Obernburg am Main is a town in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. It has a population of around 8,500. Obernburg lies at the mouth of the river Mümling, where it empties into the Main, at the foot of the Odenwald. Between 83 and 85, the Romans constructed the Obernburg castrum, named Nemaninga, to guard the Limes Germanicus which followed the Main river here, it was built from wood but in the middle of the 2nd century AD replaced by a stone fort. The castrum was the garrison of the Cohors IIII Aquitanorum equitata; the stone fort, with an area of 2.9 ha and a nearly rectangular ground plan of 185/188 × 160 m was oriented to the river Main. Obernburg's old town still somewhat corresponds to the castrum’s footprint, with some of the thoroughfares corresponding to Roman streets, such as today's Römerstrasse which follows the course of the fort's via principalis. A beneficiarii station has been shown to have existed on the Limes road south of the castrum, from which numerous dedication stones have been secured.
In the Alamannic invasion of 259 and 260, the castrum fell, but was resettled on. In the 4th and 5th centuries the Franks settled the area. In 1204, Wolfger von Erla built a castle in defiance of the Count of Ortenburg in a feud. On 25 March 1313, Obernburg was raised to town by Archbishop of Mainz Peter of Aspelt; the confirmation of town rights by Louis the Bavarian came on 27 July 1317 in a document issued in Aschaffenburg. Until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803, Obernburg belonged to Electoral Mainz. Thereafter it belonged to the newly formed Principality of Aschaffenburg, with which it passed in 1814 to the Kingdom of Bavaria; the town became the seat of an Amtsgericht. In 1872, the railway line Aschaffenburg to Miltenberg was opened, with a stop at Obernburg; the first local bridge across the Main was built in 1892. In 1915-7 the Main was channeled and the weir with lock and a hydroelectric plant was constructed; until 1 July 1972, Obernburg was the seat of a like-named district. This was abolished in the course of municipal reform.
On 1 May 1978, the neighbouring municipality of Eisenbach was amalgamated with Obernburg. Since 2014: Dietmar Fieger 2002 - 2014 Walter Berninger 1975 - 2002 Wendelin Imhof 1964 - 1975 Valentin Ballmann 1945 - 1964 Willy Nees Aszód, Pest County, Hungary The town’s arms might be described thus: Argent on a mount vert a buck attired statant gules, in his mouth a bunch of grapes Or stalked of the second, in sinister a demi-tree of the second; the town once bore different arms showing the Wheel of Mainz, but this charge was dropped when the town became part of Bavaria in 1814. The new arms were introduced on the Mayor’s Medal in 1819, it has appeared in all official seals since. Obernburg’s industrial area lies near the outlying centre of Eisenbach in the town’s south; the largest company is the firm Reis Robotics. On the other side of the Main lies another industrial area called the Industrie Center Obernburg. There, in line with tradition, various kinds of chemical fibres are produced. Moreover, the industrial park is home to many other, smaller businesses in various fields.
Although the industrial park bears the name "Obernburg", this is the postal address, it lies within the communities of Erlenbach am Main and Elsenfeld. Obernburg retains a significant part of its town fortifications the Upper Gate, the Alms Tower and the Round Tower. Other historic buildings include the Annakapelle and the Baroque church in Eisenbach. Kleinkunstbühne Kochsmühle The Römermuseum exhibits the traces of Roman settlement in Obernburg and the surrounding area; the Eisenbacher Heimatmuseum is housed in the outlying centre’s former new town hall. Since 1990, Obernburg has been located on the Fränkischer Rotwein Wanderweg. European walking route E8 runs through Obernburg, linking County Kerry in Ireland to İstanbul in Turkey. In July, the Mirabellenfest is celebrated in Eisenbach Since 1989 the Obernburger Mühlstein, a prize for newcomers in cabaret, has been awarded in Obernburg; the sport club TUSPO Obernburg is above all known for its team handball department in the Men’s Second Handball Bundesliga.
