Bhakti means "attachment, fondness for, faith, devotion, purity". In Hinduism, it refers to devotion to, love for, a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. In ancient texts such as the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the term means participation and love for any endeavor, while in the Bhagavad Gita, it connotes one of the possible paths of spirituality and towards moksha, as in bhakti marga. Bhakti in Indian religions is "emotional devotionalism" to a personal god or to spiritual ideas; the term refers to a movement, pioneered by Alvars and Nayanars, that developed around the gods Vishnu, Brahma and Devi in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. It grew in India after the 12th century in the various Hindu traditions in response to the arrival of Islam in India. Bhakti ideas have inspired many popular saint-poets in India; the Bhagavata Purana, for example, is a Krishna-related text associated with the Bhakti movement in Hinduism. Bhakti is found in other religions practiced in India, it has influenced interactions between Christianity and Hinduism in the modern era.
Nirguni bhakti is found in Sikhism, as well as Hinduism. Outside India, emotional devotion is found in some Southeast Asian and East Asian Buddhist traditions, it is sometimes referred to as Bhatti; the Sanskrit word bhakti is derived from the verb root bhaj-, which means "to divide, to share, to partake, to participate, to belong to". The word means "attachment, devotion to, fondness for, faith or love, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation"; the meaning of the term Bhakti is different from Kama. Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with erotic love. Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, but as committed engagement, she adds that, in the concept of bhakti in Hinduism, the engagement involves a simultaneous tension between emotion and intellection, "emotion to reaffirm the social context and temporal freedom, intellection to ground the experience in a thoughtful, conscious approach".
One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta. The term bhakti, in Vedic Sanskrit literature, has a general meaning of "mutual attachment, fondness for, devotion to" such as in human relationships, most between beloved-lover, friend-friend, king-subject, parent-child, it may refer to devotion towards a spiritual teacher as guru-bhakti, or to a personal god, or for spirituality without form. According to the Sri Lankan Buddhist scholar Sanath Nanayakkara, there is no single term in English that adequately translates or represents the concept of bhakti in Indian religions. Terms such as "devotion, devotional faith" represent certain aspects of bhakti, but it means much more; the concept includes a sense of deep affection, but not wish because "wish is selfish, affection is unselfish". Some scholars, states Nanayakkara, associate it with saddha which means "faith, trust or confidence". However, bhakti can connote a path to spiritual wisdom; the term Bhakti refers to one of several alternate spiritual paths to moksha in Hinduism, it is referred to as bhakti marga or bhakti yoga.
The other paths are Karma marga, Rāja marga. The term bhakti has been translated as "devotion" in Orientalist literature; the colonial era authors variously described Bhakti as a form of mysticism or "primitive" religious devotion of lay people with monotheistic parallels. However, modern scholars state "devotion" is a incomplete translation of bhakti. Many contemporary scholars have questioned this terminology, most now trace the term bhakti as one of the several spiritual perspectives that emerged from reflections on the Vedic context and Hindu way of life. Bhakti in Indian religions is not a ritualistic devotion to a god or to religion, but participation in a path that includes behavior, ethics and spirituality, it involves, among other things, refining one's state of mind, knowing god, participating in god, internalizing god. Instead of "devotion", the term "participation" is appearing in scholarly literature as a gloss for the term bhakti. David Lorenzen states that bhakti is an important term in Hinduism.
