The Douglas O-38 was an observation airplane used by the United States Army Air Corps. Between 1931 and 1934, Douglas built 156 O-38s for the Air Corps; some were still in service at the time of the Pearl Harbor Attack in 1941. The O-38 is a modernized derivative of the O-25, itself a re-engined variant of the earlier Douglas O-2. O-38 derivative of the Curtiss Conqueror-engined O-25 but with a 525-hp Pratt & Whitney R-1690-3 radial engine and Townend ring cowling. Six aircraft delivered to Perú in February 1933, fitted with Edo floats. Survivors were converted to wheels, served as trainers until 1940. O-38S private-venture development of the O-38 with a wider and deeper fuselage, crew canopy and a smooth-cowled 575 hp Wright R-1820-E Cyclone radial engine. For several decades it was believed that no examples of this aircraft survived, until the wreckage of an O-38F was located in Alaska in the late 1960s; this aircraft was the first airplane to land at Ladd Field near Fairbanks, Alaska, in October 1940.
It had gone down on 16 June 1941 as a result of engine failure, made a soft landing in the Alaskan wilderness about 70 miles southeast of Fairbanks. Both crewmen survived the landing unhurt, hiked to safety after supplies were dropped to them, but the aircraft's location was considered too remote for it to be salvaged; the wreckage was rediscovered nearly thirty years during an aerial survey of the area, the plane's type was soon identified. The staff of the Air Force Museum recognized it as the last surviving example, assembled a team to examine the aircraft for possible retrieval and restoration. Upon arriving at the crash site they found the aircraft well preserved, with only the two seats and the tailwheel curiously missing; the team was able to light their campfires using the aircraft's remaining fuel. Plans were soon made to remove the aircraft by a CH-47 Chinook helicopter from Fort Greeley on 10 June 1968, it was transported back to Dayton, Ohio. Meanwhile, the missing seats were found in the shack of a local frontiersman where they were being used as chairs.
The missing tailwheel was taken. The restoration by the museum's staff took several years, many structural pieces of the wings had to be reverse engineered from original plans and damaged parts; the finished aircraft with its original engine was completed and placed on display in 1974. It is displayed hanging in the museum's Interwar Years Gallery. ColombiaColombian Air Force. One captured from Peru in 1933 and returned to Peru in 1934. PeruPeruvian Navy United StatesUnited States Army Air Corps Data from "United States Military Aircraft Since 1909" by F. G. Swanborough & Peter M. Bowers 1964, 596 pp. General characteristics Crew: two Length: 32 ft Wingspan: 40 ft Height: 10 ft 8 in Wing area: 371 ft2 Empty weight: 3,072 lb Loaded weight: 4,458 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 5,401 lb maximum Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1690-5, 525 hp Performance Maximum speed: 149 mph Cruise speed: 128 mph Range: 563 miles Service ceiling: 19,750 ft Rate of climb: 943.4 ft/min Armament 2 ×.30-cal machine guns, one fixed forward-firing and one flexible plus 4 × 100 lb bombs Notes BibliographyThe complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft cover Editors: Paul Eden & Soph Moeng, 1152 pp.
National Museum of the United States Air Force
Postage stamps and postal history of Greece
Greece's first postal service was founded in 1828, at the time of Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire. This initial service continued mail delivery and the issuing of postage stamps until 1970, it was succeeded by the Hellenic Post S. A. which remains Greece's official postal provider. The first Greek stamps were issued in 1861; until 1966, with the exception of a set issued in 1927, all Greek stamps were inscribed ΕΛΛΑΣ. From 1966 to 1982, the inscription was modified to include both the Greek and Latin versions: ΕΛΛΑΣ-HELLAS. Beginning in 1982, ΕΛΛΑΣ was replaced with ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ, it was used on the 1927 set referred to earlier. In 1875, Greece was among the founding members of the General Postal Union. Greece's territory and population was expanded by the 1912-1913 Balkan Wars; this led to the issuing of several sets of occupation stamps, which consisted of both existing stamp issues with overprints and newly printed issues. In addition to these, some of the so-called "New Territories", notably the islands of Ikaria and Samos, issued their own stamps prior to becoming part of Greece.
