Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter and dancer. A prominent figure in popular culture, she is known for sonically innovative conscious and sexually provocative records, elaborate stage shows; the youngest child of the Jackson family, she began her career with the variety television series The Jacksons in 1976 and went on to appear in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including Good Times and Fame. After signing a recording contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a pop icon following the release of her third and fourth studio albums Control and Rhythm Nation 1814, her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, disco and industrial beats, which led to crossover success in popular music. In 1991 Jackson signed the first of two record-breaking multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest-paid artists in the industry, her fifth album Janet saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her music.
That same year, she appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice. Jackson released her sixth studio album The Velvet Rope, distinguished for its innovative production and dark lyrical content. By the end of the 1990s, she was named by Billboard magazine as the second most successful recording artist of the decade after Mariah Carey, her seventh album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on the recording industry as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin Records, she released her tenth album Discipline, her first and only album with Island Records. In 2015, she partnered with BMG Rights Management to launch her own record label, Rhythm Nation, released her eleventh album Unbreakable the same year. Jackson is one of the world's best-selling music artists, selling over 180 million albums, she has amassed an extensive catalog, with singles such as "Nasty", "Rhythm Nation", "That's the Way Love Goes", "Together Again" and "All for You". In 2008, Billboard placed her number seven on its list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, in 2010 ranked her fifth among the "Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years".
In December 2016, the magazine named her the second most successful dance club artist of all-time after Madonna. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Jackson was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019. Janet Jackson was born on May 16, 1966 in Gary, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther and Joseph Walter Jackson; the Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would refrain from organized religion. At a young age, her brothers began performing as the Jackson 5 in the Chicago-Gary area. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, soon had their first number-one hit; the family moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles. Jackson had desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, considered the idea after recording herself in the studio. At age seven, Jackson performed at the MGM Casino on the Las Vegas Strip.
A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was withdrawn, told her to address him by his first name as a child. She began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976. In 1977, she was selected to have a starring role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good Times, she starred in A New Kind of Family and got a recurring role on Diff'rent Strokes, portraying Charlene Duprey from seasons three to six. Jackson played the role of Cleo Hewitt during the fourth season of Fame, but expressed indifference towards the series due to the emotional stress of her secret marriage to R&B singer, James DeBarge. Jackson elaborated on her time on the show in an interview with Anderson Cooper, revealing that the cast would play pranks on her, but she spoke fondly of them; when Jackson was sixteen, her father and manager Joseph Jackson, arranged a contract for her with A&M Records. Her debut album, Janet Jackson, was released in 1982, it was produced by Angela Winbush, René Moore, Bobby Watson of Rufus and Leon Sylvers III, overseen by her father Joseph.
It peaked at No. 63 on the Billboard 200, No. 6 on the publication's R&B albums chart, receiving little promotion. The album appeared on the Billboard Top Black Albums of 1983, while Jackson herself was the highest-ranking female vocalist on the Billboard Year-End Black Album Artists. Jackson's second album, Dream Street, was released two years later. Dream Street reached No. 147 on the Billboard 200, No. 19 on the R&B albums chart. The lead single. Both albums consisted of bubblegum pop music. After her second album, Jackson terminated business affairs with her family, commenting "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, one of the most difficult things that I had to do." Attempting a third album, Jackson teamed with producers Jimmy Terry Lewis. They set out to achieve crossover pop appeal, while creating a strong foundation within the urban market. Within six weeks and the duo crafted her third studio album, released in February 1986; the album shot to No. 1 on the Billboard 200, was certified f
With or Without You (2003 film)
With or Without You is a 2003 comedy-drama film directed by G. Stubbs; the film stars Cynda Williams, Victor Williams, Mushond Lee, Wendy Raquel Robinson. The film was Produced by Anita M. Cal and Lisa Diane Washington in Los Angeles, CA. Robert's life has been going just the way he wanted it to, from both a professional and personal standpoint; that is until his girlfriend Cheri tells him she's expecting. While she feels they should get married, Robert still isn't quite sure if he's ready to take such a major step in his life, he tries to get advice from his friends, who all tell him to stand firm in his decision if he doesn't feel he's ready. Cheri has a group of friends however, they are just as much in support of her opinion that the two should be looking to settle down as Robert's friends are of his; when they all get together to celebrate the baby shower, tensions flare, a few unexpected secrets come to light, leading to a frothy and mirthful climax. Cynda Williams — Cheri Fontenot Mushond Lee — Robert Hightower Dannon Green — Cousin Jacque Guy Torry — Greg J.
