Mainland China

Mainland China known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China. It includes Hainan island and speaking, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau though both are on the geographic mainland. There are two terms in Chinese for "mainland": Dàlù, which means "the continent", Nèidì "inland" or "inner land". In the PRC, the usage of the two terms are speaking not interchangeable. To emphasize "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations, the term must be used in official contexts with reference to Taiwan, with the PRC referring to itself as "the mainland side", but in its relations with Hong Kong and Macau, the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government", mainland China excluding Hong Kong and Macau is referred as Nèidì. "Mainland area" is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution. In the 1930s, the region faced Japanese invasion.

By 1949, the Communist Party of China's People's Liberation Army had defeated the Kuomintang's National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War on the mainland. This forced the Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China to the relative safety of Taiwan, an island, placed under the control of the Republic of China after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, the CPC-controlled government saw itself as the sole legitimate government of China, competing with the claims of the Republic of China, whose authority is now limited to Taiwan and other islands; this has resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China". The phrase "mainland China" emerged as a politically neutral term to refer to the area under control of the Communist Party of China, to the administration of the PRC itself.

Until the late 1970s, both the PRC and ROC envisioned a military takeover of the other. During this time the ROC referred to the PRC government as "Communist Bandits" while the PRC referred to the ROC as "Chiang Bandits"; as a military solution became less feasible, the ROC referred to the PRC as "Communist China"". With the democratization of Taiwan in the 1990s, the phrase "mainland China" soon grew to mean not only the area under the control of the Communist Party of China, but a more neutral means to refer to the People's Republic of China government. Due to their status as colonies of foreign states during the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the phrase "mainland China" excludes Hong Kong and Macau. Since the return of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999 the two territories have retained their legal and economic systems; the territories have their distinct identities. Therefore, "mainland China" continues to exclude these territories, because of the "One country, two systems" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions.

The term is used in economic indicators, such as the IMD Competitiveness Report. International news media use "China" to refer only to mainland China or the People's Republic of China. In the People's Republic of China, the term 内地 is contrasted with the term 境外 for things outside the mainland region. Examples include "Administration of Foreign-funded Banks" or the "Measures on Administration of Representative Offices of Foreign Insurance Institutions". Hainan is an offshore island, therefore geographically not part of the continental mainland. Politically it is common practice to consider it part of the mainland because its government and political systems do not differ from the rest of the People's Republic within the geographical mainland. Nonetheless, Hainanese people still refer to the geographic mainland as "the mainland" and call its residents "mainlanders". In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Jiangsu, people call the area of non-coastal provinces in of mainland China as "Inland".

On July 15, 1947, during which mainland China was governed by the Republic of China, the Document 0744 ordered the Chinese Communist Party and its forces to be called "Communist bandits" as a form of rectification of names, to the exclusion of all other terms, such as "Red bandits". After the Republic of China's relocation to Taiwan, the Kuomintang party-state imbued the term dalu with nostalgic overtones, associating it with "the land of the utopian past childhood". Schoolchildren were taught slogans like "Counterattack the mainland!" and "Save our mainland compatriots from the deepest water and hottest fire!". The Taiwanese were told that they were the guardians of traditional Chinese culture until political reunification. However, democratization on Taiwan has led to the rise of voices which denounced traditional attitudes towards the mainland and the ancestral home system, pressing for Taiwanization, "Taiwan cultural independence". Concurrently, the mainland Chinese economic reform changed the connotation of "mainland China" to one of "primitiveness and raw cultural material for economic gain", as well as condescension because of Taiwan's comparatively advanced economy.

Warlike phrases like "Counterattack the mainland!" saw a revival, but in reference to the economic exp

Barry Lando

Barry Lando is a Canadian award-winning journalist and former producer for CBS' 60 Minutes. Lando graduated from Harvard University in Columbia University, he was a producer for 60 Minutes for over 25 years, most of those producing stories for Mike Wallace. Lando produced the first interview with the Ayatollah Khomeini after the 1979 Iran hostage crisis, which aired 14 days after the hostages were captured. Another famous story he produced was on the 1990 Temple Mount riots. Wallace said of Lando and another producer, "if it wasn't for and Barry there would be no 60 Minutes."Lando pioneered the use of hidden cameras for investigative television reporting. He was awarded a George Polk award for Television Reporting in 1977. Lando and Wallace won a Robert F. Kennedy Journalism award in 1990 for the segment "40,000 a Day." Lando won two Emmys at 60 Minutes. In 2004, Lando collaborated with Michel Despratx to produce a documentary for Canal+ called "Saddam Hussein, the Trial the World Will Never See."