Beginning with the Olympic issue of 1896, Greece has issued a number of commemorative stamps. Their subjects have included Greek history, art and wildlife; the first Greek-inscribed stamps were not by the nearby Ionian Islands. Under British rule from 1815 to 1864, this island group was known as the United States of the Ionian Islands. A set of three stamps was issued on May 15, 1859. Printed by Perkins, Bacon & Co. of London and inscribed ΙΟΝΙΚΟΝ ΚΡΑΤΟΣ, they depicted a profile of Queen Victoria. All bore no face value, this being indicated by their colors; these stamps became invalid after the Ionian Islands were ceded to Greece on June 28, 1864. The first stamps of Greece were the so-called "Large Hermes heads", depicting a profile of the Greek messenger god Hermes in a frame resembling that used for contemporary stamps of France; the basic design was by the French engraver Albert Désiré Barre and the first batch was printed in Paris by Ernst Meyer. The first set was issued on October 1, 1861.
It consisted of seven denominations. In November 1861 the printing plates were transferred to Athens and subsequent printings made there; the plates continued in use into the mid-1880s, resulting in a number of varieties due to plates becoming worn and cleaned, as well as the printing of the stamps on several kinds of paper. Most types were printed with control numbers on the back, all were imperforate. Additional denominations were introduced in 1876, to comply with the General Postal Union's international letter rates; the first postage due stamps of Greece were issued in 1875. The first batch was printed in Vienna, as were further releases in 1876 and 1890-1893. Green to yellow-green in color, with numerals declaring each stamp's value along with the inscription ειοπρακτέον inside a central circle, these stamps are known as "rologakia"; the first two sets consisted of twelve values. The third contained only 2, 5, 40 and 60 lepta; the stamps were issued with a variety of perforations: 9 1/2, 10, 10 1/2 and compound.
A second design, with its inscription contained in a scroll pattern in place of the circle, was issued in 1902. Known as the London issue, it was printed by Perkins, Bacon & Co. with engraving by the Johnstonia Engraving Company. These stamps had perforations of 13½. In place of the earlier issues' 60, 70, 80 and 90 lepta values, the London issue introduced new denominations of 3, 25, 30 and 50 lepta. With only minor changes, this design has been used on all Greek postage due stamps since. In 1883, Greece's postal service reduced its international letter rates to 50 lepta. This, as well as the need for a new 1 drachma value to cover parcel post services, led to the issue of a new set of stamps; this set, the "Small Hermes heads", first appeared in 1886. The first batch was printed in Malines, Belgium followed by numerous reprints in Athens until 1900. Like their predecessors, they depicted Hermes in profile, but with a smaller head and a rounder helmet; the sheets were imperforate. Perforated versions 13½ and 11½, became available in 1891.
The denominations were 1 lepton, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50 lepta and 1 drachma. In September 1900 some of the small Hermes head stamps were surcharged with different values due to the delay in printing the new Flying Mercury issue. Greece's first commemorative stamps were issued in 1896 for the 1896 Summer Olympics, the first Olympic games in modern times; the series consisted of twelve values. There were eight different designs, by Professor I. Svoronos, which included famous sports-related images from ancient Greece, such as a chariot race and Myron's Discobolus; the stamps were designed by Swiss artist A. Guilleron, the steel dies were created by the French engraver Louis-Eugène Mouchon and printing took place
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper issued by a post office, postal administration, or other authorized vendors to customers who pay postage, who affix the stamp to the face or address-side of any item of mail—an envelope or other postal cover —that they wish to send. The item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark or cancellation mark—in modern usage indicating date and point of origin of mailing—is applied to the stamp and its left and right sides to prevent its reuse; the item is delivered to its addressee. Always featuring the name of the issuing nation, a denomination of its value, an illustration of persons, institutions, or natural realities that symbolize the nation's traditions and values, every stamp is printed on a piece of rectangular, but sometimes triangular or otherwise shaped special custom-made paper whose back is either glazed with an adhesive gum or self-adhesive; because governments issue stamps of different denominations in unequal numbers and discontinue some lines and introduce others, because of their illustrations and association with the social and political realities of the time of their issue, they are prized for their beauty and historical significance by stamp collectors whose study of their history and of mailing systems is called philately.
Because collectors buy stamps from an issuing agency with no intention to use them for postage, the revenues from such purchases and payments of postage can make them a source of net profit to that agency. Throughout modern history, numerous methods were used to indicate that postage had been paid on a mailed item, so several different men have received credit for inventing the postage stamp. William DockwraIn 1680, William Dockwra, an English merchant in London, his partner Robert Murray established the London Penny Post, a mail system that delivered letters and small parcels inside the city of London for the sum of one penny. Confirmation of paid postage was indicated by the use of a hand stamp to frank the mailed item. Though this'stamp' was applied to the letter or parcel itself, rather than to a separate piece of paper, it is considered by many historians to be the world's first postage stamp. Lovrenc KoširIn 1835, the Slovene civil servant Lovrenc Košir from Ljubljana in Austria-Hungary, suggested the use of "artificially affixed postal tax stamps" using "gepresste papieroblate", but although civil bureaucrats considered the suggestion in detail, it was not adopted.