They both share numerous concepts and core spiritual ideas, but bhakti of nirguni is significant in Sikhism. In Hinduism, diverse ideas continue, where both saguni and nirguni bhakti or alternate paths to spirituality are among the options left to the choice of a Hindu; the last of three epilogue verses of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, dated to be from 1st millennium BCE, uses the word Bhakti as follows, This verse is one of the earliest use of the word Bhakti in ancient Indian literature, has been translated as "the love of God". Scholars have debated whether this phrase is authentic or insertion into the Upanishad, whether the terms "Bhakti" and "Deva" meant the same in this ancient text as they do in the modern era. Max Muller states that the word Bhakti appears only once in this Upanishad, that too in one last verse of the epilogue, could have been a addition and may not be theistic as the word was used in much S
Bhairava is a Hindu Tantric deity worshiped by Hindus. In Shaivism, he is a fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. In Trika system Bhairava represents Supreme Reality, synonymous to Para Brahman. In Hinduism Bhairava is called Dandapani and Swaswa meaning "whose horse is a dog". In Vajrayana Buddhism, he is considered a fierce emanation of boddhisatva Mañjuśrī and called Heruka and Yamantaka; the historical origins of Bhairava are obscure. He is worshiped throughout Sri Lanka and Nepal as well as in Tibetan Buddhism. Bhairava originates from the word bhīru, which means "fearful". Bhairava means "terribly fearful form", it is known as one who destroys fear or one, beyond fear. The right interpretation is that he protects his devotees from dreadful enemies, greed and anger. Bhairava protects his devotees from these enemies; these enemies are dangerous. There is another interpretation: Bha means creation, ra means sustenance and va means destruction. Therefore, Bhairava is the one who creates and dissolves the three stages of life.
Therefore, he becomes the supreme. The origin of Bhairava can be traced to a conversation between Brahma and Vishnu, recounted in the Shiva Mahapuranam. In it, Vishnu inquired of Brahma, "Who is the supreme creator of the Universe?" Arrogantly, Brahma told Vishnu to worship him as Supreme Creator. One day, Brahma thought "I have five heads. Shiva has five heads. I can do everything that Shiva does and therefore I am Shiva." Brahma became a little egotistical as a result of this. Additionally, he began to forge the work of Shiva and started interfering in what Shiva was supposed to be doing. Mahadeva threw a small nail from his finger which assumed the form of Kala Bhairava and casually went to cut off one of Brahma's heads; the skull of Brahma is held in the hands of Kala Bhairava, Brahma’s ego was destroyed and he became enlightened. From on, he became useful to himself and to the world, grateful to Shiva. In the form of the Kala Bhairava, Shiva is said to be guarding each of these Shaktipeeth; each Shaktipeeth is accompanied by a temple dedicated to Bhairava.
There is another school of thought. There was one demon by name Dahurāsuraṇ. Kali was invoked by Parvati to kill him; the wrath of Kali killed the demon. After killing the demon, her wrath metamorphosed as a child. Kali fed the child with her milk. Shiva made the child to merge with him. From this merged form of Shiva, Bhairava appeared in his eight forms. Since Bhairava was thus created by Shiva, he is said to be one of the sons of Shiva. Puranas too give different versions of Bhairava. In this version there was a war between demons. To eradicate the demons, Shiva created Kala Bhairava from; these Ashta Bhairavas got married to Ashta Matrikas. These Ashta Bhairavas and Ashta Matrikas have dreadful forms. From these Ashta Bhairavas and Ashta Matrikas, 64 Bhairavas and 64 Yoginis were created. In Shiva temples, idols of Bhairava are situated in the north, facing southern direction, he is called Kṣhetrapāla. He appears in a standing position with four hands, his weapons are pāśa, trident and skull. In some forms of Bhairava, there are more than four hands.
He appears with a dog. His weapons, the dog, protruding teeth, terrifying looks, a garland with red flowers all give him a frightening appearance. In all Shiva temples, regular puja rituals end with Bhairava. Bhairava likes ghee bath, red flowers, ghee lamp, unbroken coconut, boiled food, fibrous fruits etc. If a Bhairava idol is facing west, it is good; the right time to pray to Bhairavi is midnight. During midnight it is said that Bhairava and his consort Bhairavi will give darśana to their devotees; the most appropriate time is a Friday midnight. There are eight types of leaves used in archana to Bhairava. Bhairava is the ultimate form of manifestation or pure "I" consciousness; this form is called Svarṇākarṣṇa Bhairava. He is clothed in golden dress, he has the moon over his head. He has four hands, he gives prosperity. Performing pūja on Tuesdays gives quick results. In some of the ancient texts he is said to have thirty two hands, the shape of a bird, golden complexion, terrible teeth, a human form above the hip.
