Cosmic Vision is a European Space Agency long-term space science missions programme spanning between years 2015 and 2025, a successor to the Horizon 2000 long-term scientific programme. Horizon 2000 was the first campaign of the Science Programme, drafted by the European Space Agency in 1984, which focused on funding and developing new science missions, maintaining contemporary ones; the program, while providing funding for already-launched missions and those in late development such as the International Ultraviolet Explorer and Ulysses, supported a series of brand new missions, divided into large-budget ventures known as "cornerstone" missions, medium-sized missions known colloquially as "blue missions". The plan called for three cornerstone missions throughout the lifespan of the programme, the Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, which consisted the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and Cluster missions, were adopted into the Horizon 2000 plan, becoming the first of four cornerstone missions.
XMM-Newton was selected as the second cornerstone mission of the programme, while Rosetta and FIRST were selected in November 1993 as the third and fourth cornerstone missions, with the latter mission being rechristened the Herschel Space Observatory. Part of the Horizon 2000 programme was a class of medium-sized missions known as "blue missions" – their name deriving from the colour of the box that represents them in the original Horizon 2000 proposal diagram from 1984; the Huygens lander, a component of the Cassini–Huygens mission, became the first designated medium-sized mission of the Horizon 2000 programme, after its selection in November 1988. INTEGRAL was chosen as the succeeding medium-sized mission in June 1993, followed three years by the selection of COBRAS/SAMBA rechristened Planck, as the third medium-sized mission in July 1996; as of December 2016, four Horizon 2000 missions, including three cornerstone and one medium-sized mission, remain operational. The initial call of ideas and concepts was launched in 2004 with a subsequent workshop held in Paris to define more the themes of the Vision under the broader headings of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar System Exploration and Fundamental Physics.
By early 2006 the formulation for a 10-year plan based around 4 key questions emerged: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? How does the Solar System work? What are the fundamental physical laws of the Universe? How did the Universe originate and what is it made of? In March 2007 a call for mission ideas was formally released, which yielded in 19 astrophysics, 12 fundamental physics and 19 Solar System mission proposals. In March 2012 ESA announced it had begun working on a series of small class science missions; the first winning S-class concept is set to receive 50 million euros and will be readied for launch in 2017. Small class missions are intended to have a cost to ESA not exceeding 50 million euros. A first call for mission proposals was issued in March 2012. 70 letters of Intent were received. In October 2012 the first S-class mission was selected; the current list of S-class missions include the following: S1, CHEOPS, a mission to search for exoplanets by photometry.
S2, SMILE, a joint mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to study the interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. Selected in June 2015 from thirteen competing proposals, its launch is planned for 2023. Medium class projects are stand-alone projects and have a price cap of 500 million euros; the first two M-class missions, M1 and M2, were selected in October 2011: M1, Solar Orbiter, a heliophysics mission to make close-up observations of the Sun. M2, Euclid, a visible to near-infrared space telescope to study dark energy and dark matter. M3, PLATO, a mission to search for exoplanets and measure stellar oscillations. Selected on 19 February 2014, its launch is planned for 2026. Other competing concepts that were studied included EChO, LOFT, MarcoPolo-R, STE-QUEST, Caroline. M4, ARIEL, a space observatory which will observe transits of nearby exoplanets to determine their chemical composition and physical conditions; the mission was selected by ESA on 20 March 2018 as fourth medium-class science mission, to be launched in mid-2028.
