Rumford is a town in Oxford County, United States. The population was 5,841 at the 2010 census. Rumford is home to the Black Mountain of Maine ski resort. Called New Pennacook Plantation, the township was granted in 1779 to Timothy Walker, Jr. and associates of Concord, New Hampshire. Both Pennacook and Rumford are former names of Concord; the first pioneers, were Jonathan Keyes and his son Francis in 1782 from Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Incorporated in 1800, the town would annex land from Peru and Franklin Plantation. Located in the foothills of the White Mountains, Rumford is the site of Pennacook Falls, called by historian George J. Varney "the grandest cataract in New England," where the Androscoggin River drops 177 feet over solid granite. Bands of St. Francis Indians once hunted and fished here, where salmon spawn in the 13-acre pool below Upper Falls, a barrier that fish cannot pass; the river is home to a large population of the finless brown variety of trout. Indians came here to trade furs brought from the lakes region.
Sawmills and gristmills were built to harness water power from the falls, although Rumford would remain agricultural during its first 100 years. In 1882, industrialist Hugh J. Chisholm recognized the falls' potential for the manufacture of paper. Chisholm directed construction of the Portland and Rumford Falls Railway connecting Rumford to the national rail network in 1892; the first paper mill began operation in 1893, drawing an infusion of people and money into the sleepy community of about 200 residents. Oxford Paper Company, owned by Chisholm, would dominate Rumford's economy. Much of the mill town was built in the spurt of prosperity at the turn-of-the-century, Rumford retains significant Victorian and Edwardian architecture. Most notable is Strathglass Park the finest company housing in the nation. Wishing to avoid the stacked slums endemic at Lowell and Lawrence, Hugh Chisholm commissioned Cass Gilbert in 1900 to plan a 30-acre site in his company town, instructing the prominent architect that "We will build of brick and stone and slate, we will provide not for a house, but for comfort and social gratification."Named after the seat of Clan Chisholm at Strathglass Carries, Gilbert in 1901 produced 5 designs for 51 duplexes, each with subtle differences.
The same year, Chisholm founded The Rumford Realty Company to build the oval-shaped development, its entrance marked by an imposing granite gateway. With attractive lawns and broad, tree-lined streets, all maintenance was provided by the Oxford Paper Company. Valet service was included. Tenants paid a rent of $9.00 per month, plus $1.00 per month to the Rumford Falls Power Company belonging to Chisholm. But in 1948, the incomplete development was no longer economically viable, the houses were sold for between $3,400 and $3,900 per duplex. In June 1941, the cabin cruiser "The Don" sunk off of Harpswell, Maine with 34 residents of Rumford on board, it remains the largest loss of life in the town's history. The cause of the wreck was never determined but multiple theories abound as to the vessel's demise including it being sunk by a U-boat or an insurance scheme; the only communication from the boat was shortly after it left port when a radio distress call came out to nearby ships with a voice saying "If I don't get off this boat somebody's gonna get thumped."Recognized for unique architectural and social merit, in 1974 Strathglass Park was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district.
Today, much of the history of Rumford is preserved by the Rumford Historical Society. Founded in 1961, under the sponsorship of prominent residents Louis Thibodeau, Minerva Anderson and Jonathan Mackenzie, the society pledges to preserve the rich history of the western mill town and encourage community involvement among all. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 69.85 square miles, of which 68.55 square miles of it is land and 1.30 square miles is water. Rumford is located where the Concord and Swift rivers drain into the Androscoggin river. Black Mountain, elevation 2,133 feet, Rumford Whitecap, elevation 2,197 feet, are in the north; this climatic region has large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rumford has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,841 people, 2,674 households, 1,524 families residing in the town.
The population density was 85.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,287 housing units at an average density of 48.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 2,674 households of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.0% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.76. The median age in the town was 45.5 years. 20.1% of residents were under the age of 18.
