La Guajira Desert
The La Guajira Desert is a desert located in northern Colombia and Venezuela 1,100 km north of Bogotá, covering most of the La Guajira Peninsula at the northernmost tip of South America. Most of the region is within Colombia's La Guajira Department, though a small portion is in Venezuelan territory; the area holds immense coal reserves. It is home to the indigenous Wayuu people; the Wayuu are herders but master deep-sea divers, known for collecting pearls from the Caribbean Sea. The peninsula is populated chiefly by xeric scrubland, home to a large variety of flora and fauna; the National Natural Park of Macuira, established in 1977, is a tropical oasis located in the La Guajira Desert. The park covers 25,000 hectares in La Guajira’s only mountain chain and ranges in altitude from sea level to 450 metres, it has a warm climate that averages about 27 °C. Media related to La Guajira desert at Wikimedia Commons
Cúcuta San José de Cúcuta, is a Colombian city, capital of Norte de Santander department. It is located in the northeast of the country, in the eastern branch of the Colombian Andes, on the border with Venezuela. Cúcuta has a population of 750,000 people according to the 2005-2020 census, making it the 6th largest city in the country. Due to its proximity with Venezuela, Cúcuta is an important commercial center. Hosting many billion dollar companies; the international border in Cúcuta is said to be the most dynamic of South America. The city has a length of 12 kilometres from north to 11 kilometres from east to west, it is divided into 10 communes and it is the political, administrative, industrial and tourism hub of the Norte de Santander department. Cúcuta has experienced a great urban development, as a result other cities has been constituted around the city, like Los Patios in the east, Villa del Rosario in the south, they are part of the Metropolitan Area of Cúcuta. It is connected by roads across the country to major cities like Bogotá, Ocaña, Pamplona and Cartagena de Indias and because of its location, to many cities of Venezuela.
Its airport, Camilo Daza International Airport, offers flights to several Colombian cities. The city was the place of some of the most important events in Colombian history, like the redaction of the first constitution by the Congress of Cúcuta which led to the foundation of the Republic of Colombia known as Gran Colombia, the Battle of Cúcuta, where troops led by Simón Bolívar defeated the Spanish Royal Rorce, thereby liberating the city from Spanish rule and allowing Bolívar troops to continue their campaign toward Venezuela. According to figures from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia, 40 percent of the population of Cúcuta live in poverty in 2019; the city of Cúcuta was called San José de Guasimales from 1733 to 1793, the year in which the name changed to San José de Cúcuta—"San José" is for the Virgin Mary's husband, "Cúcuta" means "The House of Goblins" in the language of the Barí indigenous group. In the city's seal, a legend states, Muy Noble, Valerosa y Leal Villa de San José de Cúcuta.
The city has the nicknames "City Without Borders", "Gem of the North," and "City Forest.". Cúcuta was a pre-hispanic settlement, it was entrusted to Sebastian Lorenzo by Pedro de Ursua as an encomienda in 1550. Juana Rangel de Cuellar founded Cúcuta on June 17, 1733, donated a further 782 hectares; the village, centred on a church, grew due to its strategic commercial location, became a city. Several important events that forged Colombia as an independent republic took place in the city: one of these events was the Congress of 1821, where the Constitution of Cúcuta was written and approved; this constitution created Greater Colombia, a country embracing the present-day territories of Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. The city preserves places where these historical events took place: the Historical Church of Cúcuta, the House of Santander, the Park of Greater Colombia; as the site of the Battle of Cúcuta, the city was the beginning of the Admirable Campaign led by Simón Bolívar. This campaign resulted in the independence of Venezuela.
The first European in the North Santander territories was the German conquistador Ambrosio Alfinger, who came from Santa Ana de Coro in 1530 with a troop of adventurers, invaded the unexplored eastern region of the newly created Governorate of Santa Marta. Alfínger, in search of El Dorado, arrived in an area of indigenous settlements called Tamalameque along the Magdalena River and defeating several tribes. Alfinger was killed in the outskirts of present-day Chinácota in a battle with Chimila and Chitarero. With Alfínger dead, Fedro St. Martin took command of the troops and returned to Coro, passing through the territory of Cúcuta. In 1541, Hernán Pérez de Quesada reached the territory of Chinácota, but had to turn back the same year due to resistance by the indigenous people. Shortly thereafter, Alfonso Perez de Tolosa left El Tocuyo and went to Salazar de Las Palmas, through Cúcuta, but had to turn back after losing many soldiers in clashes with the natives. In 1549 Spanish troops, commanded by Pedro de Ursúa and Ortún Velasco, invaded North Santander and reached the valley of Pamplona.