B. Smoove — Darnell Maia Campbell — Teresa Maria de Los Angeles — Maria Maurice Smith — Lee Nicki Micheaux — Rochelle James "Talent" Harris — Eddie Victor Williams — Kenneth Wendy Raquel Robinson — Serena With or Without You at AllMovie With or Without You on IMDb
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Takoma Park, Maryland
Takoma Park is a city in Montgomery County, Maryland. It is a suburb of Washington, D. C. and part of the Washington metropolitan area. Founded in 1883 and incorporated in 1890, Takoma Park, informally called "Azalea City", is a Tree City USA and a nuclear-free zone. A planned commuter suburb, it is situated along the Metropolitan Branch of the historic Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, just northeast of Washington, D. C. and it shares a border and history with the adjacent neighborhood of Takoma, Washington, D. C, it is governed by an elected mayor and six elected councilmembers, who form the city council, an appointed city manager, under a council-manager style of government. The city's population was 16,715 at the 2010 national census. Since 2013, residents of Takoma Park can vote in municipal elections, it was the first city in the United States to extend voting rights to 16- and 17-year-olds in city elections. Since the City of Hyattsville has done the same. Takoma Park was founded by Benjamin Franklin Gilbert in 1883.
It was one of the first planned Victorian commuter suburbs, centered on the B&O railroad station in Takoma, D. C. and bore aspects of a trolley park. Takoma was the name of Mount Rainier, from Lushootseed,'snow-covered mountain'. In response to a wish of Gilbert, the name Takoma was chosen in 1883 by DC resident Ida Summy, who believed it to mean'high up' or'near heaven'; the city of Tacoma in Washington State is named after Mount Takhoma. Gilbert's first purchase of land was in spring 1884 when he bought 100 acres of land from G. C. Grammar, known as Robert's Choice; this plot of land was located on both sides of the railroad station bounded by today's Sixth Street on the west, Aspen Street on the south, Willow Avenue on the east, Takoma Avenue on the north. At the time, much of the land was covered by thick forest, some of, cleared away in order to lay out and grade streets and housing lots. At its founding, most lots were sold for $327 to $653 per acre. By August 1885, there were about 100 people living in Takoma Park, including temporary summer residents and year-round permanent residents.
Gilbert himself lived in a wooden house with 20 rooms and a 65-foot tower. Gilbert purchased another plot of land in 1886; the land was bounded by Carroll Avenue to the Big Spring and what is now Woodland Avenue. Gilbert named this land New Takoma. Gilbert purchased the Jones farm and the Naughton farm, which together he named North Takoma, he purchased land from Francis P. Blair, Richard L. T. Beale, the Riggs family. Gilbert hired contractor Fred E. Dudley to build many of the homes in Takoma Park. One of the homes built by Dudley was the home of Cady Lee, which still stands today at Piney Branch Road and Eastern Avenue. Dudley's son Wentworth was the first child born in Takoma Park. By 1888, there were 75 houses built in the community, the number increased to 235 homes by 1889. In 1889, Gilbert purchased several acres of land along Sligo Creek from a physician in Boston named Dr. R. C. Flower, in order to build a sanitarium on the land. By this point, Takoma Park stretched 1,500 acres; the deed of each of the original houses prohibited alcohol from being made or sold on the property, a prohibition that continued in the city until 1983.
Takoma Park incorporated as a town on April 3, 1890. The first town election was held on May 5, 1890, Gilbert was elected mayor and J. Vance Lewis, George H. Bailey, Daniel Smith, Frederick J. Lung were elected to the town council; the Watkins Hotel was built in 1892. A fire destroyed the town's built commercial district and the Watkins Hotel in 1893. Gilbert's North Takoma Hotel was built that year, advertising the pure spring water nearby its 160 rooms. Many of the streets were known as avenues; when the Commissioners of the District of Columbia mandated a District-wide street-naming system, those on the District side were renamed streets but retained their names otherwise. Other streets in Takoma, D. C. were renamed entirely. Susquehanna Avenue became Whittier Street. Tahoe Street was renamed Aspen Street. Umatilla Street became Aspen Street. Vermilion Street became Cedar Street. Wabash Street was renamed Dahlia Street. Aspin became Elder Street. Magnolia Street became Eastern Avenue. In 1904, the Seventh-day Adventist Church purchased five acres of land in Takoma Park along Carroll Avenue, Laurel Avenue, Willow Avenue.
