The General Dynamics RIM-24 Tartar was a medium-range naval surface-to-air missile, was among the earliest surface-to-air missiles to equip United States Navy ships. The Tartar was the third of the so-called "3 T's", the three primary SAMs the Navy fielded in the 1960s and 1970s, the others being the RIM-2 Terrier and RIM-8 Talos; the Tartar was born of a need for a more lightweight system for smaller ships, something that could engage targets at close range. The Tartar was a RIM-2C Terrier without the secondary booster; the Tartar was never given a SAM-N-x designation, was referred to as Missile Mk 15 until the unified Army-Navy designation system was introduced in 1963. The Tartar was used on a number of a variety of sizes; the Mk 11 twin-arm launcher was used ships used the Mk 13 and Mk 22 single-arm launchers. Early versions proved to be unreliable; the Improved Tartar retrofit program upgraded the earlier missiles to the much improved RIM-24C standard. Further development was canceled and a new missile, the RIM-66 Standard, was designed to replace it.
After the upgrade to a new missile, ships were still said to be Tartar ships because they carried the Tartar Guided Missile Fire Control System. A dedicated anti-ship version for the Federal German Navy carrying a Bullpup warhead was abandoned when Germany purchased MM38 Exocet instead. RIM-24A: Original missile RIM-24B: Improved Tartar RIM-24C: Improved Tartar Retrofit aka. Tartar Reliability Improvement Program Audace-class destroyer Impavido-class destroyer Charles F. Adams-class destroyer / Lütjens-class destroyer / Perth-class destroyer Albany-class cruiser Mitscher-class destroyer Forrest Sherman-class destroyer Brooke-class frigate California-class cruiser Virginia-class cruiser Kidd-class destroyer T 47-class destroyer Cassard-class frigate Tromp-class frigate with Mk.13 missile launcher AustraliaRoyal Australian Navy FranceFrench Navy GermanyGerman Navy ItalyItalian Navy JapanJapan Maritime Self-Defense Force NetherlandsRoyal Netherlands Navy United StatesUnited States Navy
A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside"; the cannons of 18th-century men of war were accurate only at short range, their penetrating power mediocre, entailing that the thick hulls of wooden ships could only be pierced at short ranges. These wooden ships sailed closer towards each other until cannon fire would be effective; each tried to be the first to fire a broadside giving one party a decisive headstart in the battle when it crippled the other ship. Since ancient times, war at sea had been fought much like on land: with melee weapons and bows and arrows, but on floating wooden platforms rather than battlefields. Though the introduction of guns was a significant change, it only changed the dynamics of ship-to-ship combat; the first guns on ships were small wrought-iron pieces mounted on the open decks and in the fighting tops requiring only one or two men to handle them.
They were designed to injure, kill or stun and frighten the enemy prior to boarding. As guns were made more durable to withstand stronger gunpowder charges, they increased their potential to inflict critical damage to the vessel rather than just its crew. Since these guns were much heavier than the earlier anti-personnel weapons, they had to be placed lower in the ships, fire from gunports, to avoid ships becoming unstable. In Northern Europe the technique of building ships with clinker planking made it difficult to cut ports in the hull; the solution was the gradual adoption of carvel-built ships that relied on an internal skeleton structure to bear the weight of the ship. The development of propulsion during the 15th century from single-masted, square-rigged cogs to three-masted carracks with a mix of square and lateen sails made ships nimbler and easier to maneuver. Gunports cut in the hull of ships had been introduced as early as 1501. According to tradition the inventor was a Breton shipwright called Descharges, but it is just as to have been a gradual adaptation of loading ports in the stern of merchant vessels, in use for centuries.
The gunports were used to mount heavy so-called stern chasers pointing aft, but soon gun ports migrated to the sides of ships. This made possible coordinated volleys from all the guns on one side of a ship for the first time in history, at least in theory. Guns in the 16th century were considered to be in fixed positions and were intended to be fired independently rather than in concerted volleys, it was not until the 1590s that the word "broadside" in English was used to refer to gunfire from the side of a ship rather than the ship's side itself. The main batteries in 20th century battleships tended to be powered gun turrets which could swivel 180 degrees or more to establish wider firing arcs around the entire vessel. Although this could allow at least some of the main guns to be focused directly forward or aft, most or all battleships still relied on broadsides for maximum firepower. Structures such as the bridge tower in the middle of a battleship would prevent guns in the aft portion of the ship from firing forward, vice versa.