Worshipping him destroys enemies. Some forms of Bhairava are guardians of the eight cardinal points. There are 64 Bhairavas; these 64 Bhairavas are grouped under 8 categories and each category is headed by one major Bhairava. The major eight Bhairavas are called Aṣṭāṅga Bhairavas; the Ashta Bhairavas control the 8 directions of this universe. Each Bhairava has seven sub Bhairavas under him, totaling 64 Bhairavas. All of the Bhairavas are ruled and controlled by Maha Swarna Kala Bhairava otherwise known as Kala Bhairava, the supreme ruler of time of this universe as per some Śaiva tantric scriptures. Bhairavi is the consort of Kala Bhairava; the eight Bhairavas are said to represent five elements viz. ākāś, fire and earth and the other three being sun, moon and ātman. Each of the e
Mirza Abu Talib, better known as Shaista Khan was a subahdar and a general in the Mughal army. A maternal uncle to Emperor Aurangzeb, he served as the Mughal governor of Bengal from 1664 to 1688, was a key figure during the rule of his nephew. Under Shaista Khan's authority, the city of Dhaka and Mughal power in the province attained its greatest heights. One of this notable achievements was the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. In the year 1660, he was sent to participate in the struggle against the Maratha king Shivaji. However, he lost one of his sons, he left Pune and shifted his camp to Aurangabad. Shaista Khan was of Persian origin, his grandfather Mirza Ghiyas Beg and father Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan were the wazirs of the Mughal Emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, respectively. Emperor Jahangir awarded the title of Shaista Khan to Mirza in recognition of his family's service and position in the Mughal court, he is said as being the brother of Shahjahan's wife though it is not clear if he was real.
Shaista Khan trained and served with the Mughal army and court, winning multiple promotions and being appointed governor of various provinces. He developed a reputation as a successful military commander and grew close to the prince Aurangzeb when the duo fought against the kingdom of Golconda. After Aurangzeb's accession to the throne and the dramatic death of Afzal Khan at Shivaji's hand, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan as viceroy of the Deccan with a large army to defeat Shivaji. In January 1660 Shaista Khan arrived at Aurangabad and advanced, seizing Pune, the centre of Shivaji's realm, he captured the fort of Chakan and Kalyan and north Konkan after heavy fighting with the Maratha. The Maratha were banned from entering the city of Pune and Mughal distance from the locals turned out to be an error. On the evening of 5 April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for holding a procession. Shivaji and many of his nearly 400 men disguised as the bridegroom's procession members entered Pune.
Others entered in small parties dressed as labourers and soldiers of Maratha generals serving under Shaista Khan. After midnight, they raided the Nawab's compound and entered the palace in an attempt to assassinate Shaista Khan. Shaista Khan was unaware and unprepared; the Marathas slaughtered the palace guards. Shaista Khan lost three fingers in a skirmish with Shivaji, while his son was killed in an encounter with the Marathas in the palace courtyard. Taking advantage of the confusion and darkness, the Marathas escaped the palace and Pune, despite the widespread camping of Mughal forces. Shocked by the sudden and bold attack in Pune, Aurangzeb angrily transferred Shaista Khan to Bengal refusing to give him an interview at the time of transfer as was the custom. Shaista Khan was appointed the Subahdar of Bengal upon the death of Mir Jumla II in 1663; as governor, he encouraged trade with Southeast Asia and other parts of India. He consolidated his power by signing trade agreements with European powers.
Despite his powerful position he remained loyal to Aurangzeb mediating trade disputes and rivalries. He banned the British East India Company from Bengal, sparking Child's War in 1686. Shaista Khan encouraged the construction of modern townships and public works in Dhaka, leading to a massive urban and economic expansion, he was a patron of the arts and encouraged the construction of majestic monuments across the province, including mosques and palaces that represented the finest in Indo-Sarcenic and Mughal architecture. Khan expanded Lalbagh Fort, Chowk Bazaar Mosque, Saat Masjid and Choto Katra, he supervised the construction of the mausoleum for his daughter Bibi Pari. Upon his arrival in Bengal, Shaista Khan was faced with putting down the Arakan pirates, he began by rebuilding the Mughal navy, increasing its Bengal fleet to 300 battle-ready ships within a year. He made strenuous diplomatic efforts to win the support of the Dutch East India Company as well as Portugal, supporting Arakan with resources and troops.