The Obernburg District Court is the court with jurisdiction over the Miltenberg district. In Obernburg there are a branch office of the Miltenberg district office, the Obernburg Financial Office responsible for the district and a branch office of the Aschaffenburg Employment Office. Schools of general education in Obernburg are the Johannes-Obernburger-Volksschule, the Eisenbach primary school and the Main-Limes-Realschule. Vocational training schools are the Staatliche Berufsschule Miltenberg-Obernburg, the Berufsfachschule für Kaufmännische Assistenten and the Staatliche Fachoberschule und Berufsoberschule Obernburg. Furthermore, there are the Dr.-Albert-Liebmann-Schule. Adam Lux, revolutionary at the time of the French Revolution Josef Knecht, publisher Charlotte Marian, singer Wolfgang Zöller, deputy chairman of the CDU/CSU Bundestag faction Gitti und Erika, singing duo Urban Priol, cabaret performer Eva-Maria Grein von Friedl, actress Dominik Klein, professional handballer Town’s official webpage
The Saxon Shore was a military command of the late Roman Empire, consisting of a series of fortifications on both sides of the English Channel. It was established in the late 3rd century and was led by the "Count of the Saxon Shore". In the late 4th century, his functions were limited to Britain, while the fortifications in Gaul were established as separate commands. Several Saxon Shore forts survive in south-east England. During the latter half of the 3rd century, the Roman Empire faced a grave crisis. Internally, it was weakened by civil wars, the violent succession of brief emperors, secession in the provinces, while externally it faced a new wave of attacks by "barbarian" tribes. Most of Britain had been part of the empire since the mid-1st century, it was protected from raids in the north by the Hadrianic and Antonine Walls, while a fleet of some size was available. However, as the frontiers came under increasing external pressure, fortifications were built throughout the Empire in order to protect cities and guard strategically important locations.
It is in this context. In the 230s, under Severus Alexander, several units had been withdrawn from the northern frontier and garrisoned at locations in the south, had built new forts at Brancaster and Caister-on-Sea in Norfolk and Reculver in Kent. Dover was fortified in the early 2nd century, the other forts in this group were constructed in the period between the 270s and 290s; the only contemporary reference we possess that mentions the name "Saxon Shore" comes in the late 4th century Notitia Dignitatum, which lists its commander, the Comes Litoris Saxonici per Britanniam, gives the names of the sites under his command and their respective complements of military personnel. However, due to the absence of further evidence, theories have varied between scholars as to the exact meaning of the name, the nature and purpose of the chain of forts it refers to. Two interpretations were put forward as to the meaning of the adjective "Saxon": either a shore attacked by Saxons, or a shore settled by Saxons.
Some argue that the latter hypothesis, less valid, is supported by Eutropius, who states that during the 280s the sea along the coasts of Belgica and Armorica was "infested with Franks and Saxons", that this was why Carausius was first put in charge of the fleet there. However, Eutropius refers to Saxons as seaborne invaders, it receives at least partial support from archaeological finds, as artefacts of a Germanic style have been found in burials, while there is evidence of the presence of Saxons in some numbers in SE England and the northern coasts of Gaul around Boulogne-sur-Mer and Bayeux from the middle of the 5th century onwards. This, in turn, mirrors a well documented practice of deliberately settling Germanic tribes to strengthen Roman defences; the other interpretation, supported by Stephen Johnson, holds that the forts fulfilled a coastal defence role against seaborne invaders Saxons and Franks, acted as bases for the naval units operating against them. This view is reinforced by the parallel chain of fortifications across the Channel on the northern coasts of Gaul, which complemented the British forts, suggesting a unified defensive system.
Other scholars like John Cotterill however consider the threat posed by Germanic raiders, at least in the 3rd and early 4th centuries, to be exaggerated. They interpret the construction of the forts at Brancaster, Caister-on-Sea and Reculver in the early 3rd century and their location at the estuaries of navigable rivers as pointing to a different role: fortified points for transport and supply between Britain and Gaul, without any relation to countering seaborne piracy; this view is supported by contemporary references to the supplying of the army of Julian by Caesar with grain from Britain during his campaign in Gaul in 359, their use as secure landing places by Count Theodosius during the suppression of the Great Conspiracy a few years later. Another theory, proposed by D. A. White, was that the extended system of large stone forts was disproportionate to any threat by seaborne Germanic raiders, that it was conceived and constructed during the secession of Carausius and Allectus in 289-296, with an different enemy in mind: they were to guard against an attempt at reconquest by the Empire.
This view, although disputed, has found recent support from archaeological evidence at Pevensey, which dates the fort's construction to the early 290s. Whatever their original purpose, it is certain that in the late 4th century the forts and their garrisons were employed in operations against Frankish and Saxon pirates. Britain was abandoned by Rome with Armorica following soon after; the forts on both sides continued to be inhabited in the following centuries, in Britain in particular several continued in use well into the Anglo-Saxon period. The nine forts mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum for Britain are listed here, from north to south, with their garrisons. Branodunum. One of the earliest forts, dated to the 230s, it is of a typical rectangular castrum layout. It was garrisoned by the Equites Dalmatae Brandodunenses, although evidence exists suggesting that its original garrison was the cohors I Aquitanorum. Gariannonum. Established between 260 and the mid-270s to guard the River Yare, it was garrisoned by the Equites Stablesiani Gariannoneses.