Rowland HillIn 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, gave Sir Rowland Hill numerous books and documents about the postal service, which Hill described as a "half hundred weight of material". After a detailed study, on 4 January 1837 Hill submitted a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, marked "private and confidential," and not released to the general public, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Thomas Spring Rice; the Chancellor summoned Hill to a meeting at which he suggested improvements and changes to be presented in a supplement, which Hill duly produced and submitted on 28 January 1837. Summoned to give evidence before the Commission for Post Office Enquiry on 13 February 1837, Hill read from the letter he wrote to the Chancellor that included a statement saying that the notation of paid postage could be created "...by using a bit of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, covered at the back with a glutinous wash...". This would become the first unambiguous description of a modern adhesive postage stamp.
Shortly afterward, Hill's revision of the booklet, dated 22 February 1837, containing some 28,000 words, incorporating the supplement given to the Chancellor and statements he made to the Commission, was published and made available to the general public. Hansard records that on 15 December 1837, Benjamin Hawes asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer "whether it was the intention of the Government to give effect to the recommendation of the Commissioners of the Post-office, contained in their ninth report relating to the reduction of the rates of postage, the issuing of penny stamps?"Hill’s ideas for postage stamps and charging paid-postage based on weight soon took hold, were adopted in many countries throughout the world. With the new policy of charging by weight, using envelopes for mailing documents became the norm. Hill’s brother Edwin invented a prototype envelope-making machine that folded paper into envelopes enough to match the pace of the growing demand for postage stamps. Rowland Hill and the reforms he introduced to the United Kingdom postal system appear on several of its commemorative stamps.
James ChalmersIn the 1881 book The Penny Postage Scheme of 1837, Scotsman Patrick Chalmers claimed that his father, James Chalmers, published an essay in August 1834 describing and advocating a postage stamp, but submitted no evidence of the essay's existence. Until he died in 1891, Patrick Chalmers campaigned to have his father recognized as the inventor of the postage stamp; the first independent evidence for Chalmers' claim is an essay, dated 8 February 1838 and received by the Post Office on 17 February 1838, in which he proposed adhesive postage stamps to the General Post Office. In this 800-word document concerning methods of indicating that postage had been paid on mail he states: "Therefore, of Mr Hill’s plan of a uniform rate of postage... I conceive that the most simple and economical mode... would be by Slips... in the hope that Mr Hill’s plan may soon be carried into operation I would sugg
An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
Zeppelin mail was mail carried on zeppelins, the German airships that saw civilian use from 1908 to 1939. Every zeppelin flight carried mail, sometimes in large quantities; the first zeppelin to carry mail was LZ 4, in July 1908, followed shortly by LZ 3. The early flights did not use any special markings. By 1911 a number of different postmarks were in use; these were applied on board the zeppelin while in flight, at a small postal station. The zeppelins were taken into military service in 1914, thereafter did not carry civilian mail, although military commanders had special handstamps applied to their mail. In late 1919, LZ 120 Bodensee resumed flights and mail carriage, using postmarks much as before the war, until 1921 when it was given to Italy as a war reparation. LZ 126 carried mail in 1924 before it was delivered to the United States and renamed the Los Angeles; the Los Angeles carried mail between Lakehurst, New Jersey and Mayagüez, Puerto Rico several times. LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin had a celebrated career.
Within weeks of its first flight in September 1928, the Graf Zeppelin carried the first airmail to go directly from Germany to the US and vice versa. Germany issued special 4-mark stamps for the occasion. On the return trip, the zeppelin carried 52,000 postcards and 50,000 letters. In 1929, Graf Zeppelin circled the globe, with stops in Los Angeles. By the time it was taken out of service in June 1937, the zeppelin had made 590 flights, each flight carrying up to 12 tons of mail to and from dozens of countries around the world. Although LZ 129 Hindenburg is most famous for its fiery end, for the 14 months of its existence, it carried considerable amounts of mail overseas, many of those are available today. Most of the 17,609 pieces of mail on the last flight were destroyed in the fire, but a handful were recovered, today are prized crash covers; the LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II was the last of the zeppelins to carry mail. Zeppelin stamps were issued by a few countries to pay the postage for mail carried on Zeppelin flights during the late 1920s and early 1930s when Zeppelins flew passengers and mail from Germany to other countries and on return flights.
