Jamestown, North Dakota
Jamestown is a city in Stutsman County, North Dakota, United States. It is the county seat of Stutsman County; the population was 15,427 at the 2010 census. Jamestown was founded in 1872. In 1871, a Northern Pacific Railroad work crew set up camp where the railroad would cross the James River, adding another section to the new northern transcontinental line. In 1872, the U. S. Army established Fort Seward, a small post garrisoned by three companies of the Twentieth Infantry Regiment, on a bluff overlooking the confluence of the James River and Pipestem Creek; the fort guarded the crossing of the James by the Northern Pacific Railroad. The fort only lasted five years, being decommissioned in 1877 - but the railroad remained, establishing a repair yard, among the city's main industries until the 1960s. Jamestown was founded in 1872 and General Thomas Rosser of Northern Pacific named it after Jamestown, Virginia; the city incorporated in 1883. In 1873, Stutsman County became the first official county within Dakota Territory with Jamestown as the county seat.
On November 10, 1889, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jamestown was established. April 6, 1897 saw a change of name with a change of the bishop's seat. Since 1995, the Diocese of Jamestown is listed. Jamestown is located at 46°54′20″N 98°42′11″W at the confluence of the James River and Pipestem Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.87 square miles, of which, 12.83 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,427 people, 6,567 households, 3,555 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,202.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,983 housing units at an average density of 544.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.6% White, 0.8% African American, 1.8% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 6,567 households of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.9% were non-families.
39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 39.9 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.2% male and 49.8% female. In October, 2016 the North Dakota Housing Finance Agency projected that Jamestown would lose 2.1% of its population by the next census. It reported that it projected a 4% population drop in the nine counties surrounding Jamestown and is considered Jamestowns primary trade area; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,527 people, 6,505 households, 3,798 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,246.7 per square mile. There were 6,970 housing units at an average density of 559.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.84% White, 0.36% African American, 1.21% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. The top 6 ancestry groups in the city are German, Irish, Swedish, Russian. Many area families cite their heritage as "Germans from Russia", in reference to ethnic Germans who settled in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, many of whose descendants emigrated to the United States in the late 19th century. There were 6,505 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.6% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.85. The age distribution is 21.7% under the age of 18, 12.7% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,500, the median income for a family was $42,245. Males had a median income of $28,310 versus $20,225 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,686. About 6.5% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.4% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Jamestown has a strong precision manufacturing base as well as food processing, agriculture and wholesale businesses. Notable companies headquartered in Jamestown include ACI, Dura Tech Industries, Midwestern Machine, additional major employers include Cavendish Farms and UTC Aerospace Systems. Service facilities for trucking and heavy equipment repair are located in Jamestown; the Jamestown Stutsman Development Corporation supports joint business and industrial development within the city and Stutsman County, North Dakota. Four designated industrial parks adjoin the city or are part of joint city/county development efforts: Bloom Business Park, I-94 Business Park, Spiritwo
The American bison or bison commonly known as the American buffalo or buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed North America in vast herds. Their historical range, by 9000 BCE, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard as far north as New York and south to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750, they became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was down to 541 animals by 1889. Recovery efforts expanded in the mid-20th century, with a resurgence to 31,000 animals today restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the plains bison, smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, the wood bison —the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump.
Furthermore, the plains bison has been suggested to consist of a northern plains and a southern plains subspecies, bringing the total to three. However, this is not supported; the wood bison is one of the largest wild species of bovid in the world, surpassed by only the Asian gaur and wild water buffalo. It is the heaviest, second tallest extant land animal after moose in the Americas; the American bison is the national mammal of the United States. The term buffalo is sometimes considered to be a misnomer for this animal, could be confused with "true" buffalos, the Asian water buffalo and the African buffalo. However, bison is a Greek word meaning ox-like animal, while buffalo originated with the French fur trappers who called these massive beasts bœufs, meaning ox or bullock—so both names and buffalo, have a similar meaning; the name buffalo is listed in many dictionaries as an acceptable name for American bison. Samuel de Champlain applied the term buffalo to the bison in 1616, after seeing skins and a drawing shown to him by members of the Nipissing First Nation, who said they travelled forty days to trade with another nation who hunted the animals.
In English usage, the term buffalo dates to 1625 in North America, when the term was first recorded for the American mammal. It thus has a much longer history than the term bison, first recorded in 1774; the American bison is closely related to the European bison. In Plains Indian languages in general and female buffaloes are distinguished, with each having a different designation rather than there being a single generic word covering both sexes. Thus: in Arapaho: bii, henéécee in Lakota: pté, tȟatȟáŋka Such a distinction is not a general feature of the language, so is due to the special significance of the buffalo in Plains Indian life and culture. A bison has a shaggy, dark-brown winter coat, a lighter-weight, lighter-brown summer coat; as is typical in ungulates, the male bison is larger than the female and, in some cases, can be heavier. Plains bison are in the smaller range of sizes, wood bison in the larger range. Head-rump lengths range from 2 to 2.8 m long and the tail adding 30 to 43 cm or up to 65 cm.
Heights at withers in the species can range from 152 to 186 cm for B. b. bison while B. b. athabascae reaches over 2 m. Weights can range from 318 to 1,000 kg Typical weight ranges in the species were reported as 460 to 988 kg in males and 360 to 544 kg in females, the lowest weights representing typical weight around the age of sexual maturity at 2 to 3 years of age. Mature bulls tend to be larger than cows. Cow weights have had reported medians of 450 to 495 kg, with one small sample averaging 479 kg, whereas bulls may weigh a median of 730 kg with an average from a small sample of 765 kg; the heaviest wild bull recorded weighed 1,270 kg. When raised in captivity and farmed for meat, the bison can grow unnaturally heavy and the largest semidomestic bison weighed 1,724 kg; the heads and forequarters are massive, both sexes have short, curved horns that can grow up to 2 ft long, which they use in fighting for status within the herd and for defense. Bison are grazing on the grasses and sedges of the North American prairies.
Their daily schedule involves two-hour periods of grazing and cud chewing moving to a new location to graze again. Sexually mature young bulls may try to start mating with cows by the age of two or three years, but if more mature bulls are present, they may not be able to compete until they reach five years of age. For the first two months of life, calves are lighter in color than mature bison. One rare condition is the white buffalo, in which the calf turns white. Although they are superficially similar, the American and European bison exhibit a number of physical and behavioral differences. Adult American bison are heavier on average because of their less rangy build, have shorter legs, which render them shorter at the shoulder. American bison tend to graze more, browse less
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w