Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
Dr. Larry Ray Faulkner is an American academic and businessman, he served as the twenty-seventh president of The University of Texas at Austin from 1998 to 2006, as the president of the Houston Endowment Inc. from 2006 to 2012. From Shreveport, Faulkner obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry at Southern Methodist University in 1966 and his Ph. D. in chemistry from the University of Texas at Austin. He taught chemistry at the University of Texas, the University of Illinois, Harvard University, he served as vice chancellor for academic affairs at the University of Illinois. He served as president of the University of Texas at Austin from 1998 to 2006. On June 30, 2005, he announced that he would step down from his post in the spring of 2006. In December 2005, William C. Powers was named his successor and took office in February 2006. On February 9, 2006, The University of Texas System Board of Regents named Faulkner president emeritus, one of the system's highest distinctions. From 2006 to 2008, he chaired the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, a panel appointed by President George W. Bush to advise the President and the United States Secretary of Education on the best use of scientifically based research to advance the teaching and learning of mathematics.
The final report of this panel, Foundations for Success, was released on March 13, 2008. The impact of this report on the writing of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics can be seen in the latter's treatment of algebra. On August 13, 2010, the University of Texas at Austin's nanoscience building was named the Larry R. Faulkner Nano Science and Technology Building by the UT System Board of Regents in recognition of former president Faulkner's leadership in bringing the university's nanotechnology program to national prominence, he sat on the board of directors of Guaranty Bank from December 2007 to August 2009, of Temple-Inland from August 2005 to February 2012. He serves on the board of ExxonMobil. 2000 Acheson Award by the Electrochemical Society ^ Young, Meghan. "Regents focus on grad rates". The Daily Texan. Retrieved 2006-02-10. Heath, Ben. "From atop the Tower". The Daily Texan. Retrieved 2005-09-06. "Talking with President Faulkner". The Daily Texan. June 30, 2005. Retrieved 2006-03-29.
"Nano Science and Technology Building Named To Honor President Emeritus Larry Faulkner". University of Texas at Austin. August 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-19; the University of Texas at Austin: A President's Legacy: Larry R. Faulkner
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Civil defense siren
A civil defence siren is a siren used to provide the emergency population warning of approaching danger, while sometimes indicating when the danger has passed. Some are used to call the volunteer fire department when they are needed. Designed to warn city dwellers of air raids in World War II, they were reused to warn of nuclear attack and of natural destructive weather patterns such as tornadoes; the generalised nature of the siren led to many of them being replaced with more specialised warnings, such as the Emergency Alert System. A mechanical siren generates sound by spinning a slotted chopper wheel to interrupt a stream of air at a regular rate. Modern sirens can develop a sound level of up to 135 decibels at 100 feet; the Chrysler air raid siren, driven by a 331-cubic-inch Chrysler Hemi gasoline engine, generates 138 dB at 100 feet away. By use of varying tones or binary patterns of sound, different alert conditions can be signalled. Electronic sirens can transmit voice announcements in addition to alert tone signals.
Siren systems may be electronically integrated into other warning systems. Many warning sirens have a sound made distinguishable from that used by emergency vehicles by the use of two simultaneous tones, with pitches in a 5:6 frequency ratio. In the United States, several sets of warning tones have been used that have varied due to age, government structure, manufacturer; the initial alerts used during World War II were the Attack Signal. The Victory Siren manual stated that when manual generation of the warbling tone was required, it could be achieved by holding the Signal switch on for 8 seconds and off for 4 seconds. In 1950, the Federal Civil Defence Administration revised the signals, naming the alert signal "red alert" and adding an "all-clear" signal, characterized by three 1-minute steady blasts, with 2 minutes of silence between the blasts. Beginning in 1952, the Bell and Lights Air Raid Warning System, developed by AT&T, was made available to provide automated transmission of an expanded set of alert signals: Red Alert Yellow Alert White Alert Blue Alert The Yellow Alert and Red Alert signals correspond to the earlier Alert Signal and Attack Signal and the early Federal Signal AR timer siren control units featured the "Take Cover" button labelled with a red background, the "Alert" button labelled with a yellow background.
AF timers changed the colour-coding, setting the Alert button as blue, the Take Cover button yellow, the Fire button red, thus confusing the colour-coding of the alerts. In 1955, the Federal Civil Defence Administration again revised the warning signals, altering them to deal with concern over nuclear fallout; the new set of signals were the Take-Cover Signal. The All-Clear signal was removed because leaving a shelter while fallout was present would prove hazardous. During World War II Britain had two warning tones: Red Warning All Clear These tones would be initialised by the Royal Observer Corps spotting Luftwaffe aircraft coming towards Britain, helped by coastal radar stations; the Attack Warning would be sounded when the Royal Observer Corps spotted enemy aircraft in the immediate area. The sirens were tested periodically; this was done by emitting the tones in reverse order, with the All Clear tone followed by the Red Warning tone. This ensured. Sirens are sometimes integrated into a warning system that links sirens with other warning media, such as the radio and TV Emergency Alert System, NOAA Weather Radio, telephone alerting systems, Reverse 911, Cable Override and wireless alerting systems in the United States and the National Public Alerting System, Alert Ready, in Canada.