Bath is a city in Sagadahoc County, Maine, in the United States. The population was 8,514 at the 2010 census, 8,357 as of 2013, the population has had a change of -10.2% since 2000. It is the county seat of Sagadahoc County, which includes 10 towns; the city is popular with tourists. It is home to the Bath Iron Works and Heritage Days Festival, held annually on the Fourth of July weekend, it is known as "The City of Ships". Bath is part of the metropolitan statistical area of Greater Portland. Abenaki Indians called the area Sagadahoc, meaning "mouth of big river", it was a reference to the Kennebec River, which Samuel de Champlain explored in 1605. Popham Colony was established in 1607 downstream, together with Fort St George; the settlement failed due to harsh weather and lack of leadership, but the colonists built the New World's first oceangoing vessel constructed by English shipwrights, the Virginia of Sagadahoc. It provided passage back to England. Most of Bath, was settled by travelers from Bath, England.
The next settlement at Sagadahoc was about 1660, when the land was taken from an Indian sagamore known as Robinhood. Incorporated as part of Georgetown in 1753, Bath was set off and incorporated as a town on February 17, 1781, it was named by Dummer Sewell, after Bath in Somerset, England. In 1844, a portion of the town was set off to create West Bath. On June 14, 1847, Bath was incorporated as a city, in 1854 designated county seat. Land was annexed from West Bath in 1855. Several industries developed in the city, including lumber and brass, with trade in ice and coal, but Bath is renowned for shipbuilding, which began here in 1743 when Jonathan Philbrook and his sons built 2 vessels. Since roughly 5,000 vessels have been launched in the area, which at one time had more than 200 shipbuilding firms. Bath became the nation's fifth largest seaport by the mid-19th century, producing clipper ships that sailed to ports around the world; the last commercial enterprise to build wooden ships in the city was the Percy & Small Shipyard, acquired for preservation in 1971 by the Maine Maritime Museum.
But the most famous shipyard is the Bath Iron Works, founded in 1884 by Thomas W. Hyde who became the general manager of it in 1888, it has built hundreds of wooden and steel vessels warships for the U. S. Navy. During World War II, Bath Iron Works launched a new ship an average of every 17 days; the shipyard is a major regional employer, operates today as a division of the General Dynamics Corporation. In the Bath, anti-Catholic riot of 1854 an Irish Catholic church was burned; the city is noted for its Federal, Greek Revival, Italianate architecture, including the 1858 Custom House and Post Office designed by Ammi B. Young. Bath is sister city to Shariki in Japan, where the locally-built full rigged ship Cheseborough was wrecked in 1889. Scenes from the movies Message in a Bottle and The Man Without a Face were filmed in the city. Bath is located at 43°54′59″N 69°49′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.22 square miles, of which, 9.10 square miles is land and 4.12 square miles is water.
The city of Bath includes several nature preserves that are protected by the Kennebec Estuary Land Trust. These areas include, Thorne Head Preserve Butler Head Preserve there are numerous multiple parks, walking trails located throughout the town such as the Whiskeag Trail; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,514 people, 3,932 households, 2,172 families residing in the city. The population density was 935.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,437 housing units at an average density of 487.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 1.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 3,932 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.8% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age in the city was 41 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,266 people, 4,042 households, 2,344 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,016.8 people per square mile. There were 4,383 housing units at an average density of 481.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.92% White, 1.60% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.76% of the population. There were 4,042 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.0% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
In the United States, railroads are designated as Class I, II, or III, according to size criteria first established by the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1911, now governed by the Surface Transportation Board. There are six US Class I freight railroad companies. Canada has two Class I freight railroads, both of which have trackage in the US. Mexico has two Class I freight railroads, one with trackage in the US. In addition, the national passenger railroads in the US and Canada and Via Rail, are both Class I; the ICC classed railroads by their annual gross revenue. Class I railroads had an annual operating revenue of at least $1 million, while Class III railroad incomes were under $100,000 per annum. All such corporations were subject to reporting requirements on a annual schedule. If a railroad slipped below its class qualification threshold for a period, it was not demoted immediately. For instance, in 1925, the ICC reported 174 Class I railroads, 282 Class II railroads, 348 Class III railroads.