The land was located on both sides of the Maryland-District of Columbia border. The land was intended for a church, office building and residences for prominent members of the church. In 1903, the Seventh-day Adventist Church decided to move their headquarters to the Washington area after its headquarters' publishing house in Battle Creek, had burned to the ground; the church decided that moving to a more urban setting would be a more appropriate place from which to increase the church's presence in the southern states. The church purchased fifty acres of land along Sligo Creek in Takoma Park to build the new headquarters; the land was away from downtown Washington and had clean water available from a natural spring located at present-day Spring Park. For many decades Takoma Park served as the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, until it moved to northern Silver Spring in 1989. In 1908, North Takoma Hotel was bought by Louis Denton Bliss, who turned it into Bliss Electrical School.
Months a fire destroyed the building, Bliss rebuilt the school at another site. The school was bought by Montgomery County where it became the site of Montgomery College's Takoma Park/Silver
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Seventeen Again is a fantasy–comedy film. It first aired on Showtime on November 12, 2000, was released on DVD on April 9, 2002; the film was included as a bonus feature on the Sister, Sister Complete Collection box set released in March 2016. Directed by Jeffrey W. Byrd, it stars Tia & Tamera, their brother Tahj Mowry; when the Donovan family moves from California to Connecticut, 17-year-old Sydney finds it is not easy being in a new town away from her old friends. However, she soon develops a crush on a classmate while trying to compete with his older sister, who dislikes her and criticizes her anyway she can, her 12-year-old genius brother Willie is happy as long as he can tinker in his lab with his complex experiments. When another experiment goes wrong, their father, bans him from making more experiments in his lab until he learns responsibility. Willie is convinced he can defeat the aging process, while devising an experimental anti-aging formula, he accidentally spills some on a bar of soap.
When his grandmother Cat mistakenly uses the tainted soap, she's transformed into a 17-year-old. Her husband Gene follows suit, is returned to his teenaged self. Cat and Gene are having a fine time reliving their youth and enjoying the thrill of teenage romance, but there's a fly in the ointment. Willie learns his formula could have deadly side effects, now he must discover an antidote to return his grandparents to their older but healthy bodies. Through their experience as teenagers again Gene and Cat realize they are still in love with each other but Cat is reluctant to believe Gene’s feelings are genuine as she is still heartbroken that he chose to leave her for a job in Australia 20 years ago, the reason for their divorce. In Sydney's room and Cat have a long and heartfelt talk. Sydney admits she's homesick for her old friends, she hates Connecticut and the bullying she is subjected to by Ashley and her friends because Ashley's brother, Todd, is interested in her. During that time, Cat admits her earlier experience with Ashley.
However unlike Sydney, she was able to earn her begrudging respect. Meanwhile, Gene who has had time to reflect on his life choices realizes his mistake of leaving his family and bids farewell to his life as a teenager and the friends he has made, goes to the dance with Ashley in hopes of reconciling with Cat. Meanwhile at the dance and Cat arrive and find Gene with Ashley. Gene and Cat share a dance where they reconcile, before Cat passes out due to the side effects of the soap. Willie arrives with the antidote. Ashley, furious that Gene ditched her for Cat, cuts them off before they can save her. Sydney stands up to Ashley and decks her for insulting Cat; as she and Willie leave to save their grandparents, everyone applauds Sydney for giving Ashley what she deserved. Willie tosses the antidote in the pool and Gene and Cat jump in. Gene asks Cat to marry him again after their crazy experience. Cat says yes, but the happiness is interrupted by Sydney and Willie's parents and Monique, coming home from a trip.
The parents are surprised to see Cat and Gene reconciled and Monique tells him that they should let the to babysit next time. Sydney asks Monique if she could help with the wedding plans and she agrees. A call comes in and Willie calls for Barry who tells him that he's in the shower with the soap. Of course and Willie now have to stop their father from using the soap. Tia Mowry as Sydney Donovan, Willie's older sister, Barrys daughter, Monique's stepdaughter and Catherine & Gene's granddaughter Tahj Mowry as Willie Donovan, Sydney's younger brother, Barry's son, Monique's stepson and Catherine & Gene's grandson Hope Clarke as Grandma Catherine "Cat" Donovan, Gene's wife Tamera Mowry as young Grandma Catherine "Cat" Donovan Robert Hooks as Grandpa Eugene "Gene" Donovan, Catherine's husband Mark Taylor as young Grandpa Eugene "Gene" Donovan Merwin Mondesir as Todd Phillip Jarrett as Barry Donovan, Monique's husband, Sydney & Willie's father and Catherine & Gene's son Tonya Lee Williams as Monique Donovan, Barry's wife, Sydney & Willie's stepmother Maia Campbell as Ashley Daryn Jones as Terrance Novie Edwards as Julie Seventeen Again was executive produced by Boyz II Men member Shawn Stockman.