In tribute to the Spanish city of Pamplona, the Spaniards founded the city of Pamplona. The new town soon attracted numerous people because of its agreeable climate, gold mines that were discovered in the region. Further expeditions left this town and completed the conquest of the current territory of North Santander. An expedition commanded by Diego de Montes founded the town of Salazar, but it was soon destroyed by the cacique Cínera. In 1583, the town was rebuilt by Alonso Esteban Rangel, on a site more appropriate for its defense in the event of new attacks by the natives; the second expedition, commanded by Captain Francisco Fernández de Contreras, reached the lands of the Hacaritamas indigenous group and, on July 26, 1572, founded the city of Ocaña, calling it "Santa Ana de Hacarí". Some of his colleagues named it New Madrid, others Santa Ana of Ocaña; the next year, Antonio Orozco, a subaltern of Fernández, founded the town of Teorama, while the Augustinian Friars founded a convent in what is today the city of Chinácota.
In the early 17th century a great part of the valley of Cúcuta belonged to Captain Christopher de Araque
Caribbean region of Colombia
The Caribbean region of Colombia or Caribbean coast region is in the north of Colombia and is composed of eight Departments located contiguous to the Caribbean. The area covers a total land area of 132,288 km2 including the San Andres Island Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina in the Caribbean sea and corresponding to 1/10 of the total territory of Colombia; the Caribbean region of Colombia is home to 9 million people according to the Colombian Census 2005. The Caribbean region coast extends from the Gulf of Urabá to the Gulf of Venezuela. Straddling the coast are Colombia's two main Atlantic port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena; the administration of the region is covered by eight department governments. These 8 departments cover 182 municipalities, 1093 corregimientos and 493 caserios according to the 2005 Census by DANE. Most of its inhabitants speak a dialect of Caribbean Spanish with variations within its subregions. Eight departments form the Caribbean region: partial territory pertaining to Antioquia Department: in the Gulf of Urabá most of the territory of the subregion of Urabá Antioquia.
Chocó Department: covering a small territory in the Gulf of Urabá. Chocó is the only Department of Colombia with coasts on both the Pacific oceans; the predominant ethnic group in the region is the pardo, a mixture of European Spanish, the indigenous peoples and Afro-Colombian. During the early 20th century, a wave of immigrants came from Europe and the Middle East from Lebanon and Turkey. A second wave followed during World War II. Most of the immigrants settled in the main urban centers or trade port towns such as in Barranquilla, Santa Marta, Sincelejo, Santa Cruz de Mompox, El Banco, etc; the two most populous indigenous ethnic groups are the wayuu in the Guajira Peninsula and the Arhuacos and Arsarios. Black population is concentrated near Cartagena predominantly in the town of San Basilio de Palenque, proclaimed Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO for preserving its African heritage. There are 9,746,886 inhabitants in the Colombian Caribbean Region of Colombia in 2010, with a population density of 73.71 inhabitants per square kilometer.
According with Dane population projection there will be 10,441,463 in 2015 and 11,142,852 in 2020. The principal metropolitan area is Barranquilla Metropolitan Area with 1,836,331 inhabitants; the economy of the Caribbean region is based in the exploitation of natural resources such coal and natural gas, agricultural products bananas and oil palm, tropical fruits among many other products, livestock raising, practiced extensively in all the territory, in Córdoba, Atlántico, Bolívar and southern La Guajira. There is a service industry and a local import-export industry in the ports of Cartagena and Santa Marta. Another major part of the economy is tourism, which concentrates in Cartagena and Santa Marta along with San Andres and Providencia Islands. Known for its peacefulness and easygoing demeanour, the inhabitants from the region enjoy a warm climate and a clean and calm seaboard, the main pillar of their identity; the men and women of the region are festive and peaceful choosing to ignore or refuse confrontation whilst keeping a healthy attitude of debate and passionate argumentation without violence.
