 14 November 1945 and from 20 December 1949 to 6 September 1950. Soepomo was born in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Dutch East Indies on 22 January 1903, he came from a noble family. Soepomo began his schooling at the Europeesche Lagere School in Boyolali in 1917 studying at a Meer Uitgebreid Lagere Onderwijs in Surakarta beginning in 1920. In 1923 he moved to Batavia. After graduating, he took a job at a court in Surakarta going to Leiden, Netherlands to spend three years studying at Leiden University under Cornelis van Vollenhoven, he graduated in 1927, with his thesis, entitled "Reorganisatie van het Agrarisch Stelsel in het Gewest Soerakarta", containing both a description of the agrarian system in Surakarta and veiled critiques of Dutch colonialism. After his return from the Netherlands, Soepomo became a court employee in Yogyakarta being transferred to the Justice Department in Jakarta. While serving at the Justice Department, he took a side job as a guest lecturer at the Institute of Law there.
He joined the youth group Jong Java, wrote a paper entitled "Perempuan Indonesia dalam Hukum", which he presented with Ali Sastroamidjojo at the 1928 Women's Congress. As the Japanese occupation of Indonesia was drawing to a close, Soepomo became a member of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence, working to frame the constitution together with Muhammad Yamin and Sukarno. After independence, Soepomo served twice as Minister of Justice, from 19 August to 14 November 1945 and from 20 December 1949 to 6 September 1950. After his terms as Minister of Justice, Soepomo became a lecturer at Gadjah Mada University, as well as the Jakarta Police Academy, he was President of the University of Indonesia. From 1954 to 1956, Soepomo was Indonesia's ambassador to the United Kingdom. Soepomo died in Surakarta on 12 September 1958. On 14 May 1965, Soepomo was posthumously declared a national hero of Indonesia by President Sukarno.