With active Dutch military support, Shaista Khan led Mughal forces on an assault on the island of Sandwip, which lay in Arakanese control. Mughal forces succeeded in capturing the island in November 1665. Shaista Khan gained a considerable advantage when a conflict erupted between the Arakanese and the Portuguese. By promptly offering protection and support, Khan secured the aid of the Portuguese against the Arakanese. In December 1665 Shaista Khan launched a major military campaign against Chittagong, the mainstay of the Arakenese kingdom; the imperial fleet consisted of 288 vessels of their own and about 40 vessels of the Ferinigis as auxiliaries. Ibn Hussain, Shaista Khan's admiral, was asked to lead the navy, while the subahdar himself took up the responsibility of supplying provisions for the campaign; the overall command was given to a son of Shaista Khan. The Mughals and the Portuguese held sway in the following naval battle; the conquered territory to the western bank of Kashyapnadi was placed under direct imperial administration.
The name of Chittagong was changed to Islamabad and it became the headquarters of a Mughal faujdar. Khan re-asserted Mughal control over Cooch Behar and Kamarupa. Upon his victory against the Arakanese, he ordered the release of thousands of Bengali peasants being held captive by the Arakanese forces. In his late years, Shaista Khan returned to Delhi, his legacy was the expansion of Dhaka into a regional centre of trade and culture. The Shaista Khan Mosque is a massive standing monument
Anasuya known as Anusuya, was the wife of an ancient rishi named Atri, in Hindu legend. In the Ramayana, she appears living with her husband in a small hermitage in the southern periphery of the forest of Chitrakuta, she was pious and always practiced austerity and devotion. This allowed her to attain miraculous powers; when Sita and Rama visited her during their exile, Anusuya was attentive to them and gave Sita an ointment which could maintain her beauty forever. She was the mother of Dattatreya, the sage-avatar of Trimurti Brahma, Shiva, the irascible sage Durvasa, avatar of Shiva and Chandraatri, avatar of Brahma, she was the mother of Chandra Dev Moon. She was the daughter of his wife Devahuti. Sage Kapila was her teacher, she is extolled as Sati Anusuya -- the chaste wife. Anasuya is made up of two parts: Asuya. An is a negative prefix and Asuya means jealousy. Hence, Anasuya could be translated into English as one, free from jealousy or envy; the story of Anusuya's family is mentioned in Bhagavata Purana Skanda III.
Sage Kardama married Devahuti, daughter of Swayambhu Manu and had one son avatar Kapila and nine daughters, including Anusuya, who married various Saptarishis. Sage Narada praised Anusuya in his hymns and verses, making the wives of Brahma and Shiva jealous, they requested their husbands tempt her away from her husband, breaking her pativrata. The Divine Trinity went to Anusuya as guests when Atri was not at home and asked her to serve them lunch in the nude, she first splashed them each with enchanted water, turning them into small children. The three goddesses waited for their husbands to return and when they didn't, travelled to Anusuya’s cottage to find them transformed; the Goddesses repented and at request of Anusuya, the three Gods agreed to be born as her sons. According to one version, the gods merged turning into Anasuya's three headed son Dattatreya. A Brahmin named Kaushik from Pratishthan used to visit a prostitute, in spite of being a Brahmin and having a devoted wife; when he became infected with leprosy, the prostitute stopped seeing him, forcing him to return to his wife who still cared for him.
He still longed for the affections of one day asked his wife to take him to her. In that town, sage Mandavya had been impaled in lieu of a criminal and was lying on a spike in the forest. While being led by his wife through the deep forest at night, Kaushik happened to trip on the sage, who cursed him to death before the next sunrise. To stop the curse, Kaushik's wife stopped the sunrise with the power of her love, creating havoc in the heavens; the gods went to Brahma for help, who in turn went to Anasuya, asking her to convince Kaushik's wife to allow the sunrise. Anasuya not only convinced Kaushik's wife to allow the sun to rise, but brought Kaushik back to life after the curse had run its course. Brahma was happy with Anusuya and was born to her as Chandraatri; some time Rahu masked Sun, cloaking the whole world in darkness. Atri, with powers granted by many years of austerity, wrested Sun out of Rahu's hands, restoring light to the world; the Gods were pleased and Shiva and Vishnu were born to Atri and Anusuya as Durvasa and Dattatreya.