After a preliminary culling of proposals in March 2015, a short list of three mission proposals selected for further study was announced on 4 June 2015. The shortlist included the following two proposals: THOR which would address a fundamental problem in space plasma physics concerned with the heating of plasma and the subsequent dissipation of energy. A call for M5 mission proposals was announced in April 2016. In May 2018, a shortlist of three candidate missions was announced for a proposed launch date in 2032: the three are SPICA, a far-infrared observatory, it was intended that Large class projects were to be carried out in collaboration with other partners and should have an ESA cost not exceeding 900 million euros. However, in April 20
In astronomy, a rubble pile is a celestial body, not a monolith, consisting instead of numerous pieces of rock that have coalesced under the influence of gravity. Rubble piles have low density because there are large cavities between the various chunks that make them up. Asteroids Bennu and Ryugu have a measured bulk density which suggests a rubble pile internal structure. Many comets and most smaller minor planets are thought to be composed of coalesced rubble. Most smaller asteroids are thought to be rubble piles. A close analogy to a rubble pile is a melted shot and wax slug projectile fired from a shotgun as opposed to a monolithic pure lead slug, with the former having a lower density as it is loosely held together by wax and is composed of numerous individual lead bird shot spheres. Rubble piles form when an asteroid or moon is smashed to pieces by an impact, the shattered pieces subsequently fall back together due to self-gravitation; this coalescing takes from several hours to weeks. When a rubble-pile asteroid passes a much more massive object, tidal forces change its shape.
Scientists first suspected that asteroids are rubble piles when asteroid densities were first determined. Many of the calculated densities were less than those of meteorites, which in some cases had been determined to be pieces of asteroids. Many asteroids with low densities are thought to be rubble piles, for example 253 Mathilde; the mass of Mathilde, as determined by the NEAR Shoemaker mission, is far too low for the volume observed, considering the surface is rock. Ice with a thin crust of rock would not provide a suitable density; the large impact craters on Mathilde would have shattered a rigid body. However, the first unambiguous rubble pile to be photographed is 25143 Itokawa, which has no obvious impact craters and is thus certainly a coalescence of shattered fragments; the asteroid 433 Eros, the primary destination of NEAR Shoemaker, was determined to be riven with cracks but otherwise solid. Other asteroids including Itokawa, have been found to be contact binaries, two major bodies touching, with or without rubble filling the boundary.
Large interior voids are possible because of the low gravity of most asteroids. Despite a fine regolith on the outside, the asteroid's gravity is so weak that friction between fragments dominates and prevents small pieces from falling inwards and filling up the voids. All the largest asteroids are solid objects without any macroscopic internal porosity; this may be because they have been large enough to withstand all impacts, have never been shattered. Alternatively and some few other of the largest asteroids may be massive enough that if they were shattered but not dispersed, their gravity would collapse most voids upon recoalescing. Vesta, at least, has withstood intact one major impact since its formation and shows signs of internal structure from differentiation in the resultant crater that assures that it is not a rubble pile; this serves as evidence for size as a protection from shattering into rubble. Observational evidence suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or frequent disruptive events, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case.
However, in situ observations by the Rosetta mission, indicates that it may be more complex than that. The moon Phobos, the larger of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, is thought to be a rubble pile bound together by a thin regolith crust about 100 m thick. Spectroscopy of Phobos' composition suggests. Comet nucleus List of slow rotators Close-up images of Itokawa, a rubble pile asteroid NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Saturn's Moon Calypso, another possible rubble pile Hyper-Velocity Impacts on Rubble Pile Asteroids pdf online @ kent.ac.uk
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called minor planets; the asteroid belt is termed the main asteroid belt or main belt to distinguish it from other asteroid populations in the Solar System such as near-Earth asteroids and trojan asteroids. About half the mass of the belt is contained in the four largest asteroids: Ceres, Vesta and Hygiea; the total mass of the asteroid belt is 4% that of the Moon, or 22% that of Pluto, twice that of Pluto's moon Charon. Ceres, the asteroid belt's only dwarf planet, is about 950 km in diameter, whereas 4 Vesta, 2 Pallas, 10 Hygiea have mean diameters of less than 600 km; the remaining bodies range down to the size of a dust particle. The asteroid material is so thinly distributed that numerous unmanned spacecraft have traversed it without incident. Nonetheless, collisions between large asteroids do occur, these can produce an asteroid family whose members have similar orbital characteristics and compositions.