Some stamps were regular issues overprinted. 1930 Graf Zeppelin stamps of the United States LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin Airship Zeppelin Notes References SourcesZeppelinpost Spezial-Katalog eZEP.de — The webportal for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia Zeppelin Study Group — Research group for airship memorabilia and Zeppelin mail Zeppelin Post Journal — Quarterly publication for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia
First flight cover
In aerophilately, a branch of philately, a first flight cover known by the acronym FFC, is mail, carried on an inaugural flight of an airline, route, or aircraft postmarked with the date of the flight of the arrival destination proving it was carried on the aircraft and may have a special flight cachet and/or an arrival postmark. Because many first flight covers are made as collectables they can be considered philatelic mail though others consider them to be postal history. With the advent of air travel it wasn't long before airplanes were carrying the mail between distant points about the globe. In the United States and Germany airmail delivery was greeted with the same national enthusiasm and fanfare as was experienced with the first trips to the moon by US astronauts. Many people sent philatelic mail to themselves or friends, carried aboard these flights in order to get a souvenir of the historic event. Covers carried aboard these flights are popular and famous in some cases; the United States Post Office Department recognised the potential in providing first flight cover services to philatelists quite early on and in 1926 The Postal Bulletin carried extensive instructions for postmasters to ensure appropriate circulation took place and proper markings were added.
Due to the small loads carried on early first flights are expensive. Following the First World War regular and special flights increased to the extent that some modern flight are so commercial that thousands of covers are carried that no pilot could possibly sign, thus collectors may find it difficult to cope with the quantity and diversity of first flight covers available to collect forcing them to specialise though some catalogues exist to help them such as the American Air Mail Catalogue. The first official postal delivery flight between two towns took place on February 18, 1911, during the United Provinces Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition in India; the young French pilot Henri Pequet carried mail from the exhibition location Allahabad to Naini, approx. 8 km away. It took his biplane "Sommer" about 13 minutes for the distance; the carried covers were provided with the large circular bright magenta postmark "First Aerial Post, U. P. Exhibition Allahabad 1911" and a few cards were autographed by the pilot.
Pequet carried about 6,000 letters on his journey. The United Kingdom's first and only official pre-World War I airmail flight took place in 1911 to mark the coronation of King George V flying mail between London and Windsor from September 9-15 carrying 926 pounds of mail; the following year a German Reichspost postal flight took place between Mannheim and Heidelberg on which first flight postcards were carried. The first scheduled U. S. Air Mail service began on May 15, 1918, carried mail from Washington, D. C. to New York City. The type of airplane used was the U. S. Army Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" biplanes flown by Army pilots with an intermediate stop in Philadelphia. Among those who were on hand for the departure of the first flight from Washington, D. C. were President Woodrow Wilson, U. S. Postmaster General Albert S. Burleson, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. Army Lt. George L. Boyle was selected to pilot aircraft #38262 on the first Northbound flight which turned out to be a somewhat less than successful initial venture.
First day cover Philatelic mail
An airmail etiquette shortened to just etiquette, is a label used to indicate that a letter is to be sent by airmail. The term is from French étiquette "label, sticker", from which comes the English word etiquette "rules of behavior"; because the etiquettes are just instructions to postal clerks, have no monetary value, their printing and distribution need not be as controlled as for postage stamps, most are produced. The usual design is a plain blue oblong, with the phrases "AIR MAIL" and/or "PAR AVION" in white letters. Airlines and hotels have produced etiquettes, some quite attractive; the airmail etiquette may be omitted if airmail stamps are used on the letter, in some cases this is not necessary if a country sends out all its foreign mail by air. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, you may write "PAR AVION -- BY AIR MAIL" on the envelope though etiquettes are available free from post offices. Airmail stamps of Denmark List of United States airmail stamps Baldwin, N. C. "Collecting Etiquettes."
Stamp Review.. Field, Francis J. Air Mail Labels. Sutton Coldfield: Francis J. Field, Ltd. 1940 32p. Series Title: The Aero Field Handbook. Jones, Frank G. Etiquettes: Par Avion - By Air Mail. London: Frank G. Jones Associates, 1992 40p. Müller, Frank. Catalogue des etiquettes aéropostales: émises par les administrations postales, les compagnies de navigation aérienne, etc. Paris: La Maison de la poste aérienne, 1947 288p. Postal Label Study Group. Mair Airmail Label Catalog. Riga Stamps page on etiquettes, with many pictures