However, the region is known for giving the country its most prominent fighters and for harbouring some communities which pursue human excellence through the academic and physical endeavours and undertakings. The inhabitants are hard-working and the cities are festive but very committed to progress and development in several areas educational ones as the interest of the latest administrations has been to develop technology and science as a tool for increased productivity and sustenance as well as economical development and progress, it has been always a basis of the culture the cultivation of intellectual virtues. It is why taxicab drivers are known to be well-versed in many religious and/or philosophical themes and topics and why people can start conversations with strangers on a waiting line to debate topics that can range from politics to science, a particular point of interest to the city and to the last generations who are avid readers of scientific material which has propelled the social and cultural development through academia and intellectual activities.
The city is known to many for this and it is said that "even the poorest man in the city is rich in wisdom in the country" for this cultural trait. Like in the rest of Colombia, football is by far the most popular sport in the zone, with teams like Junior Barranquilla, Jaguares de Córdoba, Real Cartagena and Unión Magdalena competing in the first and second divisions of the country; the Caribbean region has been the home of successful football players, many of them world famous like Carlos Valderrama, Radamel Falcao and Carlos Bacca. Unlike in rest of the country, but shared with Venezuela, baseball is an important sport in the region, although its popularity has been fading in the last few years; the region has produced major league players like Édgar Rentería and Orlando Cabrera. The region is known for its love of combat sports. Boxing is a popular sport in certain zones and the region had produced many world champions, such as Antonio Cervantes, Rodrigo Valdéz, Miguel "Happy" Lora; the most popular local rhythms are the cumbia and vallenato however, there is a great musical influe
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Manaure, La Guajira
Manaure or Salinas de Manaure is a town and municipality located in the Colombian Department of La Guajira. Manaure's main economic activity is the exploitation of the vast amounts of salt in the area; the municipality of Manaure is located in northernmost part of South America, on the arid plains of the Guajira Peninsula, in the Colombian Caribbean region, bordering to the north with the Caribbean Sea to the east with the municipality of Uribia. The municipality of Manaure is within the Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub with water streams determined by precipitations during the rainy seasons; the municipality seat of Manaure is crossed by the Limón Creek. The coastline has high concentration of salt and clay over predominantly flat plains undulated in some areas. Climate in the municipality of Manaure is hot and dry throughout the year, averaging between 28 °C and 38 °C throughout the year with constant winds from the northeastern trade winds, evaporation of humidity is high; the area has two rainy seasons averaging 150 mm from May to June and from October to November) and two dry seasons in between these months.
Chronicles from the Spanish explorer first detailed some indigenous in the area called Coanaos which traveled between the Cabo de la Vela and the region of Valledupar to exchange salt for gold. During the 19th century salt in the region was exploited at Honda Bay and Quebrada Bay on coasts of what is part of the municipality of Manaure which formed lagoons. In 1777 the Spanish government ordered the administration of the Salinas. In 1824 the government declared the Salinas or salt mines as national patrimony of the nation establishing a regulatory price control. In 1932 the bank of the Republic was given authority over the administration and exploitation of salt mines in Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Sesquilé. Industrial exploitation and processing of salt in Manaure began in the 1920s when the government gave concessions to individual investors for the exploitation of the salt mine and until the 1940s the mode of collection went from artisan to industrial, when the Bank of the Republic took over the Manaure salt mines.
By 1948 salt production in Manaure was between 30,000 tons a year. In 1970 the concession of Manaure salt mines was transferred to the IFI-Concesión Salinas which intensified the production to one million tons a year; the Wayuu began to claim the area as historical owners of Manaure. In 1991 the government recognized the claim by the Wayuu and agreed to reorganize production and work conditions under a mixed economy, in which the indigenous would have 25% of the stocks in the company; the accords were not met and the Wayuus sued the government in 1994. The court ordered the creation of Sociedad Salinas de Manaure, SAMA based on the original agreement and linked to the Ministry of Development; the Wayuu would have 25 %. In 2002 Law 773 of the same year reestablished the creation of the SAMA, distributing earnings among the Ministry of Development the indigenous Association "Sumain Ichi" and the municipality of Manaure. Manaure official website
Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the country was part of the Curaçao and Dependencies colony and is now formally called the Country of Curaçao. Curaçao has a population over 160,000 in an area of 444 km2 and its capital is Willemstad. Before the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of Curaçao", one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles. In the 16th and 17th centuries, sailors on long voyages would get scurvy from lack of vitamin C. According to some accounts, Portuguese sailors who were ill were left at the island now known as Curaçao; when their ship returned, they had recovered cured from scurvy after eating fruit with vitamin C. From on the Portuguese referred to this as Ilha da Curação. Another explanation is that it is derived from the Portuguese word for heart, referring to the island as a centre in trade.