Stockman served as the film's music composer. Seventeen Again was filmed on location in Toronto, Canada; the school scenes were filmed at Eastern High School. Seventeen Again has a 6.3/10 rating on the Internet Movie Database. Seventeen Again at AllMovie Seventeen Again on IMDb
Beverly Hills, 90210
Beverly Hills, 90210 is an American teen drama television series created by Darren Star and produced by Aaron Spelling under his production company Spelling Television. The series ran for ten seasons on Fox from October 4, 1990, to May 17, 2000, is the longest-running show produced by Spelling, it is the first of five television series in the Beverly Hills, 90210 franchise and follows the lives of a group of friends living in the upscale and star-studded community of Beverly Hills, California, as they transition from high school to college and into the adult world. "90210" refers to one of the city's five ZIP codes. The initial premise of the show was based on the adjustment and culture shock that twins Brandon and Brenda Walsh experienced when they and their parents and Cindy, moved from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Beverly Hills. In addition to chronicling the characters' friendships and romantic relationships, the show addressed topical issues such as sex, date rape, animal rights, drug abuse, domestic violence, eating disorders, racism, teenage suicide, teenage pregnancy, AIDS.
After poor ratings during its first season, the series gained popularity during the summer of 1991, when Fox aired a special "summer season" of the show while most other series were in reruns. Viewership increased and 90210 became one of Fox's top shows when it returned that fall; the show became a global pop culture phenomenon with its cast members Jason Priestley and Luke Perry, who became teen idols. The show is credited with creating or popularizing the teen soap genre that many other successful television shows followed in the years to come; the show had many cast changes. On February 27, 2019, it was announced that a six-episode revival has been ordered by Fox and that the show would be titled 90210; the series begins with the introduction of the Walsh family—Jim, Cindy and Brenda—who have moved from Minneapolis, Minnesota to Beverly Hills, California as a result of Jim's job promotion. In the first episode and Brenda begin attending West Beverly Hills High School, where they befriend several classmates: the self-centered and promiscuous Kelly Taylor and spoiled Steve Sanders and driven Andrea Zuckerman and virtuous Donna Martin, brooding loner Dylan McKay, younger and naive students David Silver and Scott Scanlon.
The show follows the siblings as they bear witness and take part in the dramatic lives that their wealthy and privileged peers lead. Cast Notes Originally pitched as Beverly Hills High to Fox Chairman Peter Chernin, the show was chosen over a TV adaptation of the 1988 movie Heathers. Torand Productions was used by the production company for several seasons on the show. "Torand" is derived from the first several letters of Aaron Spelling's first and second children and Randy. Tentative titles for the show included Class of Beverly Hills; the show's episodes were issue-based until the producers decided it should become a teen soap opera. In the first season, the teenage characters were said to be in the eleventh grade, but due to the success of the show, their ages were retconned to be one year younger in the second season, making them tenth graders in the first. Jennie Garth had to audition five times for the role of Kelly Taylor and was the first to be cast on the show. Gabrielle Carteris felt.
She first auditioned for Brenda because she thought that being a real-life twin would help her chances, but the producers felt that she would be better for the part of Andrea. When Tori Spelling auditioned for the show, she used the name Tori Mitchell and auditioned for the role of Kelly Taylor, but she was recognized and was instead cast as Donna Martin. Tori Spelling brought Shannen Doherty to her father's attention after seeing Doherty's movie Heathers and being impressed with her performance. Lyman Ward was cast as Jim Walsh in the pilot but was replaced by James Eckhouse, Ward's scenes were cut and re-shot with Eckhouse. Kristin Dattilo was up for the role of Brenda Walsh, but she turned it down, she guest starred as Melissa Coolidge in an episode of the first season. Additionally, Luke Perry had auditioned for the role of Steve Sanders, but the role went to Ian Ziering before Perry was cast as Dylan McKay. Perry's character was not an original cast member of the show, he was first featured in the show's second episode.
He was intended to only appear in one story arc, for one or two episodes. Fox was reluctant to have him included as a regular, but Aaron Spelling felt differently and gave Perry a bigger role during the first two years until the network was won over. In the first season, when Donna tries out for school D. J. she is referred to as Donna Morgan. Throughout the rest of the show, her name is Donna Martin. In addition, in the first season Donna's mother was named Nancy Martin and played by actress Jordana Capra; when she was reintroduced in season two, she was named Felice Martin and was played by actress Katherine Cannon. In the pilot episode, the role of Jackie Taylor was first played by Pamela Galloway and by Ann Gillespie for the rest of the series. Terence Ford and Arthur Brooks portrayed Dylan's father, Jack McKay, in two episodes before Josh Taylor assumed the role; the series was produced in Van Nuys, Los An