An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
White Earth Indian Reservation
The White Earth Indian Reservation is the home to the White Earth Band, located in northwestern Minnesota. It is the largest Indian reservation in that state by land area; the reservation includes all of Mahnomen County, plus parts of Becker and Clearwater counties in the northwest part of the state, along the Wild Rice and White Earth rivers. It is about 225 miles from Minneapolis-St. Paul and 65 miles from Fargo-Moorhead. Community members prefer to identify as Anishinaabe or Ojibwe rather than Chippewa, a corruption of Ojibwe that came to be used by European settlers to refer to them; the reservation's land area is 1,093 sq mi, its population was 9,192 as of the 2000 census. The White Earth Indian Reservation is one of six bands that make up the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, their governing body for major administrative needs; the Band issues its own reservation license plates to vehicles. The White Earth Reservation was created on March 19, 1867, during a treaty signing in Washington, DC. Ten Ojibwe Indian chiefs met with President Andrew Johnson at the White House to negotiate the treaty.
The chiefs Wabanquot, a Gull Lake Mississippi Chippewa, Fine Day, of the Removable Mille Lacs Indians, were among the first to move with their followers to White Earth in 1868. The reservation covered 1,300 square miles. Much of the community's land was improperly sold or seized by outside interests, including the U. S. federal government, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. According to the Dawes Act of 1887, the communal land was to be allotted to individual households recorded in tribal rolls, for cultivation in subsistence farming. Under the act, the remainder was available for sale to non-Native Americans; the Nelson Act of 1889 was a corollary law that enabled the land to be divided and sold to non-Natives. In the latter half of the 20th century, the federal government arranged for the transfer of state and county land to the reservation in compensation for other property, lost. In 1989, Winona LaDuke formed the White Earth Land Recovery Project, acquiring land held to add back to the value of the non-profit 501c3 to be used for collateral.
At that time, less than 10% of the land within the reservation boundaries was owned by tribal members. The White Earth Band government operates the Shooting Star Casino and Event center in Mahnomen, Minnesota; the entertainment and gambling complex employs over 1000 tribal and non-tribal staff, with a new location in Bagley, Minnesota. The United States wanted to relocate all Anishinaabe people from Michigan and Minnesota to the White Earth Reservation in the western part of Minnesota, it planned to open the land of the vacated reservations to sale and settlement by European Americans. The US government proposed relocating the Dakota people to the White Earth Reservation, although the two peoples had been traditional enemies since the Anishinaabe had invaded their land in the late 18th century; the US continued to promote this policy until 1898. Before the Nelson Act of 1889 took effect, groups of Anishinaabe and Dakota peoples began to relocate to the White Earth Reservation from other Minnesota Chippewa and Dakota reservations.
The 1920 census details provide data on the origins of the Anishinabe people living on the White Earth Reservation, as they indicated their original bands. There were 4,856 from the Mississippi Band of Chippewa. On July 8, 1889, the United States broke treaty promises, it told them the Chippewa from the other Reservations would be relocated to White Earth Reservation. Instead of dealing with the Chippewa of Minnesota on a nation-to-nation level, the United States put decisions about communal land use to a vote of tribal members, it said that the decision to accept land allotments under the Dawes Act would be settled by a vote of individual adult Chippewa males, rather than allowing the tribe to make a decision according to their own traditions of council. Included in the decision to allow allotment was that lands classified as surplus, after all households received allotments, would be declared'surplus' and could be sold to non-Chippewa, the European Americans. Chippewa leaders were outraged.
They knew. But, included in the voting were many Dakota men, who were not part of their tribe; the Chippewa mistrusted administration of the vote. Red Lake leaders warned the United States about reprisals; the White Earth and Mille Lacs reservations overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and allow surplus land sold to the whites. The Leech Lake Reservation's men overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservation surplus land sold to the whites; the events of October 1898 indicate otherwise. At the time, the White Earth Reservation covered 1,093 sq. mi. After the votes were counted, the whites claimed that voting men had overwhelmingly voted to accept land allotments and have the Reservations surplus land sold to the whites. After this process, only a small portion of the White Earth Reservation remained. I
Norman County, Minnesota
Norman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,852, its county seat is Ada. The county is located in the Red River Valley region of Minnesota. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 877 square miles, of which 873 square miles is land and 3.9 square miles is water. Major geographical features include the Red River of the North, which comprises the western border of the county, the Wild Rice River, which flows from the eastern border to empty into the Red River. U. S. Highway 75 Minnesota State Highway 9 Minnesota State Highway 32 Minnesota State Highway 113 Minnesota State Highway 200 Polk County Mahnomen County Becker County Clay County Cass County, North Dakota Traill County, North Dakota As of the 2000 census, there were 7,442 people, 3,010 households, 2,007 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 3,455 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 95.30% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 1.73% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 1.13% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 3.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 57.5% were of Norwegian and 21.7% German ancestry. There were 3,010 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families. 31.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. Norman County has a moderately spread age distribution with 25.70% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 20.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $32,535, the median income for a family was $41,280. Males had a median income of $28,674 versus $20,619 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,895. About 7.10% of families and 10.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.70% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. Faith Lockhart Hadler Syre National Register of Historic Places listings in Norman County, Minnesota Norman County government’s website
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
U.S. Route 59
U. S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway. A latecomer to the U. S. numbered route system, US 59 is now a border-to-border route, part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U. S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than 100 miles away, until it veers southwest in Houston, Texas, its number is out of place since US 59 is either concurrent with or west of U. S. Route 71; the highway's northern terminus is nine miles north of Lancaster, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 59. Its southern terminus is at the Mexico–US border in Laredo, where it continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85D. U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. Senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway, one of the busiest sections of freeway in the United States with a vehicle count, as of 2006, over 330,000 vehicles per day just outside the Loop.