An unstressed o in Continental Portuguese is pronounced, so the Portuguese word for heart, coração, is pronounced. Spanish traders took the name over as Curaçao, followed by the Dutch. Another explanation is that Curaçao was the name by which the indigenous peoples of the island identified themselves, their autonym. Early Spanish accounts support this theory, as they refer to the indigenous peoples as Indios Curaçaos, or "healing Indians". From 1525, the island was featured on Spanish maps as Curaçote and Curasaore. By the 17th century, it appeared on most maps in Portuguese as Curazao. On a map created by Hieronymus Cock in 1562 in Antwerp, the island was referred to as Qúracao; the original inhabitants of Curaçao were Arawak people. Their ancestors had migrated to the island from the mainland of South America hundreds of years before Europeans arrived, they were believed to have migrated from the Amazon Basin. The first Europeans recorded as seeing the island were members of a Spanish expedition under the leadership of Alonso de Ojeda in 1499.
The Spaniards enslaved most of the Arawak as their labour force. They sometimes forcibly relocated the survivors to other colonies. In 1634, after the Netherlands achieved independence from Spain caused by Eighty Years' War, Dutch colonists started to occupy the island. European powers were trying to establish bases in the Caribbean; the Dutch West India Company founded the capital of Willemstad on the banks of an inlet called the Schottegat. Curaçao had been ignored by colonists; the natural harbour of Willemstad proved to be an ideal spot for trade. Commerce and shipping -- and piracy -- became. In addition, in 1662, the Dutch West India Company made Curaçao a centre for the Atlantic slave trade bringing slaves here for sale elsewhere in the Caribbean and on the mainland of South America. Sephardic Jews with ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula settled here with the Dutch and in then-Dutch Brazil. In the Franco-Dutch War, Count Jean II d'Estrées planned to attack Curaçao, his fleet – 12 men of war, three fireships, two transports, a hospital ship, 12 privateers – met with disaster, losing seven men-of-war and two other ships when they struck reefs off the Las Aves archipelago.
They had made a serious navigational error, hitting the reefs on 11 May 1678, a week after setting sail from Saint Kitts. Curaçao marked the events by a day of thanksgiving, celebrated for decades into the 18th century, to commemorate the island's escape from being invaded by the French. Although a few plantations were established on the island by the Dutch, the first profitable industry established on Curaçao was salt mining; the mineral was a lucrative export at the time and was a major factor for the island being part of international commerce. Many Dutch colonists grew affluent from the slave trade, the city built impressive colonial buildings. Curaçao architecture blends Dutch and Spanish colonial styles; the wide range of historic buildings in and around Willemstad has resulted in the capital being designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Landhouses and West African style kas di pal'i maishi are scattered all over the island; some can be visited. In 1795, a major slave revolt took place under the leaders Tula Rigaud, Louis Mercier, Bastian Karpata, Pedro Wakao.
Up to 4000 slaves on the northwest section of the island revolted. More than 1,000 slaves took part in extended gunfights. After a month, the slave owners suppressed the revolt. Curaçao's proximity to South America resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands from Spain. Architectural similarities can be seen between the 19th-century parts of Willemstad and the nearby Venezuelan city of Coro in Falcón State; the latter has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Netherlands established economic ties with Viceroyalty of New Granada, which includes present-day countries of Colombia and Venezuela. In the 19th century, Curaçaoans such as Manuel Piar and Luis Brión were prominently engaged in the wars of independen
Cerrejón is a large open-pit coal mine in Colombia. It is located in the southeast of the department of La Guajira, close to the border with Venezuela; the coal mine is situated in the northeastern part of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin, the basin of the Ranchería River, between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in the west and the Serranía del Perijá to the southeast. At Cerrejón, low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal from the Cerrejón Formation is excavated; the mine is one of the largest of its type, the largest in Latin America and the tenth biggest in the world. Cerrejón extends over 690 square kilometres, it is divided into North Zone, Central Zone and South Zone. Total proven reserves are estimated at 503 megatonnes. In 2016, the mine produced 32,683,315 tonnes. There is controversy about the discoverer of Cerrejon mine, some names are shuffled: the American civil engineer John May, hired by the national government, which conducted the examination in 1864. In the 19th century small scale mining began.