Although there is some discussion as to whet
The Main is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres, it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine, it is the longest river lying in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the mainspring of the Main River flows through the German states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse. Its basin competes with the Danube for water; the Main begins near Kulmbach in Franconia at the joining of its two headstreams, the Red Main and the White Main. The Red Main originates in the Franconian Jura mountain range, 50 km in length, runs through Creussen and Bayreuth; the White Main originates in the mountains of the Fichtelgebirge. In its upper and middle section, the Main runs through the valleys of the German Highlands, its lower section crosses the Lower Main Lowlands to Wiesbaden. Major tributaries of the Main are the Regnitz, the Franconian Saale, the Tauber, the Nidda; the name "Main" derives from the Latin Moenus or Menus. It is not related to the name of the city Mainz; the Main is navigable for shipping from its mouth at the Rhine close to Mainz for 396 km to Bamberg.
Since 1992, the Main has been connected to the Danube via the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the regulated Altmühl river. The Main has been canalized with 34 large locks to allow CEMT class V vessels to navigate the total length of the river; the 16 locks in the adjacent Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the Danube itself are of the same dimensions. There are 34 dams and locks along the 380 km navigable portion of the Main, from the confluence with the Regnitz near Bamberg, to the Rhine. No.: Number of the lock. Name: Name of the lock. Location: City or town where the lock is located. Year built: Year when the lock was put into operation. Main-km: Location on the Main, measured from the 0 km stone in Mainz-Kostheim; the reference point is the center of the lock group. Distance between locks: length in km of impoundment. Altitude: height in meters above mean sea level of the upper water at normal levels. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Lock length: Usable length of the lock chamber in meters. Lock width: Usable width of the lock chamber in meters.
Most of the dams along the Main have turbines for power generation. No.: Number of the dam. Name: Name of the dam. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Power: Maximum power generation capacity in megawatts. Turbines: Type and number of turbines. Operator: Operator of the hydroelectric plant. Tributaries from source to mouth: Around Frankfurt are several large inland ports; because the river is rather narrow on many of the upper reaches, navigation with larger vessels and push convoys requires great skill. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the Main passes the following towns and cities: Burgkunstadt, Bad Staffelstein, Eltmann, Haßfurt, Volkach, Marktbreit, Karlstadt, Gemünden, Marktheidenfeld, Miltenberg, Erlenbach/Main, Seligenstadt, Hanau, Hattersheim, Flörsheim, Rüsselsheim. The river has gained enormous importance as a vital part of European "Corridor VII", the inland waterway link from the North Sea to the Black Sea. In a historical and political sense, the Main line is referred to as the northern border of Southern Germany, with its predominantly Catholic population.
The river marked the southern border of the North German Federation, established in 1867 under Prussian leadership as the predecessor of the German Empire. The river course corresponds with the Speyer line isogloss between Central and Upper German dialects, sometimes mocked as Weißwurstäquator; the Main-Radweg is a major German bicycle path running along the Main River. It is 600 kilometres long and was the first long-distance bicycle path to be awarded 5 stars by the General German Bicycle Club ADFC in 2008, it starts from either Creußen or Bischofsgrün and ends in Mainz. Roman camp at Marktbreit Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte, Main und Meer - Porträt eines Flusses. Exhibition Catalogue to the Bayerische Landesausstellung 2013. WBG. ISBN 978-3-534-00010-4. Main River Website on the River Main by the Tourist Board of Franconia. "Main". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Main". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. There is literature about Main in the Hessian Bibliography Water levels of Bavarian rivers Wasser- und Schifffahrtsdirektion Süd Main Cycleway Historical map of the Main confluence at Steinenhausen from BayernAtlas
The Latin noun līmes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. The term was commonly used after the 3rd century AD to denote a military district under the command of a dux limitis. Limes has sometimes been adopted in modern times for a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome marking the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not; some experts suggested that the so-called limes may have been called Munimentum Traiani, Trajan's Bulwark, referring to a passage by Ammianus Marcellinus, according to which emperor Julian had reoccupied this fortification in 360 AD. The limites represented the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD, it stretched more than 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast.
The remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, forts and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, a few destroyed; the two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia, it is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD 142 as a defense against the "Barbarians" of the north, it constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. The most notable examples of Roman limites are: Hadrian's Wall – Limes Britannicus Antonine Wall – in Scotland Saxon Shore, late Roman limes in South-East England Limes Germanicus, with the Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Limes Arabicus, the frontier of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea facing the desert Limes Tripolitanus, the frontier in modern Libya facing the Sahara Limes Alutanus, the eastern border of the Roman province of Dacia Limes Transalutanus, the frontier in the lower Danube Limes Moesiae, the frontier of the Roman province Moesia, from Singidunum Serbia along the Danube to Moldavia.
Limes Norici, the frontier of the Roman province Noricum, from the River Inn along the Danube to Cannabiaca in Austria. Limes Pannonicus, the frontier of the Roman province Pannonia, along the Danube from Klosterneuburg Austria to Taurunum in Serbia. Fossatum Africae, the southern frontier of the Roman Empire, extending south of the Roman province of Africa in North-Africa. A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein; the stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations. For example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function: see limit. In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other. In ethics, men are wise if they do. An etymology was given in some detail by Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch.
According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, "to bow", "to bend", "elbow". The Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert; the sense is. The limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder them, it is a defensive strategy. The Romans never built limites; as the emperor had ordered the army to stay within the limites, except for punitive expeditions, these were as much a mental barrier as material. The groups of Germanic warriors harrying the limes during summer used the concept to full advantage, knowing that they could concentrate and supply themselves outside the limes without fear of preemptive strikes. In a few cases, they were wrong; the limit concept engendered a sentiment among the soldiers that they were being provoked by the Germanic raiders and were held back from just retaliation by a weak and incompetent administration: they were being sold out. So they mutinied; the best remedy for a mutiny was an expedition across the limes against the enemy.
Toward the empire, the soldiers assassinated emperors who preferred diplomacy and put their own most popular officers into the vacant office. Roman writers and subsequent authors who depended on them presented the limes as some sort of sacred border beyond which human beings did not transgress, if they did, it was evidence that they had passed the bounds of reason and civilization. To cross the border was the mark of a savage, they wrote of the Alemanni failing to respect the limes as if they had passed the final limitation of character and had committed themselves to perdition. The Alemanni, on the other hand, never regarded the border as legitimate in the first place, they viewed the Romans as foreigners, who changed native place names and intruded on native homes and families. They were only to be tolerated because they were willing to pay cash for the privilege and offered the blandishments of civilized life. According to Pokorny, Latin limen, "threshold"
The Roman navy comprised the naval forces of the ancient Roman state. The navy was instrumental in the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean Basin, but it never enjoyed the prestige of the Roman legions. Throughout their history, the Romans remained a land-based people and relied on their more nautically inclined subjects, such as the Greeks and the Egyptians, to build their ships; because of that, the navy was never embraced by the Roman state, deemed somewhat "un-Roman". In antiquity and trading fleets did not have the logistical autonomy that modern ships and fleets possess. Unlike modern naval forces, the Roman navy at its height never existed as an autonomous service but operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. During the course of the First Punic War, the Roman navy was massively expanded and played a vital role in the Roman victory and the Roman Republic's eventual ascension to hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea. In the course of the first half of the 2nd century BC, Rome went on to destroy Carthage and subdue the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, achieving complete mastery of the inland sea, which they called Mare Nostrum.
The Roman fleets were again prominent in the 1st century BC in the wars against the pirates, in the civil wars that brought down the Republic, whose campaigns ranged across the Mediterranean. In 31 BC, the great naval Battle of Actium ended the civil wars culminating in the final victory of Augustus and the establishment of the Roman Empire. During the Imperial period, the Mediterranean became a peaceful "Roman lake". In the absence of a maritime enemy, the navy was reduced to patrol, anti-piracy and transport duties; the navy manned and maintained craft on major frontier rivers such as the Rhine and the Danube for supplying the army. On the fringes of the Empire, in new conquests or in defense against barbarian invasions, the Roman fleets were still engaged in open warfare; the decline of the Empire in the 3rd century took a heavy toll on the navy, reduced to a shadow of its former self, both in size and in combat ability. As successive waves of the Völkerwanderung crashed on the land frontiers of the battered Empire, the navy could only play a secondary role.