Since dissolution of the ICC in 1996, the Surface Transportation Board has become responsible for defining criteria for each railroad class. The bounds are redefined every several years to adjust for inflation and other factors; the initial $1 million criterion established in 1911 for a Class I railroad was used until January 1, 1956, when the figure was increased to $3 million. In 1956, the ICC counted 113 Class I line-haul operating railroads and 309 Class II railroads; the Class III category was dropped in 1956 but reinstated in 1978. By 1963, the number of Class I railroads had dropped to 102. In a special move in 1979, all switching and terminal railroads were re-designated Class III, including those with Class I or Class II revenues. Class II and Class III designations are now used outside the rail transport industry; the Association of American Railroads divides non–Class I companies into three categories: Regional railroads: operate at least 350 miles or make at least $40 million per year.
Local railroads: non-regional but engage in line-haul service. Switching and terminal railroads: switch cars between other railroads or provide service from other lines to a common terminal. In the United States, the Surface Transportation Board defines a Class I railroad as "having annual carrier operating revenues of $250 million or more in 1991 dollars", which adjusted for inflation was $452,653,248 in 2012. According to the Association of American Railroads, Class I railroads had a minimum carrier operating revenue of $346.8 million in 2006, $359 million in 2007, $401.4 million in 2008, $378.8 million in 2009, $398.7 million in 2010 and $433.2 million in 2011. In early 1991, two Class II railroads, Montana Rail Link and Wisconsin Central, asked the Interstate Commerce Commission to increase the minimum annual operating revenue criteria to avoid being redesignated as Class I, which would have resulted in increased administrative and legal costs; the Class II maximum criterion was increased in 1992 to $250 million annually, which resulted in the Florida East Coast Railway having its status changed to Class II.
Rail carriers with less than $20 million in revenue are designated as Class III. In Canada, a Class I rail carrier is defined as a company that has earned gross revenues exceeding $250 million for each of the previous two years. Class I railroads are some of the most efficient forms of transportation, moving a ton of freight 500 miles with each gallon of diesel fuel. In 2013, eleven railroads in North America were designated as Class I. In the United States and seven freight railroads are designated Class I based on 2011 measurements released in 2013. A Class II railroad in the United States hauls freight and is mid-sized in terms of operating revenue; as of 2011, a railroad with revenues greater than $37.4 million but less than $433.2 million for at least three consecutive years is considered Class II. Switching and terminal railroads are excluded from Class II status. Railroads considered by the Association of American Railroads as "Regional Railroads" are Class II. An example of a Class II would be the Florida East Coast Railway.
The last major change of the upper bound for a Class II railroad was in 1992, when the Florida East Coast Railway was changed from a Class I railroad to Class II. A previous change in 1991, which prevented two railroads—Montana Rail Link and Wisconsin Central—from becoming Class I, was made at the request of the two railroads, as they did not wish to take on the extra cost and paperwork associated with Class I status. Changes since have been adjustments for inflation. A Class III railroad has an annual operating revenue of less than $20 million. Class III railroads are local short-line railroads serving a small number of towns and industries or hauling cars for one or more railroads. Many Class III railroads are owned by railroad holding companies such as Genesee & Wyoming, Watco Companies and Iowa Pacific Holdings. In the United States, the Surface Transportation Board continues to use designations of Class II and Class III since there are different labor regulations for the two classes. List of U.
S. Class I railroads List of U. S
Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad (1871–2007)
The Belfast & Moosehead Lake Railroad was a standard-gauge shortline railroad that operated from 1871 to 2007 over a single-track grade from Belfast to Burnham Junction in Maine. Chartered in 1867, the line was built between August 1868 and December 1870 by the Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad Company, majority-owned by the city of Belfast until 1991. For its first 55 years, the road was operated under lease by the Maine Central as its Belfast Branch, which provided daily passenger and freight service to eight stations over the length of Waldo County, Maine. After the MEC cancelled its lease in 1925, the B&MLRR began running trains under its own name. Passenger operations ceased in March 1960, although in 1988, the railroad began operating summer tourist trains to offset a decline in freight traffic. In 1991, the city sold its interest in the money-losing railroad to private owners. In 2007, the railroad ended operations as the B&MLRR. Today, the line is operated by the non-profit Brooks Preservation Society as the Belfast & Moosehead Lake Railway, runs weekend excursion trains in the spring and early fall between City Point and Brooks.