According to another legend, Atri performed a great tapascharya on Kula Mountain that set the whole world on fire. Brahma and Shiva were impressed with him and granted him a boon. Atri asked them to be born as his children. In Brahma Purana, Atri asked for one daughter, Shubhatreyi. Sati Anusuya ashram is in Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, located further upstreams the Mandakini River, 16 km from the town, set amidst thick forests that round to the melody of birdsong all day, it was here that sage Atri, his wife Anusuya and their three sons and are said to have meditated. Valmiki describes in the Ramayana. There was a severe nothing was left to eat or drink for animals and birds. Sati Anusuya got the river Mandakini down on earth; this led to the greenery and forests to grow which removed the sufferings of all sages and the animals. Sati Anusuya ashrama, at present is a peaceful place where various streams from the hills converge and form the Mandakini River, it is said that Rama along with Sita had visited this place to meet Sati Anusuya.
It is here Sati Anusuya explained to the grandeur and importance of satitva. The dense forests of Dandaka start from this place, it was ruled by Ravana. Ravana had appointed strong rakshasas like Viradha as its rulers; the place was infected by the terror of rakshasas. The story of Anasuya has been made into films in different languages in India. Two Telugu films both entitled Sati Anasuya were released 1957 and 1971; the 1957 film was directed by Kadaru Nagabhushanam and starred Anjali Devi and Gummadi Venkateswara Rao. The 1971 film was directed by B. A. Subba Rao. Jamuna Ramanarao played the role of Anasuya, Sharada played Sumati and Tadepalli Lakshmi Kanta Rao played Atri Maharshi; the musical score was provided by P. Adinarayana Rao. ^ The word pativrata used in the above composition should be replaced by the word pativratya because pativrata means a chaste woman, devoted to her husband and the word pativratya means chastity. Thus the sentence should read'They requested their husbands... breaking her pativratya'.
A Dictionary of Hindu Mythology & Religion by John Dowson
Pusad is the second largest Municipal Council in the Yavatmal district located in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. It is named after the Pus river, its ancient name was'Pushpawanti'. Pusad's climate is extreme, with temperatures ranging as high as 49°C during summer to as low as 5°C during winter; this temperature range is a result of the "Basket Effect". According to the 2011 Indian census, Pusad has a population of 73,046, 52% male, 48% female. Pusad has an average literacy rate of 70%. 14% of the population is under 6. Two former Maharashtra Chief Ministers, Vasantrao Naik, Sudhakarrao Naik, were from Pusad. Notable colleges in Pusad include: JSPM's Babasaheb Naik College of Engineering Dairy Technology College: Offers UG and PG level degrees for Dairy Technology. Sant Gajanan Ayurvedic Mahavidyalaya: Medical College offering degrees and diplomas in Ayurvedic Medical Science. JSPM's Dr. N. P. Hirani Institute of Polytechnic: Technical Institute offering diplomas in Engineering. JSPM's Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy College: Offers Ph.
D. Post Graduates Degree, Under Graduates Degree and Diploma Course in the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences. JSPM's Phulsing Naik Mahavidyalaya: Offers degree courses in Arts and Science, it is a junior college for Arts and Science. Ghulam Nabi Azad Urdu Senior And Junior College. Schools in Pusad include: Shri Shivaji Secondary & Higher Secondary School,Pusad Jyotirgamaya English school, Pusad Koshatwar Daulatkhan High school, Pusad St. Mary's English School Ghulam Nabi Azad Urdu Jr College, Pusad Shamsul Uloom Urdu High school, Pusad Haji Akhtar Nagar Parishad Urdu High school Matoshri Parvatibai Naik Convent, Pusad Shri Shivaji Jr. College, Pusad Jet Kids International School Little Flower English Medium School Kids World School Gunvantrao Deshmukh High School Asegaonkar School Matoshri Maisaheb Mukhre Vidya Mandir School Lokheet High School Mahatma Mungasaji Vidyalaya Ghulam Nabi Azad Urdu High School and Jr. College Hazrat Umar Farooque Urdu High School Navjeevan Dnyanpeeth English Medium School Iqra International English And Arabi School Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Primary and Upper Primary School, Laxminagar Vasantrao Purke College of Art and Science Bachpan School Many temples are found in and around Pusad.