Individual asteroids within the asteroid belt are categorized by their spectra, with most falling into three basic groups: carbonaceous and metal-rich. The asteroid belt formed from the primordial solar nebula as a group of planetesimals. Planetesimals are the smaller precursors of the protoplanets. Between Mars and Jupiter, gravitational perturbations from Jupiter imbued the protoplanets with too much orbital energy for them to accrete into a planet. Collisions became too violent, instead of fusing together, the planetesimals and most of the protoplanets shattered; as a result, 99.9% of the asteroid belt's original mass was lost in the first 100 million years of the Solar System's history. Some fragments found their way into the inner Solar System, leading to meteorite impacts with the inner planets. Asteroid orbits continue to be appreciably perturbed whenever their period of revolution about the Sun forms an orbital resonance with Jupiter. At these orbital distances, a Kirkwood gap occurs. Classes of small Solar System bodies in other regions are the near-Earth objects, the centaurs, the Kuiper belt objects, the scattered disc objects, the sednoids, the Oort cloud objects.
On 22 January 2014, ESA scientists reported the detection, for the first definitive time, of water vapor on Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt. The detection was made by using the far-infrared abilities of the Herschel Space Observatory; the finding was unexpected because comets, not asteroids, are considered to "sprout jets and plumes". According to one of the scientists, "The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids." In 1596, Johannes Kepler predicted “Between Mars and Jupiter, I place a planet” in his Mysterium Cosmographicum. While analyzing Tycho Brahe's data, Kepler thought that there was too large a gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. In an anonymous footnote to his 1766 translation of Charles Bonnet's Contemplation de la Nature, the astronomer Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg noted an apparent pattern in the layout of the planets. If one began a numerical sequence at 0 included 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, etc. doubling each time, added four to each number and divided by 10, this produced a remarkably close approximation to the radii of the orbits of the known planets as measured in astronomical units provided one allowed for a "missing planet" between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
In his footnote, Titius declared "But should the Lord Architect have left that space empty? Not at all."When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, the planet's orbit matched the law perfectly, leading astronomers to conclude that there had to be a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. On January 1, 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi, chair of astronomy at the University of Palermo, found a tiny moving object in an orbit with the radius predicted by this pattern, he dubbed it "Ceres", after the Roman goddess of the patron of Sicily. Piazzi believed it to be a comet, but its lack of a coma suggested it was a planet. Thus, the aforementioned pattern, now known as the Titius–Bode law, predicted the semi-major axes of all eight planets of the time. Fifteen months Heinrich Olbers discovered a second object in the same region, Pallas. Unlike the other known planets and Pallas remained points of light under the highest telescope magnifications instead of resolving into discs. Apart from their rapid movement, they appeared indistinguishable from stars.
Accordingly, in 1802, William Herschel suggested they be placed into a separate category, named "asteroids", after the Greek asteroeides, meaning "star-like". Upon completing a series of observations of Ceres and Pallas, he concluded, Neither the appellation of planets nor that of comets, can with any propriety of language be given to these two stars... They resemble small stars so much. From this, their asteroidal appearance, if I take my name, call them Asteroids. By 1807, further investigation revealed two new objects in the region: Vesta; the burning of Lilienthal in the Napoleonic wars, where the main body of work had been done, brought this first period of discovery to a close. Despite Herschel's coinage, for several decades it remained common practice to refer to these objects as planets and to prefix t
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,200 in 2018 and an annual budget of about €5.72 billion in 2019. ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight; the main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle. The agency is working with NASA to manufacture the Orion Spacecraft service module, that will fly on the Space Launch System; the agency's facilities are distributed among the following centres: ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands. After World War II, many European scientists left Western Europe in order to work with the United States. Although the 1950s boom made it possible for Western European countries to invest in research and in space-related activities, Western European scientists realised national projects would not be able to compete with the two main superpowers.
In 1958, only months after the Sputnik shock, Edoardo Amaldi and Pierre Auger, two prominent members of the Western European scientific community, met to discuss the foundation of a common Western European space agency. The meeting was attended by scientific representatives from eight countries, including Harrie Massey; the Western European nations decided to have two agencies: one concerned with developing a launch system, ELDO, the other the precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO. The latter was established on 20 March 1964 by an agreement signed on 14 June 1962. From 1968 to 1972, ESRO launched seven research satellites. ESA in its current form was founded with the ESA Convention in 1975, when ESRO was merged with ELDO. ESA had ten founding member states: Belgium, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom; these signed the ESA Convention in 1975 and deposited the instruments of ratification by 1980, when the convention came into force. During this interval the agency functioned in a de facto fashion.