A major part of the history of the Cerrejón mine should be mentioned: the "defunct" company Intercor was in its time called "The Cerrejón Zona Norte Coal Project". In December 1976, a partnership contract was signed between Carbocol S. A. a state-owned firm, Intercor, at the time Exxon, today ExxonMobil subsidiary, to develop the north zone of Cerrejón. This contract considered three stages: exploration and production. In January 1999, the Colombian government extended the concession for a further 25 years, to 2034. In November 2000, the Colombian government sold its Carbocol S. A. shares in the partnership contract Cerrejón North Zone to a consortium comprising subsidiaries of BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Glencore International AG. Subsequently, Glencore sold its shares to Xstrata. In February 2002, this consortium acquired the remaining 50% of shares from Intercor, thereby becoming sole concessioners of the Cerrejón North Zone. In November 2002, the union of the purchased to Intercor and Carbones del Cerrejón S. A. was formalized, the official name of the mine operator was changed to Carbones del Cerrejón Limited, Cerrejón.
In this zone, there are two areas under concession: The Central Deposit has been in production since 1981 via contracts with different companies. In 1995, Glencore acquired Prodeco S. A. creating Carbones del Cerrejón S. A. and in 1997, Anglo American became involved in the business. In 2000, BHP Billiton became the third partner; the Oreganal Deposit was under concession to Carbones del Caribe by the national government. In 1995, the concession passed to Oreganal S. A. which, in turn, ceded its shares to Carbones del Cerrejón S. A. in 1999. In 2001, after a public tender, this area was ceded to a consortium comprising Carbones del Cerrejón S. A. and Cerrejón Zona Norte S. A., concessioned to subsidiaries of BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Xstrata. In 1997, after a tender process, the exploration and mining contract for this zone was awarded to the consortium now comprising subsidiaries of BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Xstrata; the Cerrejón South Zone is under exploration. Cerrejón is the biggest in Latin America.
Production started in 1985, when the mine was operated by Carbocol, a Colombian state company and Intercor, a subsidiary of ExxonMobil. The proven reserves in 2009 were the probable reserves 241,000,000 tonnes; the coal is low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal, mined from the Paleocene Cerrejón Formation in the northeastern part of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin. The coal seams reach a thickness of 180 metres; the total production in 2016 was 32,683,315 tonnes. Cerrejón is owned in equal parts by subsidiaries of the international mining companies BHP Billiton, Anglo American and Glencore; the mine produces over 32 million tonnes of thermal coal a year and has estimated reserves of over five billion tonnes Unique in Colombia, the mine has an integrated railway line and shipping terminal, which gives increased efficiency and lower environmental impact. As well exporting coal, the port and railway are used to transport supplies to the mine; the mine has maintenance workshops of over 26,000 square metres.
The integrated railway line is 150 kilometres long. Each train can haul 109 freight wagons; the Puerto Bolívar shipping terminal loads bulk carrier ships of up to 180,000 tonnes. The port has a supply dock for ships of up to 70,000 tonnes, used to supply machinery, spare parts and other goods for the mining operation; the navigable channel is 19 metres deep, 225 metres wide, 4 kilometres. It is one of the largest coal maritime ports in South America with clean technology. From 1985 to 2011, the coal mine of the Cerrejón, produced 508.8 million tonnes of coal and generated US$2,006 million in royalties. In 2011 alone, sales generated US$336.60 million for the country as a whole and the region of La Guajira. By the end of 2011, the mine of the Cerrejón, had reached a historical production figure of 32.03 million tonnes to the following markets: Europe, the Mediterrane