The Shakti Pitha Mahur is located 40 km east of the city. Temples include: Pohardevi It Is Holy Place For All Banjara Caste It Is Also Known as ‘Kashi' Of Banjara’s People Situated In The North East 43 Km From Pusad. Jetalal Maharaj Temple Is Located In Sai Village.25Km From Pusad SRC Dudhagiri Maharaj Temple: Situated in the Village, this is one of the most famous temples in Pusad. Sargadi Aai Temple: Located at Chondhi Village. Karla Temple: Temple of Lord Krishna. Jain Temples: Located 2 km from the main bus stand. Amba Temple: Temple of Goddess Jagadamba. Swami Samarth Temple: Located at Saptagiri Nagar. Narsinha Mandir: A beautiful temple of Narsimha, located in Chowbara Chowk. Khandi: A pilgrimage of the Mahanubhav people. Located on the banks of the Pus River on the east side of town. Sevadas Maharaj Temple: Located 10 km from Pusad, near the village of Dhundi. Others: Vitthal Rukmani Temple: Dhankeshwar, Jageshwar Temple, Ram Mandi Temple, Hatkeshwar Temple, Karunewar Temple, Gajanan Maharaj Temple, Sai Baba Temple, Mahadev Temple, Chintamani Temple, Khandoba.
Pusad is connected to major cities in the Maharashtra State by roadways only. MSRTC buses run from Pusad to Mumbai, Yavatmal, Amravati, Washim, Nanded, Aurangabad, Umarkhed, Ansing, Adilabad and Indore. Roads in Pusad are equipped with traffic signals built in 2017. Pusad was connected to Darwha Motibaug Junction by Central Provinces Railway Company, but this service was discontinued in 1921. Pusad Railway Station PUB is a planned on Wardha-Nanded Railway route. Nearest railway station is at Akola and Nanded 110 km. Nearest airport is Nagpur 270 km. 2. Pusad district proposal ahead of election: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/Pusad-likely-to-get-district-status/articleshow/4843997.cms 3. Pusad District proposal denied by new CM: https://m.maharashtratimes.com/maharashtra/nagpur-vidarbha-news/amravati/pusad-district-not-possible-cm/articleshow/53457320.cms 4. Proposed Rail station on the way: https://indiarailinfo.com/station/map/pusad-pub/11577
The Shakti Peeth are significant shrines and pilgrimage destinations in Shaktism, the goddess-focused Hindu tradition. There are 51 or 108 Shakti peethas by various accounts, of which between 4 and 18 are named as Maha in medieval Hindu texts. Most of these historic places of goddess worship are in India, but there are seven in Bangladesh, three in Pakistan, two in Nepal, one each in Tibet and Sri Lanka. Various legends explain; the most popular is based on the story of the death of the goddess Sati. Out of grief and sorrow, Shiva carried Sati's body, reminiscing about their moments as a couple, roamed around the universe with it. Vishnu had cut her body into 52 body parts, using his Sudarshana Chakra, which fell on Earth to become sacred sites where all the people can pay homage to the Goddess. To complete this massively long task, Lord Shiva took the form of Bhairava. Lord Brahma performed a yajna to please Shiva. Goddess Shakti emerged, helped Brahma in the creation of the universe. Brahma decided to give Shakti back to Shiva.