ESA launched its first major scientific mission in 1975, Cos-B, a space probe monitoring gamma-ray emissions in the universe, first worked on by ESRO. The ESA collaborated with NASA on the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the world's first high-orbit telescope, launched in 1978 and operated for 18 years. A number of successful Earth-orbit projects followed, in 1986 ESA began Giotto, its first deep-space mission, to study the comets Halley and Grigg–Skjellerup. Hipparcos, a star-mapping mission, was launched in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA. Scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini–Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens; as the successor of ELDO, ESA has constructed rockets for scientific and commercial payloads. Ariane 1, launched in 1979, carried commercial payloads into orbit from 1984 onward; the next two versions of the Ariane rocket were intermediate stages in the development of a more advanced launch system, the Ariane 4, which operated between 1988 and 2003 and established ESA as the world leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s.
Although the succeeding Ariane 5 experienced a failure on its first flight, it has since established itself within the competitive commercial space launch market with 82 successful launches until 2018. The successor launch vehicle of Ariane 5, the Ariane 6, is under development and is envisioned to enter service in the 2020s; the beginning of the new millennium saw ESA become, along with agencies like NASA, JAXA, ISRO, CSA and Roscosmos, one of the major participants in scientific space research. Although ESA had relied on co-operation with NASA in previous decades the 1990s, changed circumstances led to decisions to rely more on itself and on co-operation with Russia. A 2011 press issue thus stated: Russia is ESA's first partner in its efforts to ensure long-term access to space. There is a framework agreement between ESA and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation and partnership in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, cooperation is underway in two different areas of launcher activity that will bring benefits to both partners.
Notable outcomes are ESA's include SMART-1, a probe testing cutting-edge new space propulsion technology, the Mars Express and Venus Express missions, as well as the development of the Ariane 5 rocket and its role in the ISS partnership. ESA maintain
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulfur dioxide. In astrogeology, these compounds, in their solid state comprise large proportions of the crusts of moons and dwarf planets. In contrast with volatiles and compounds with high boiling points are known as refractory substances. Planetary scientists classify volatiles with exceptionally low melting points, such as hydrogen and helium, as gases, whereas those volatiles with melting points above about 100 K are referred to as ices; the terms "gas" and "ice" in this context can apply to compounds that may be solids, liquids or gases. Thus and Saturn are gas giants, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants though the vast majority of the "gas" and "ice" in their interiors is a hot dense fluid that gets denser as the center of the planet is approached; the Moon is low in volatiles: its crust contains oxygen chemically bound into the rocks, but negligible amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, or carbon.
In igneous petrology the term more refers to the volatile components of magma that affect the appearance and explosivity of volcanoes. Volatiles in a magma with a high viscosity felsic with a higher silica content, tend to produce eruptions that are explosive. Volatiles in a magma with a low viscosity mafic with a lower silica content, tend to vent and can give rise to a lava fountain; some volcanic eruptions are explosive because the mixing between water and magma reaching the surface, releases energy suddenly. Moreover, in some cases, the eruption is caused by volatiles dissolved in the magma. Approaching the surface, pressure decreases and the volatiles evolve creating bubbles that circulate in the liquid; the bubbles are connected together forming a network. This increments the fragmentation into small drops or spray or coagulate clots in gas. 95-99% of magma is liquid rock. However, the small percentage of gas present, represents a large volume when it expands on reaching atmospheric pressure.