In the early 5th century, the Roman frontiers were breached, barbarian kingdoms appeared on the shores of the western Mediterranean. One of them, the Vandal Kingdom, raised a navy of its own and raided the shores of the Mediterranean sacking Rome, while the diminished Roman fleets were incapable of offering any resistance; the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century. The navy of the surviving eastern Roman Empire is known as the Byzantine navy; the exact origins of the Roman fleet are obscure. A traditionally agricultural and land-based society, the Romans ventured out to sea, unlike their Etruscan neighbours. There is evidence of Roman warships in the early 4th century BC, such as mention of a warship that carried an embassy to Delphi in 394 BC, but at any rate, the Roman fleet, if it existed, was negligible; the traditional birth date of the Roman navy is set at ca. 311 BC, after the conquest of Campania, two new officials, the duumviri navales classis ornandae reficiendaeque causa, were tasked with the maintenance of a fleet.
As a result, the Republic acquired its first fleet, consisting of 20 ships, most triremes, with each duumvir commanding a squadron of 10 ships. However, the Republic continued to rely on her legions for expansion in Italy; this situation continued until the First Punic War: the main task of the Roman fleet was patrolling along the Italian coast and rivers, protecting seaborne trade from piracy. Whenever larger tasks had to be undertaken, such as the naval blockade of a besieged city, the Romans called on the allied Greek cities of southern Italy, the socii navales, to provide ships and crews, it is possible that the supervision of these maritime allies was one of the duties of the four new praetores classici, who were established in 267 BC. The first Roman expedition outside mainland Italy was against the island of Sicily in 265 BC; this led to the outbreak of hostilities with Carthage, which would last until 241 BC. At the time, the Punic city was the unchallenged master of the western Mediterranean, possessing a long maritime and naval experience and a large fleet.
Although Rome had relied on her legions for the conquest of Italy, operations in Sicily had to be supported by a fleet, the ships available by Rome's allies were insufficient. Thus in 261 BC, the Roman Senate set out to construct a fleet of 20 triremes. According to Polybius, the Romans seized a shipwrecked Carthaginian quinquereme, used it as a blueprint for their own ships; the new fleets were commanded by the annually elected Roman magistrates, but naval expertise was provided by the lower officers, who continued to be provided by the socii Greeks. This practice was continued until well into the Empire, something attested by the direct adoption of numerous Greek naval terms. Despite the massive buildup, the Roman crews remained inferior in naval experience to the Carthaginians, could not hope to match them in naval tactics, which required great maneuverability and experience, they therefore employed a novel weapon. They equipped their ships with the corvus developed earlier by the Syracusans against the Athenians.
This was a long plank with a spike for hooking onto enemy ships. Using it as a boarding bridge, marines were able to board an enemy ship, transforming sea combat in
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
Trennfurt Roman Fort
The Trennfurt Roman Fort is a castrum in the village of Trennfurt at the river Main in Bavaria. It belongs to the Main Limes as a part of the Unesco world heritage site Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes and has the number ORL 37; the castrum is situated shortly north east of the old centre of the village Trennfurt. Visible terrain marks of the castrum do not exist at the site which consists of garden land in private property. There are no buildings on the ground, but a small part of the north eastern edge of the castrum was built over by the railway in the 1870s. Wilhelm Conrady section commissioner of the Imperial Limes Commission, discovered the castrum in 1883 when he made excavations there. There have not been any further excavations since then. According to Conrady the castrum is made of stone, has a size of about 88 x 63 metres and a surface of about 0,6 hectares; this is the normal size of a castrum for a numerus. It is unknown how long it was occupied, it only can be dated from the 2nd to 3rd century AD.
Conrady examined a Roman votive stone, found in Trennfurt in the 18th century and, walled in now inside the parish church of the village. He deciphered the inscription as "I o m, Silvano cons Dianae Aug vixill leg XXII Anton p p f ag in lignaris sub cur Mamertini Iusti opt d Aspr cos". In English: "Consecrated to Jupiter, the best and greatest, to Silvanus the sustainer and to Diana the venerable by the special unit of the XXIIth legion Primigenia pia fidelis Antoniana, working in the forests under the command of Optio Mamertinius Justus, when the two Aspers were consuls." The two Aspers were consuls in the year 212 AD. So it is supposed that the castrum was near the place where the Roman soldiers prepared the wood for the transport on the Main because an old branch of the river was only about 40 metres away from the eastern side of the fort. At the time of Conrady the branch had vanished, but its traces still could be seen on the ground; the castrum is protected as an archeological monument by Bavarian law.
It has the monument number D-6-6221-0050. Trennfurt on the site of the German Limes Commission Trennfurt on the site of the Main Limes Museums