The first attempt to bring a railroad to Belfast, a Penobscot Bay port city, Waldo County's shire town, came on March 9, 1836, when the Maine Legislature passed "An Act to establish the Belfast and Quebec Railroad Company", but any prospects for financing the project were killed by a provision in the Maine Constitution that prohibited public loans to build railroads and by the Panic of 1837. A second attempt to raise funds for the Quebec route in 1845 failed, as did an 1848 proposal for a line from Belfast to Waterville, an 1853 proposal for a line from Belfast via Newport and Dover, to Greenville on the shores of Moosehead Lake. In 1867, a change in state law made it possible for cities and towns to help finance railroads through bond issues; the 47th Maine Legislature soon passed a bill to charter the Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad Company, signed by Governor Joshua L. Chamberlain on February 28, 1867. On April 6, 1867, March 28, 1868, the people of Belfast voted by margins of 865-27 and 854-50 to authorize the city to issue 30-year, 6-percent bonds to finance their purchase of B&MLRR stock.
The bond money bought a total of 5,004 shares of preferred and non-preferred stock at $100 per share. This would represent 83% of the company's outstanding shares, the rest of which were purchased by several other towns along the line, by about 100 private investors from Belfast and Boston; the corporation was formally organized on July 3, 1867, after a year of planning, making detailed surveys, acquiring additional financing, a contract was let to Ellis and Hogan Co. of Canada on July 8, 1868, to build the line at a cost of $25,900 per mile. Ground was broken on the Belfast waterfront on August 4, 1868, at what would become the site of the road's terminal and main yard for the next 138 years; the railroad's "Last Spike" was driven near Brooks on September 24, 1870, completing a line that stretched 33.07 miles from Belfast inland to Burnham Junction. As the name of the railroad suggests, the original intent was to build the line 88 miles inland to Greenville on Moosehead Lake. Instead, the Maine Central Railroad leased the road, which connected with the MEC's Portland-Bangor main line at Burnham Junction.
Located at the far end of Waldo County, the connection was at milepost 97 of the MEC main line, some 14 miles northeast of Waterville and 41 miles southwest of Bangor. Beginning on December 23, 1870, the MEC ran the line as its Belfast Branch; the railroad prospered with three daily round trips for passengers. Most freight during this period was southbound, consisting of grain for poultry production in the area, as well as smaller amounts of fish oil, coal and fertilizer. Outbound freight included a large amount of processed fish from Belfast's processing plants. With the decline in American railroad profitability in the 20th century, the Maine Central discontinued its lease of the Belfast Branch on January 1, 1926; the operation of the newly independent Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad fell to the city of Belfast, for the first time, the B&MLRR began running trains under its own name. In the 1950s and 1960s, much of the freight was chicken feed for the area's poultry houses; the railroad dieselised in 1946 and scrapped its last steam locomotive in 1950.