Gas is a preponderant part in a volcano system. Magma in the mantle and lower crust have a lot of volatiles within and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release, they leak hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is possible to find in basaltic and rhyolite rocks. Volcanoes release a high amount of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride as volatiles. There are three main factors that effect the dispersion of volatiles in magma: confining pressure, composition of magma, temperature of magma. Pressure and composition are the most important parameters. To understand how the magma behaves rising to the surface, the role of solubility within the magma must be known. An empirical law has been used for different magma-volatiles combination. For instance, for water in magma the equation is n=0.1078 P where n is the amount of dissolved gas as weight percentage, P is the pressure in megapascal that acts on the magma. The value changes for example for water in rhyolite where n=0.4111 P and for the carbon dioxide is n=0.0023 P.
These simple equations work. However, in reality, the situation is not so simple because there are multiple volatiles in a magma, it is a complex chemical interaction between different volatiles. Simplifying, the solubility of water in rhyolite and basalt is function of pressure and depth below the surface in absence of other volatiles. Both basalt and rhyolite lose water with decreasing pressure; the solubility of water is higher in rhyolite than in basaltic magma. Knowledge of the solubility allows the determination of the maximum amount of water that might be dissolved in relation with pressure. If the magma contains less water than the maximum possible amount, it is undersaturated in water. Insufficient water and carbon dioxide exist in the deep crust and mantle, so magma is undersaturated in these conditions. Magma becomes saturated. If the magma continues to rise up to the surface and more water is dissolved, it becomes supersaturated. If more water is dissolved in magma, it can be ejected as bubbles or vapor water.
This happens because pressure decreases in the process and velocity increases and the process has to balance between decrease of solubility and pressure. Making a comparison with the solubility of carbon dioxide in magma, this is less than water and it tends to exsolve at greater depth. In this case water and carbon dioxide are considered independent. What affects the behavior of the magmatic system is the depth at which carbon dioxide and water are released. Low solubility of carbon dioxide means that it starts to release bubbles before reaching the magma chamber; the magma is at this point supersaturated. The magma enriched in carbon dioxide bubbles, rises up to the roof of the chamber and carbon dioxide tends to leak through cracks into the overlying caldera. During an eruption the magma loses more carbon dioxide than water, that in the chamber is supersaturated. Overall, water is the main volatile during an eruption. Bubble nucleation happens; the bubbles are composed of molecules that tend to aggregate spontaneously in a process called homogeneous nucleation.
The surface tension acts on the bubbles shrinking the surface
Scheila is a main-belt asteroid and main-belt comet orbiting the Sun. It was discovered on 21 February 1906 by August Kopff from Heidelberg. Kopff named the asteroid after a female English student with. On December 11.4 2010, Steve Larson of the Catalina Sky Survey detected a comet-like appearance to asteroid Scheila: it displayed a "coma" of about magnitude 13.5. Inspection of archival Catalina Sky Survey observations showed the activity was triggered between 2010 November 11 and December 3. Imaging with the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North revealed a linear tail in the anti-sunward direction and an orbital tail, indicative of larger slower particles; when first detected it was unknown. Scheila's gravity is too large for electrostatics to launch dust. Cometary outgassing could not be ruled out until detailed spectroscopic observations indicated the absence of gas in Scheila's plumes. Observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission's UV-optical telescope make it most that Scheila was impacted at ~5 km/s by a unknown asteroid ~35 meters in diameter.