US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90% of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75 mph speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. From the southwestern suburbs of Houston to Downtown Houston, U. S. 59 is referred to as the "Southwest Freeway," sometimes derisively as the "Southwest's Best Freeway." Supporting 371,000 vehicles per day, it is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. U. S. 59 is known as the "Eastex Freeway" in the north/northeast part of the Houston region. At the Mexico -- US border, it ends at the World Trade International Bridge in Texas. In Laredo, U. S. 59 is co-signed with both Interstate 69W and Loop 20 and has an intersection with Interstate 35 which ends at the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge.
After crossing the bridge into Mexico, Interstate 35 continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85 in Nuevo Laredo which runs through Mexico and Central America and ends in Panama at the Panama Canal. In Arkansas, US 59 is concurrent with U. S. Route 71 from Interstate 30 at Texarkana to Acorn, with U. S. Route 270 from Acorn to the Oklahoma state line; the Third Loop was to be Extended on Interstate 49 from its original northern end to US-71 at the Texas state line opened on May 15, 2013 and was extended to State Line Road, where it intersects US-59 and US-71 in Texas. US 59 and U. S. Route 412 are co-signed for 10 miles in Oklahoma. US 59 is co-signed with U. S. Route 270 from the Arkansas State Line to Heavener and U. S. Route 271 from Poteau to west of Spiro, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 64 in Sallisaw. U. S. 59 runs nearly directly north across the state. U. S. 59 runs concurrently with U. S. 169 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges north again south of Garnett. The intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with stop and yield signs.
It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006. The Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety; until 2012 US 59 passed through Ottawa and had to be shut down or detoured every time the Marias Des Cygnes floodwall gates were closed across the highway. The highway now bypasses around Ottawa, running concurrently with Interstate 35 for five miles and utilizing that highway's bridges over the Marias Des Cygnes. US 59 passes through Lawrence; the street name of US 59 in Lawrence is Iowa Street 6th Street as it joins U. S. 40 and jogs east to cross the Kansas River near downtown. North of the U. S. 40 and 59 Bridges, it splits with U. S. 40 as it joins U. S. 24 and jogs back west before resuming a northerly course. It continues north to Nortonville northeast to Atchison, where it crosses the Missouri River over the Amelia Earhart Bridge. U. S. 59 has been rebuilt and rerouted just to the east between Lawrence and Ottawa as a divided highway, as the former road was one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in the state.
The project began in mid 2007 and was completed and opened to the public on October 17, 2012. In Missouri, US 59 follows the Missouri River in the northwest corner of the state, from its entrance at Winthrop. In Saint Joseph the highway is paired with Interstate 229 through downtown. US 59 departs from I-229 as Saint Joseph Avenue, joining with U. S. Route 71 at Interstate 29; the two highways separate in Savannah. US 59 follows Interstate 29 closely until turning northward at Craig, it exits the state 10 miles north of Tarkio. This section of US 59 is immortalized in the Brewer and Shipley song "Tarkio Road". In Iowa, US 59 is a main north–south artery in the western part of the state, it junctions Interstate 80 at Avoca. It passes through the county seats of Harlan, Denison and Primghar. Except for small stretches of expressway near Avoca and Holstein, the entire length of US 59 in Iowa is an undivided two-lane road. US 59 exits the state near Hawkeye Point, the highest p
Wild Rice River (Minnesota)
The Wild Rice River is a tributary of the Red River of the North in northwestern Minnesota in the United States. It is 183 miles long. Via the Red River, Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson River, it is part of the watershed of Hudson Bay, it is one of two Red River tributaries with the same name, the other being the Wild Rice River of North Dakota. Wild Rice River is an English translation of the native Ojibwe language name; the Wild Rice flows from Mud Lake in Clearwater County and follows a westwardly course through Mahnomen and Norman counties, through the White Earth Indian Reservation and past the towns of Mahnomen, Twin Valley and Hendrum, just south of Ada, where the nearby headwaters of the Marsh River sometimes act as a distributary to the Red River during periods of high water. In its lower reaches through the Red River Valley, portions of its course have been straightened and channelized; the Wild Rice River's largest tributaries are the White Earth River, which joins it near Mahnomen, the South Branch Wild Rice River, which joins it in its lower course in Norman County.
List of Minnesota rivers Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8