Through this period, the railroad continued to decline. Passenger service ceased on March 9, 1960, after the B&ML lost its U. S. Mail contract. There was a burst of good freight business in the 1970s, but by 1990, freight traffic had ceased as well. In the early 1990s, heritage railroad tourist trains began running. In 1991, the city sold its shares of the money-losing operation; the railroad changed hands since then. It operated diesel excursion runs from Belfast to Waldo and diesel-and steam-powered trains from Unity to Burnham Junction; the railroad's relations with the city of Belfast deteriorated. In 1995, it moved its headquarters there; the year saw the railroad purchase a steam locomotive, SJ B number 1149, from the Swedish State Railways for its Unity excursions. In 2004, the railroad ceased operations from Belfast; the yard's turntable
Lewiston is the second largest city in Maine and the most central city in Androscoggin County. The city borders the coastal sideways of the Gulf of Maine and is south of Augusta, the state's capital, north of Portland, the cultural hub of Maine, it is one-half of the Lewiston-Auburn Metropolitan Statistical Area referred to as "L. A." or "L-A." Lewiston exerts a significant impact upon the diversity, religious variety, commerce and economic power of Maine. It is known for a low cost of living, substantial access to medical care, an low violent-crime rate. While the dominant language spoken in the city is English, it is home to the largest French-speaking population in the United States while it is second to St. Martin Parish, Louisiana, in percentage of speakers; the Lewiston area traces its roots to 1669 with the early presence of the Androscoggin tribe. In the late 18th century, the area became populated by Quebec families and was incorporated as "Lewistown" in 1795; the presence of the Androscoggin River and Lewistown Falls made the town an attractive area for manufacturing and hydro-power businesses.
The rise of Boston rail and textile tycoon Benjamin Bates saw rapid economic growth rivaling that of Cambridge and Concord. The increase in economic stimulus prompted thousands of Quebecers to migrate, causing a population boom. In 1855, local preacher Oren Burbank Cheney founded the Maine State Seminary, the first coeducational university in New England and one of the first universities to admit black students before the Emancipation Proclamation. Lewistown became associated with the liberal arts and was incorporated as "Lewiston" in 1864, a year before the college was chartered as Bates College; the city is home to the only basilica in Maine, Basilica of Saints Paul. The Lewiston area was inhabited by peoples of the Androscoggin tribe; the Androscoggins were a tribe of the Abenaki nation. Facing annihilation from English attacks and epidemics of new infectious diseases, the Androscoggins started to emigrate to Quebec circa 1669, they were driven out of the area in 1680, sometime after King Philip's War.
The governor of New France allocated two seigneuries on the Saint Francis River, now known as the Odanak Indian Reservation. A grant comprising the area of Lewiston was given to Moses Little and Jonathan Bagley, members of the Pejepscot Proprietors, on January 28, 1768, on the condition that fifty families live in the area before June 1, 1774. Bagley and Little named the new town Lewistown. Paul Hildreth was the first man to settle in Lewiston in the fall of 1770. By 1795, Lewiston was incorporated as a town. At least four houses that have survived from this period are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. King Avenue and Ralph Avenue were named after Ralph Luthor King, who owned the land near the fairgrounds. Elliott Avenue was named after his wife, Grace O. Elliott, whose son built the family home at 40 Wellman Street. Lewiston was a slow but growing farm town throughout its early history. By the early-to-mid-19th century, however, as water power was being honed, Lewiston's location on the Androscoggin River would prove to make it a perfect location for emerging industry.
In 1809, Michael Little built a large wooden sawmill next to the falls. Burned in 1814 by an arsonist, it was rebuilt. In 1836, local entrepreneurs—predominantly the Little family and friends—formed the Androscoggin Falls Dam, Lock & Canal Company:...for the purpose of erecting and constructing dams, canals, works and buildings on their own lands and manufacturing cotton, iron and paper in the towns of Lewiston and Danville. The sales of stock attracted Boston investors—including Thomas J. Hill, Lyman Nichols, George L. Ward and Alexander De Witt. De Witt convinced textile and rail tycoon Benjamin Bates, then-President of the Union Pacific Railroad, to come to Lewiston and fund the emerging Lewiston Water Power Company. Soon after Bates arrived, the company created the first canal in the city. In the spring of 1850, some 400 men recruited in and around Boston by construction contractor Patrick O'Donnell arrived in Lewiston and began work on the canal system. Impressed with the labor force and "working spirit" of the Lewistonions, Bates founded the Bates Manufacturing Company, leading to the construction of 5 mills starting with Bates Mill No. 1.