In 2010, the Hubble Space Telescope observed the aftermath of a catastrophic collision that destroyed the much smaller asteroid P/2010 A2. Each asteroid the size of Scheila might be hit by an impactor 10–100 meters in diameter every 1000 years, so with 200 asteroids of this size or bigger in the asteroid belt, we can observe a collision as as every 5 years. Scheila last came to perihelion on 2012 May 19. 493 Griseldis Comet-like appearance of Scheila What's up with Scheila Joseph Brimacombe animation on flckr Scheila 2010-12-12 10:45:39UT Scheila by Rolando Ligustri Comet-like appearance of Scheila Asteroid 596 Scheila "Outburst" asteroid 596 Scheila goes cometary! UA Catalina Sky Survey Discovers Possible Extinct Comet NASA's Swift and Hubble Probe Asteroid Collision Debris Near Infrared Observations of Comet-Like Asteroid Scheila Interpretation of Scheila's Triple Dust Tails The cause of asteroid Scheila’s outburst Lightcurve plot of 596 Scheila, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner 596 Scheila at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Gran Telescopio Canarias
The Gran Telescopio Canarias is a 10.4 m reflecting telescope located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain. Construction of the telescope cost € 130 million, its installation had been hampered by weather conditions and the logistical difficulties of transporting equipment to such a remote location. First light was achieved in 2007 and scientific observations began in 2009; the GTC Project is a partnership formed by several institutions from Spain and Mexico, the University of Florida, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Planning for the construction of the telescope, which started in 1987, involved more than 1,000 people from 100 companies, it is the world's largest single-aperture optical telescope. The division of telescope time reflects the structure of its financing: 90% Spain, 5% Mexico and 5% the University of Florida; the GTC began its preliminary observations on 13 July 2007, using 12 segments of its primary mirror, made of Zerodur glass-ceramic by the German company Schott AG.
The number of segments was increased to a total of 36 hexagonal segments controlled by an active optics control system, working together as a reflective unit. Its Day One instrumentation was OSIRIS. Scientific observations began properly in May 2009; the Gran Telescopio Canarias formally opened its shutters on July 24, 2009, inaugurated by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. More than 500 astronomers, government officials and journalists from Europe and the Americas attended the ceremony. MEGARA is an optical integral-field and multi-object spectrograph covering the visible light and near infrared wavelength range between 0.365 and 1 µm with a spectral resolution in the range R=6000-20000. The MEGARA IFU offers a contiguous field of view of 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec, while the multiobject spectroscopy mode allows observing 92 objects in a field of view of 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin by means of an equal number of robotic positioners. Both the LCB and MOS modes make use of 100 µm-core optical fibers that are attached to a set of microlens arrays with each microlens covering an hexagonal region of 0.62 arcsec in diameter.
The University of Florida's CanariCam is a mid-infrared imager with spectroscopic and polarimetric capabilities, which will be mounted at the Nasmyth focus of the telescope. In the future, when the Cassegrain focus of the telescope is commissioned, it is expected that CanariCam will move to this focus, which will provide superior performance with the instrument. CanariCam is designed as a diffraction-limited imager, it is optimized as an imager, although it will offer a range of other observing modes, these will not compromise the imaging capability. The fact that CanariCam offers polarimetry and coronagraphy in addition to the more standard imaging and spectroscopic modes makes it a versatile and powerful instrument. CanariCam will work in the thermal infrared between 7.5 and 25 μm. At the short wavelength end, the cut-off is determined by the atmosphere—specifically atmospheric seeing. At the long wavelength end, the cut-off is determined by the detector. CanariCam is a compact design, it is expected that the total weight of the cryostat and its on-telescope electronics will be under 400 kg.
Most previous mid-infrared instruments have used liquid helium as a cryogen. CanariCam will use a two-stage closed cycle cryocooler system to cool the cold optics and cryostat interior down to 28 K, the detector itself to around 8 K, the temperature at which the detector works most efficiently. CanariCam is operational as of December 3rd, 2009; the IAC's OSIRIS, is an "imaging and low resolution spectrograph with longslit and multiobject spectroscopic modes. It covers the wavelength range from 0.365 to 1.05 µm with a field of views of 7 × 7 arcmin, 8 arcmin × 5.2 arcmin, for direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy respectively." It "provides a new generation of instrumental observation techniques such as the tunable filters, the charge-shuffling capability in the CCD detectors, etc." Other observatory sites La Silla Observatory Mauna Kea Observatories Paranal Observatory Lists and comparisons Extremely large telescope List of largest optical reflecting telescopes List of largest optical telescopes Gran Telescopio Canarias GTC News Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias University of Florida CanariCam Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México CBC article—Giant Canary Islands telescope captures first light Images Gran Telescopo Canarias inauguration press dossier Merrifield, Michael.
"Gran Telescopio Canarias". Deep Sky Videos. Brady Haran