This fluid approach enhances the credibility of warnings and reduces the risk of assumed false alarms by corroborating the warning messages through multiple media. The Common Alerting Protocol is a technical standard for this sort of multi-system integration. Siren installations themselves have many ways of being activated. Used are DTMF broadcasts over phone lines or over radio broadcast; this does open vulnerability for exploitation. These sirens can be tied into other networks such as a fire departments volunteer notification/paging system; the basics of this type of installation would consist of a device connected to the controller/timer system of the siren. When a page is received, the siren is activated. A mechanical siren uses a rotor and stator to chop an airstream, forced through the siren by radial vanes in the spinning rotor. An example of this type of siren is the Federal Signal 2T22, developed during the Cold War and produced from the early 1950s to the late 1980s; this particular design employs dual stators to sound each pitch.
Because the sound power output of this type of siren is the same in every direction at all times, it is described as omnidirectional. The Federal 2T22 was marketed in a 3-signal configuration known as the Federal Signal 3T22, which had capabilities for a "hi-lo" signal; some sirens, like the Federal Signal Thunderbolt series, had a blower so that more air could be pumped into the siren. While some mechanica
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Remington Model 700
The Remington Model 700 is a series of bolt-action centerfire rifles manufactured by Remington Arms since 1962. It is a development of the Remington 721 and 722 series of rifles, which were introduced in 1948; the M24 and M40 military sniper rifles used by the US Army and USMC are both based on the Model 700 design. The Remington 700 series rifles come with a 3-, 4- or 5-round internal magazine depending on the caliber chambered, some of which have a hinged floor-plate for quick unloading, some of which are "blind". From 1978 to 1982 Remington offered the Sportsman 78, the same model 700 action but with cheaper features such as a plain stock without checkering; the Sportsman 78 was not included in the recall. The rifle can be ordered with a detachable box magazine; the Model 700 is available in many different stock and caliber configurations, with many third-party and aftermarket variants in the market built on the same action footprint. After World War II, Remington Arms engineer Merle Walker began designing lower-cost alternatives to the Model 30, which resulted in the Model 721.
These used a cylindrical receiver produced from cylindrical bar stock that could be turned on a lathe, rather than machined in a series of milling operations, which reduced the cost of production. In addition, small metal parts, including the bottom metal, were stamped, the stocks were not finished as as older models. Further developments of the basic 721 action under the direction of Walker produced the Model 722 and Model 725, in 1962, the Model 700. Walker sought to increase the accuracy of the rifles, by utilizing tight tolerances in the chamber and bore, a short leade, a fast lock time. Like the earlier 721, the Remington 700 action was designed for mass production. Remington produced two variants of the Model 700, the ADL and BDL, in both long- and short-action rifles that allowed for the chambering of different cartridges. In 1969, Remington introduced several upgrades for the rifle, including a longer rear bolt shroud, a jeweled bolt and improved stock finishing. Four years production of left-handed versions of the rifle began, to compete with the Savage Model 110, at that time the only major rifle manufactured with a left-handed variant.
Other versions of the rifle, including the titanium receiver 700ti, the 700SPS, the CDL have since been introduced. In addition to its development as a hunting rifle, the Model 700 provided the basis for military and police sniper rifles, starting with the M40 rifle in 1966, ordered by the United States Marine Corps; the US Army adopted the M24 Sniper Weapon System in 1986. It is a manually operated bolt action with two forward dual-opposed lugs; the bolt face is recessed enclosing the base of the cartridge, The extractor is a C-clip sitting within the bolt face. The ejector is a plunger on the bolt face actuated by a coil spring; the bolt is of 3-piece construction, brazed together. The receiver is milled from round cross-section steel; the Remington 700 comes in a large number of variants. The symmetrical two-lug bolt body has a.695 in diameter. The long action has a lock time of 3.2 milliseconds. To these can be added various magazine configurations. There are standard consumer versions as well as versions designed for police use.
Some variants come with bipods and other accessories. Remington produces the Mountain LSS model with laminated stock. Heavy barrel versions with laminated stocks like the Model 700 SPS varmint are available for varmint hunting; the Model 700 ADL was replaced as the most economical Model 700 by the Model 700 SPS in newer production. Remington produced; the EtronX electronic primer ignition system was implemented in the Model 700 EtronX introduced in 2000, though this model was a commercial failure and ceased production in 2003, along with the EtronX primers themselves. Remington markets the 700 to military forces and civilian law-enforcement agencies under the "Remington Law Enforcement" and "Remington Military" banner, with the military/law enforcement 700s being called the Model 700P; the 700P series appears to have been influenced by the designs and success of the M24 Sniper Weapon System and the M40 series, with one feature of the Model 700P series being the heavier and thicker barrel for increased accuracy and reduced recoil.
The rifle was chambered for the.308 Winchester cartridge as well as the.223 Remington.243 Winchester, 7 mm Remington Magnum.300 Winchester Magnum.300 Remington Ultra Magnum, and.338 Lapua Magnum. The 700P has a 26" barrel, an aluminium block bedding in its stock, made by HS Precision; the police version is marketed to the public. Remington sells the standard, U. S. Army-issue Leupold Mark IV M3 10x40 mm telescopic sight used by the Army's M24 as an optional feature. Remington offers styled, less expensive versions under the Special Purpose Synthetic name. Both the U. S. Army's M24 Sniper Weapon System and U. S. Marine Corps' M40 sniper rifles are built from the Remington Model 700 rifle, in different degrees of modification, the main difference being the custom fitted heavy contour barrel and action length; the M24 utilizes the M40 employs the short action bolt-face. The reason for this is that the M24 was intended to chamber the longer.300 Winchester Magnum round. The M40, was not intended