Additionally, directing the guns to the port or starboard projected the massive muzzle blast out over the ocean, while firing the guns too close to the deck could cause damage to the ship. Additionally, the term broadside is a measurement of a vessel's maximum simultaneous firepower which can be delivered upon a single target, because this concentration is obtained by firing a broadside; this is calculated by multiplying the shell weight of the ship's main armament shells times the number of barrels that can be brought to bear. If some turrets are incapable of firing to either side of the vessel, only the maximum number of barrels which can fire to one side or the other are counted. For example, the American Iowa-class battleships carried a main armament of nine 16-inch main guns in turrets which could all be trained to a single broadside; each 16-inch shell weighed 2,700 pounds, which when multiplied by nine equals a total of 24,300 pounds. Thus, an Iowa-class battleship had a broadside of 12 short tons, the weight of shells that she could theoretically land on a target in a single firing.
See list of broadsides of major World War II ships for a comparison. Barrage Salvo Fusillade Volley fire Sailing ship tactics#Early history Marsden, Sealed by Time: The Loss and Recovery of the Mary Rose; the Archaeology of the Mary Rose, Volume 1. The Mary Rose Trust, Portsmouth. 2003. ISBN 0-9544029-0-1 Platt, Richard,Man-of-war. Dorling Kindersley, New York. 1993. ISBN 978-1-56458-321-5. Rodger, Nicholas A. M; the Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. W. W. Norton & Company, New York. 1997. ISBN 0-393-04579-X Rodger, N. A. M.. The Command of the Ocean: a naval history of Great Britain 1649 - 1815. Penguin History. ISBN 0-14-102690-1. George Dorsey, "When a U. S. Battleship Fires a Broadside," The New York Times Magazine, 30 December 1917
Ship of the line
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century. The ship of the line was designed for the naval tactic known as the line of battle, which depended on the two columns of opposing warships maneuvering to fire with the cannons along their broadsides. In conflicts where opposing ships were both able to fire from their broadsides, the side with more cannons, therefore more firepower had an advantage. Since these engagements were invariably won by the heaviest ships carrying the most powerful guns, the natural progression was to build sailing vessels that were the largest and most powerful of their time. From the end of the 1840s, the introduction of steam power brought less dependence on the wind in battle and led to the construction of screw-driven, wooden-hulled, ships of the line. However, the introduction of the ironclad frigate in about 1859 led swiftly to the decline of the steam-assisted ships of the line; the ironclad warship became the ancestor of the 20th-century battleship, whose designation is itself a contraction of the phrase "ship of the line of battle" or, more colloquially, "line-of-battle ship".
The term "ship of the line" has fallen into disuse except in historical contexts, after warships and naval tactics evolved and changed from the mid 19th century. The armed carrack, first developed in Portugal for either trade or war in the Atlantic Ocean, was the precursor of the ship of the line. Other maritime European states adopted it in the late 15th and early 16th centuries; these vessels were developed by fusing aspects of the cog of the North Sea and galley of the Mediterranean Sea. The cogs, which traded in the North Sea, in the Baltic Sea and along the Atlantic coasts, had an advantage over galleys in battle because they had raised platforms called "castles" at bow and stern that archers could occupy to fire down on enemy ships or to drop heavy weights from. Over time these castles became higher and larger, were built into the structure of the ship, increasing overall strength; this aspect of the cog remained in the newer-style carrack designs and proved its worth in battles like that at Diu in 1509.
The Mary Rose was an early 16th-century English carrack or "great ship". She was armed with 78 guns and 91 after an upgrade in the 1530s. Built in Portsmouth in 1510–1512, she was one of the earliest purpose-built men-of-war in the English navy, she was over 500 tons burthen, had a keel of over 32 m and a crew of over 200 sailors, 185 soldiers and 30 gunners. Although the pride of the English fleet, she accidentally sank during the Battle of the Solent, 19 July 1545. Henri Grâce à Dieu, nicknamed "Great Harry", was another early English carrack. Contemporary with Mary Rose, Henri Grâce à Dieu was 165 feet long, weighing 1,000–1,500 tons and having a complement of 700–1,000, it is said that she was ordered by Henry VIII in response to the Scottish ship Michael, launched in 1511. She was built at Woolwich Dockyard from 1512 to 1514 and was one of the first vessels to feature gunports and had twenty of the new heavy bronze cannon, allowing for a broadside. In all, she mounted 141 light guns, she was the first English two-decker, when launched she was the largest and most powerful warship in Europe, but she saw little action.