Therefore, his son Daksha performed several yagnas to obtain Shakti as his daughter in the form of Sati. It was decided that Sati was brought into this world with the motive of getting married to Shiva. However, due to Lord Shiva's curse to Brahma that his fifth head was cut off due to his lie in front of Shiva, Daksha started hating Lord Shiva and decided not to let Lord Shiva and Sati get married. However, Sati got attracted to Shiva and one day Shiva and Sati got married; this marriage only increased Daksha's hatred towards Lord Shiva. Daksha performed a yagna with a desire to take revenge on Lord Shiva. Daksha invited all the deities to the yajna except Lord Sati; the fact that she was not invited did not deter Sati from attending the yagna. She expressed her desire to attend the yagna to Shiva, who tried his best to dissuade her from going. Shiva relented and Sati went to the yagna. Sati, being an uninvited guest, was not given any respect at the yagna. Furthermore, Daksha insulted Shiva. Sati was unable to bear her father's insults toward her husband, so she immolated herself.
Enraged at the insult and the injury, Shiva in his Virabhadra avatar destroyed Daksha's yagna, cut off Daksha's head, replaced it with that of a male goat as he restored him to life. Virabhadra didn't stop fighting. Gods prayed to lord Vishnu, he started fighting him. Still immersed in grief, Shiva picked up the remains of Sati's body, performed the Tandava, the celestial dance of destruction, across all creation; the other Gods requested Vishnu to intervene to stop this destruction, towards which Vishnu used the Sudarshana Chakra, which cut through Sati's corpse. The various parts of the body fell at several spots all through the Indian subcontinent and formed sites which are known as Shakti Peethas today. At all the Shakti Peethas, the Goddess Shakti is accompanied by Lord Bhairava. Shakti is an aspect of the Supreme Being Adi parashakti, the mother of the trimurti, the holy trinity in Hindu religion & scriptures; the history of Daksha yajna and Sati's self-immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Sanskrit literature and influenced the culture of India.
It thereby strengthened Shaktism. Enormous numbers of stories in the Puranas and other Hindu religious books took the Daksha yagna as the reason for their origin, it is an important incident in Shaivism, resulting in the emergence of Parvati in the place of Sati Devi and making Shiva a grihastashrami, leading to the origin of Ganesha and Kartikeya. Shakti Peethas are shrines or divine places of the Mother Goddess; these are places that are believed to have been blessed with the presence of Shakti due to the falling of body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi, when Lord Shiva carried it and wandered throughout Aryavartha in sorrow. There are 51 Shakti Peeth linking to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit; each temple has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava, most Shakti and Kalabhairava in different Shakti Peeth have different names. Some of the great religious texts like the Shiva Purana, the Devi Bhagavata, the Kalika Purana,the AstaShakti and Pithanirnaya Tantra recognize four major Shakti Peethas, like Bimala, Tara Tarini, Kamakhya Temple and Dakshina Kalika originated from the parts of the corpse of Mata Sati in the Satya Yuga.
The Ashtashakti and Kalika Purana says: "Bimala Pada khandancha, Stana khandancha Tarini, Kamakhya Yoni khandancha, Mukha khandancha Kalika Anga pratyanga sanghena Vishnu Chakra Kshyta nacha"Further explaining the importance of these four Pithas, the "Brihat Samhita" gives the location of these Pithas as "Rushikulya* Tatae Devi, Tarakashya Mahagiri, Tashya Srunga Stitha Tara Vasishta Rajitapara". In the listings below: "Shakthi" refers to the Goddess worshiped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani, Parvati or Durga. Apart from these 4 there are 48 other famous Peethas recognized by religious texts. According to the Pithanirnaya Tantra the 51 peethas are scattered all over present day countries of I
Parashurama is the sixth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism. Born as a brahmin, Parshuram carried traits of a Kshatriya and is regarded as a Brahmin-Kshatriya, he carried a number of Kshatriya traits, which included aggression and valor. He, along with only Hanuman and Indrajit, is considered to be one of the few Atimaharathi warriors born on Earth. Like other incarnations of Vishnu, he was foretold to appear at a time when overwhelming evil prevailed on earth; the Kshatriya class, with weapons and power, had begun to abuse their power, take what belonged to others by force and tyrannize people. Parashurama corrects the cosmic equilibrium by destroying these Kshatriya warriors, he is referred to as Rama Jamadagnya, Rama Bhargava and Veerarama in some Hindu texts. He is worshipped as the mool purusha by Niyogi Bhumihar Brahmin, Chitpavan Brahmin, Mohyals and Nambudiri Brahmin communities. According to Hindu legends, Parashurama was born to a saraswat Brahmin sage Jamadagni and his wife Renuka, living in a hut.