In August 1850, Maine Governor John Hubbard signed the incorporation act and the mill was completed 1852. Bates positioned the mill in Lewiston due to the location of the Lewiston Falls which provided the mill with power. Under Bates' supervision, during the Civil War, the mill produced textiles for the Union Army, his mills generated employment for thousands of immigrants from Europe. The mill was Maine's largest employer for three decades; this company began Lewiston's transformation from a small farming town into a textile manufacturing center on the model of Lowell, Massachusetts. The creation of the Bates manufacturing trusts saw rapid economic growth, positioning the city as the wealthiest city in Maine, created bu
Brunswick is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 20,278 at the 2010 United States Census. Part of the Portland-South Portland-Biddeford metropolitan area, Brunswick is home to Bowdoin College, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, the Maine State Music Theatre, it was home to the U. S. Naval Air Station Brunswick, permanently closed on May 31, 2011. Settled in 1628 by Thomas Purchase and other fishermen, the area was called by its Indian name, meaning "the long, rocky rapids part ". In 1639, Purchase placed his settlement under protection of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During King Philip's War in 1676, Pejepscot was burned and abandoned, although a garrison called Fort Andros was built on the ruins during King William's War. During the war, in Major Benjamin Church's second expedition a year he arrived on 11 September 1690 with 300 men at Casco Bay, he went up the Androscoggin River to the English Fort Pejepscot. From there he attacked a native village.
Three or four native men were shot in retreat. A few days in retaliation, the natives attacked Church at Cape Elizabeth on Purpooduc Point, killing 7 of his men and wounding 24 others. On September 26, Church returned to New Hampshire; the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth brought peace to the region between the Abenaki Indians and the English colonists. In 1714, a consortium from Boston and Portsmouth bought the land, thereafter called the Pejepscot Purchase; the Massachusetts General Court constituted the township in 1717, naming it Brunswick in honor of the House of Brunswick and its scion, King George I. A stone fort called, but during Dummer's War on July 13, 1722, Abenaki warriors from Norridgewock burned the village. Governor Samuel Shute declared war on the Abenakis. In 1724, 208 English troops sacked Norridgewock during Dummer's War. Brunswick was rebuilt again in 1727, in 1739 incorporated as a town, it became a prosperous seaport, where Bowdoin College was chartered in 1794. The Androscoggin River falls in three successive stages for a total vertical drop of 41 feet, providing water power for industry.
Brunswick became a major producer of lumber, with as many as 25 sawmills. Some of the lumber went into shipbuilding. Other firms produced paper, flour and granite work and harness, furniture and confections; the town was site of the first cotton mill in Maine, the Brunswick Cotton Manufactory Company, built in 1809 to make yarn. Purchased in 1812, the mill was enlarged by the Maine Woolen Factory Company. In 1857, the Cabot Manufacturing Company was established to make cotton textiles, it expanded the brick factory along the falls. Needing more room, the company in 1890 persuaded the town to move Maine Street. Today, Brunswick has a number of historic districts recognized on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Pennellville Historic District preserving shipbuilders' and sea captains' mansions built in the Federal, Greek Revival and Italianate architectural styles. Principal employers for Brunswick include L. L. Bean, Bath Iron Works, as well as companies that produce fiberglass construction material and electrical switches.
A number of health services providers serving Maine's mid-coast area are located in Brunswick. The former Naval Air Station Brunswick was a major employer in Brunswick prior to its closure; the book Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe while she was living in Brunswick, because her husband was a professor at Bowdoin. She got a key vision for the book in the First Parish Church. A scene in the 1993 movie The Man Without a Face was filmed in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 54.34 square miles, of which 46.73 square miles is land and 7.61 square miles is water. Brunswick is located at the north end of Casco Bay, as well as the head of tide and head of navigation on the Androscoggin River; as of 2000, the median income for a household in the town was $40,402. Males had a median income of $32,141 versus $24,927 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,322. About 5.0% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 15,175 people, 7,183 households, 6,498 families residing in the census-designated place of Brunswick. The population density was 433.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,599 housing units at an average density of 205.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.0% White, 1.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 8,469 households. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the town was 41.4 years. 19.2% of residents were under the age of 18.