She was present at the Battle of the Solent against Francis I of France in 1545 but appears to have been more of a diplomatic vessel, sailing on occasion with sails of gold cloth. Indeed, the great ships were as well known for their ornamental design as they were for the power they possessed. Carracks fitted for war carried large-calibre guns aboard; because of their higher freeboard and greater load-bearing ability, this type of vessel was better suited than the galley to gunpowder weapons. Because of their development for conditions in the Atlantic, these ships were more weatherly than galleys and better suited to open waters; the lack of oars meant. Their disadvantage was that they were reliant on the wind for mobility. Galleys could still overwhelm great ships when there was little wind and they had a numerical advantage, but as great ships increased in size, galleys became less and less useful. Another detriment was the high forecastle, but as guns were introduced and gunfire replaced boarding as the primary means of naval combat during the 16th century, the medieval forecastle was no longer needed, ships such as the galleon had only a low, one-deck-high forecastle.
By the time of the 1637 launching of England's Sovereign of the Seas, the forecastle had disappeared altogether. During the 16th century the galleon evolved from the carrack, it was a more manoeuvrable type of ship with all the advantages of the carrack. The main ships of the English and Spanish fleets in the Battle of Gravelines of 1588 were galleons. By the 17th century every major European naval power was building ships like these. With the growing importance of colonies and exploration and the need to maintain trade routes across stormy oceans and galleasses were used
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a
European theatre of World War II
The European theatre of World War II known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts as well as in a massive air war and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre. Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles placed punitive conditions on the country, including significant financial reparations, the loss of territory, war guilt, military weakening and limitation, economic weakening. Germany was humiliated in front of the world and had to pay large war reparations. Many Germans blamed their country's post-war economic collapse and hyperinflation on the treaty's conditions; these resentments contributed to the political instability which made it possible for Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party to come to power, with Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany in 1933.
After Hitler took Germany out of the League of Nations, Mussolini of Fascist Italy and Hitler formed the Rome-Berlin axis, under a treaty known as the Pact of Steel. The Empire of Japan, under the government of Hideki Tojo, would join as an Axis power. Japan and Germany had signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939, to counter the perceived threat of the communism of the Soviet Union. Other smaller powers later joined the Axis throughout the war. Germany and the Soviet Union were sworn enemies, but following the Munich Agreement, which handed over Czechoslovakia to Germany, political realities allowed the Soviet Union to sign a non-aggression pact including a secret clause partitioning Poland, the Baltic Republics and Finland between the two spheres of influence. Full-scale war in Europe began at dawn on 1 September 1939, when Germany used her newly formed Blitzkrieg tactics and military strength to invade Poland, to which both the United Kingdom and France had pledged protection and independence guarantees.
On 3 September 1939, Britain and France declared war on Germany and British troops were sent to France, however neither French nor British troops gave any significant assistance to the Poles during the entire invasion, the German–French border, excepting the Saar Offensive, remained calm, this period of the war is known as the Phoney War. On 17 September the Soviet forces joined the invasion of Poland, although remaining neutral with respect to Western powers; the Polish government evacuated the country for Romania. Poland fell within five weeks, with its last large operational units surrendering on October 5 after the Battle of Kock; as the Polish September Campaign ended, Hitler offered to Britain and France peace on the basis of recognition of German European continental dominance. On 12 October the United Kingdom formally refused. Despite the quick campaign in the east, along the Franco-German frontier the war settled into a quiet period; this non-confrontational and non-fighting period between the major powers lasted until May 10, 1940, was known as the Phoney War.
Several other countries, were drawn into the conflict at this time. By 28 September 1939, the three Baltic Republics felt they had no choice but to permit Soviet bases and troops on their territory; the Baltic Republics were occupied by the Soviet army in June 1940, annexed to the Soviet Union in August 1940. The Soviet Union wanted to annex Finland and offered a union agreement, but Finland rejected it, which caused the Soviet Union to attack Finland on November 30; this began the Winter War. After five months of hard fighting, Finns were only pushed from a strip of land bordering Russia, in spite of Soviet numerical superiority, the Soviet Union gave up attempts to subdue the whole country. In the Moscow Peace Treaty of 12 March 1940, Finland ceded 10% of her territory; the Finns were embittered over having lost more land in the peace than on the battlefields, over the perceived lack of world sympathy. Meanwhile, in western Scandinavia, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940, in response, Britain occupied the Faroe Islands and invaded and occupied Iceland.