They have a celestial cow called Surabhi which gives all they desire.. A king named Kartavirya Arjuna -- wants it, he asks Jamadagni to give it to him. While Parashurama is away from the hut, the king takes it by force. Parashurama learns about this crime, is upset. With his axe in his hand, he challenges the king to battle, they fight, Parushama kills the king, according to the Hindu History. The warrior class challenges him, he kills all his challengers; the legend has roots in the ancient conflict between the Brahmin varna, with religious duties, the Kshatriya varna, with warrior and enforcement roles. In some versions of the legend, after his martial exploits, Parashurama returns to his sage father with the Surabhi cow and tells him about the battles he had to fight; the sage does not congratulate Parashurama, but reprimands him stating that a Brahmin should never kill a king. He asks him to expiate his sin by going on pilgrimage. After Parashurama returns from pilgrimage, he is told that while he was away, his father was killed by warriors seeking revenge.
Parashurama again kills many warriors in retaliation. In the end, he takes up Yoga. In Kannada folklore in devotional songs sung by the Devdasis he is referred to as son of Yellamma. Parasurama legends are notable for their discussion of violence, the cycles of retaliations, the impulse of krodha, the inappropriateness of krodha, repentance. According to Madeleine Biardeau, Parasurama is a mythical character constructed in ancient Hindu thought as a fusion of contradictions to emphasize the ease with which those with military power tend to abuse it, the moral issues in circumstances and one's actions violent ones, he is presented as the fifth son of Renuka and rishi Jamadagni, states Thomas E Donaldson. The legends of Parashurama appear in many Hindu texts, in different versions: In chapter 3.33 of the Mahabharata, he is the grandson of Satyavati, the son of princess Renuka after she marries a Vedic scholar living in a forest. In chapter 6 of the Devi Bhagavata Purana, he is born from the thigh with intense light surrounding him that blinds all warriors, who repent their evil ways and promise to lead a moral life if their eyesight is restored.
The boy grants them the boon. In chapter 4 of the Vishnu Purana, Rcika prepares a meal for two women, one simple, another with ingredients that if eaten would cause the woman to conceive a son with martial powers; the latter is accidentally eaten by Renuka, she gives birth to Parashurama. In chapter 2 of the Vayu Purana, he is born after his mother Renuka eats a sacrificial offering made to both Rudra and Vishnu, which gives him dual characteristics of Kshatriya and Brahmin. Parashurama is described in some versions of the Mahabharata as the angry Brahmin who with his axe, killed a huge number of Kshatriya warriors because they were abusing their power. In other versions, he kills his own mother because his father asks him to and claims she had committed a sin by having lustful thoughts after seeing a young couple frolicking in water. After Parasurama obeys his father's order to kill his mother, his father grants him a boon. Parasurama asks for the reward that his mother be brought back to life, she is restored to life.
Parasurama remains filled with sorrow after the violence and expiates his sin. He plays important roles in the Mahabharata serving as mentor to Bhishma and Karna, teaching weapon arts and helping key warriors in both sides of the war. In the Mahabharata, he is the teacher of warrior Karna. In the regional literature of Kerala, he is the founder of the land, the one who brought it out of the sea and settled a Hindu community there, he is known as Rama Jamadagnya and Rama Bhargava in some Hindu texts. Parashurama retired according to chapter 2.3.47 of the Bhagavata Purana. He is the only Vishnu avatar who never dies, never returns to abstract Vishnu and lives in meditative retirement. Further, he is the only Vishnu avatar that co-exists with other Vishnu avatars Rama and Krishna in some versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata respectively; the region of Konkan is considered as Parashurama Kshetra. The ancient Saptakonkana is a larger region described in the Sahyadrikhanda which refers to it as Parashuramakshetra.
There is a Parshuram Kund, a Hindu pilgrimage centre in Lohit dist