Sweden was able to remain neutral. On 10 May the Phoney War ended with a sweeping German invasion of the neutral Low Countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, into France bypassing the French fortifications of the Maginot Line along the border with Germany. After overrunning the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Germany turned against France, entering the country through the Ardennes on May 13—the French had left this area less well defended, believing its terrain to be impassable for tanks and other vehicles. Most Allied forces were in Flanders, anticipating a re-run of the World War I Schlieffen Plan, were cut off from the French mainland; as a result of this, the superior German communications and tactics, the Battle of France was shorter than all pre-war Allied thought could have conceived. It lasted only six weeks. On 10 June Italy declared war on both France and the United Kingdom, but did not gain any significant success in this campaign; the French government fled Paris, soon, France surrendered on 22 June.
In order to further the humiliation of the French people and the country itself, Hitler arranged for the surrender document to be signed in the Forest of Compiègne, in the
Air supremacy and air superiority is the concept of your side in war having a better/larger air force than your enemies. Control of the air is the aerial equivalent of command of the sea. Air supremacy is a degree of a air superiority where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces, they are levels of control of the air in warfare. Air power has become a powerful element of military campaigns. Air supremacy allows increased bombing efforts, tactical air support for ground forces, paratroop assaults and simple cargo plane transfers, which can move ground forces and supplies. Air power is a function of the degree of air superiority and numbers or types of aircraft, but it represents a situation that defies black-and-white characterization. NATO forces in air superiority over Kosovo have lost a stealth strike aircraft to an "obsolete" Serbian air defense system, primitive An-2 biplanes were considered for some time a serious capability of the Korean People's Air Force in North Korea.
The degree of a force's air control is a zero-sum game with its opponent's. Air forces unable to contest for air superiority or air parity can strive for air denial, where they maintain an operations level conceding air superiority to the other side, but preventing it from achieving air supremacy. Air supremacy is the highest level, it is defined by NATO and the United States Department of Defense as the "degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference." Air superiority is the second level. It is defined in the NATO glossary as the "degree of dominance in air battle... that permits the conduct of operations by and its related land and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by opposing air forces." Air parity is the lowest level of control, where a side only holds control of skies above friendly troop positions. Although the destruction of enemy aircraft in air-to-air combat is the most glamorous aspect of air superiority, it is not the only method of obtaining air superiority.
The most effective method of gaining air superiority is the destruction of enemy aircraft on the ground and the destruction of the means and infrastructure by which an opponent may mount air operations. A historical example of this is Operation Focus in which the outnumbered Israeli Air Force dealt a crippling blow to the Egyptian and Syrian Air Forces and airfields at the start of the Six-Day War, achieving Israeli air supremacy. Disruption can be carried out through air attack. On 6 December 1944, the Imperial Japanese Raiding Group Teishin Shudan destroyed B-29 aircraft on Leyte. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union claimed it could achieve air superiority despite the inferiority of its fighters, by over-running NATO airfields and parking their tanks on the runways, similar to what they have done during Tatsinskaya Raid during the Battle of Stalingrad; the Soviet Union planned to use its Spetsnaz special forces in attacks on NATO airfields in the event of conflict. Attack by special forces is seen by some commanders as a way to level the playing field when faced by superior numbers or technology.
Given the disparity in effectiveness between their own and South Korean and US fighters, North Korea maintains a large force of infiltration troops. In the event of a war, they would be tasked, amongst other missions, with attacking coalition air fields with mortar, machine gun and sniper fire after insertion by some 300 An-2 low radar-observable biplanes. In today's era of asymmetrical warfare, 15 fedayeen destroyed or damaged 8 Marine Harrier jump jets in the September 2012 Camp Bastion raid, with pilots fighting as infantry for the first time in 70 years. During the First World War, air superiority on the Western Front changed hands between the Germans and the Allies several times. Periods of German air superiority included the Fokker Scourge of late 1915 to early 1916, Bloody April; the Italian Corpo Aeronautico Militare established air superiority over the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops at the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The defeat suffered by Austria-Hungary in the battle caused the dissolution of the empire.
In 1921, Italian aerial warfare theorist Giulio Douhet published The Command of the Air, a book positing that future wars would be decided in the skies. At the time, mainstream military theory did not see air power as a war-winning tactic. Douhet's idea that air power could be a decisive force and be used to avoid the long and costly War of Attrition was influential although events proved him wrong in many details. In The War of 19, Douhet theorized that a future war between Germany and France would be settled in a matter of days, as the winner would be the one to gain air supremacy and destroy a few enemy cities with aerial bombs; that would terrorize citizens into pressuring their government into immediate surrender. At the beginning of World War II, Douhet's ideas were dismissed by some, but it became apparent