Lando's 2007 book, Web of Deceit: The History of Western Complicity in Iraq, From Churchill to Kennedy to George W. Bush, covered 85 years of Western intervention in Iraq. Lando has written for The Atlantic, the Los Angeles Times, the Christian Science Monitor, the International Herald Tribune, Le Monde. Colonel Anthony Herbert sued Lando and Wallace for libel for a 1973 60 Minutes broadcast that painted Herbert as a liar; the case reached the United States Supreme Court as Herbert v. Lando 441 U. S. 153. It was part of a series of appellate cases that set the boundaries of the press's right to publish information about private and public figures and an important authority for plaintiffs in defamation cases. Coffey, Frank. 60 Minutes: 25 Years of Television's Finest Hour. General Publishing Group. ISBN 9781881649045. Einstein, Daniel. Special Edition: A Guide to Network Television Documentary Series and Special News Reports, 1980-1989. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810832206. Rader, Peter. Mike Wallace: A Life.

Macmillan. ISBN 9781466802254. Lando, Barry. "My Quarter Century With Mike Wallace". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 July 2015. Excerpt from Web of Deceit The Trial of Saddam Hussein. 1994 documentary for Canal+. Lando, Barry. "The West in Iraq". The Leonard Lopate Show. Interviewed by Leonard Lopate. WNYC. Retrieved July 14, 2015. Personal website


AppleWorks is an integrated office suite developed by Rupert Lissner for Apple Computer for the Apple II platform, released in 1984. The program contains a word processor and spreadsheet; the Apple IIGS and Macintosh, Microsoft Windows incarnations, which didn't share any code with the Apple II, were called ClarisWorks, created by the Apple subsidiary Claris. The name was changed to AppleWorks, it was bundled with all consumer-level Macintoshes sold by Apple until its discontinuation. As of 2007, AppleWorks had not been updated in several years and was unable to run on the Intel processors shipping in new Macs. On August 15, 2007, Apple announced AppleWorks had reached end-of-life status, would no longer be sold. Apple instead promoted their launched iWork suite as a replacement, which contains word processing and presentation applications with capabilities similar to AppleWorks, but is not directly compatible with AppleWorks file formats. Developed by Rupert Lissner, the original AppleWorks was one of the first integrated office suites for personal computers, featuring a word processor and database merged into a single program.

It was released in 1984 as a demonstration product for the new 128k models of the Apple II line. Apple had published Lissner's QuickFile, a database program that resembled what would become the AppleWorks database module. An Apple III version of AppleWorks, which used the same file formats, was dubbed III E-Z Pieces and marketed by Haba Systems. All three AppleWorks programs have the same user interface and exchange data through a common clipboard. Previous Apple II application programs had been designed with the older II/II+ line in mind, which only had 48k of RAM and 40-column text without an add-on card, thus limiting their capabilities. In contrast, Appleworks was designed for the IIe/IIc models which had more RAM, standard 80-column text, an optional numeric keypad, cursor keys, the new ProDOS operating system in place of DOS 3.3, standard on 48k machines. AppleWorks debuted at #2 on Softalk's monthly bestseller list and became the best-selling software package on any computer, ousting Lotus 1-2-3 from the top of the industry-wide sales charts.

Apple's software subsidiary Claris sold the one millionth copy of AppleWorks in December 1988. Apple and Lissner provided technical information on modifying AppleWorks, helping to create a substantial market for third-party accessories and support. Compute!'s Apple Applications reported in 1987 that "AppleWorks has become a frontier for software developers", predicted that "Soon, the best software on the Apple II computer line will require AppleWorks". The September 1986 issue of inCider, for example, contained two AppleWorks-related articles. One of the most successful was the TimeOut series from Beagle Bros. TimeOut developers Alan Bird, Randy Brandt and Rob Renstrom were involved in developing AppleWorks 3.0 and AppleWorks incorporated numerous TimeOut functions. TimeOut developers Randy Brandt and Dan Verkade created AppleWorks 4.0 and 5.0 for Quality Computers. Apple released version 2.0 in 1986 with the Apple IIGS, a year the program was published by Claris. Claris contracted with Beagle Bros. to upgrade AppleWorks to version 3.0 in 1989 turned its attention to producing Macintosh and Windows software, letting AppleWorks languish.

Claris did, agree to license the AppleWorks trademark to Quality Computers, which released AppleWorks 4.0 in 1993 and AppleWorks 5.0 in 1994. The 8-bit AppleWorks is sometimes referred to as "AppleWorks Classic" to differentiate it from AppleWorks GS and the product for Macintosh and Windows of the same name. Observers had expected AppleWorks 2.0 to have a Macintosh-like mouse-driven graphical user interface, but inCider reported before its release that such a revision had been delayed because of "problems between Apple and ". It was nonetheless popular among IIGS owners. No mouse interface, no color, no graphics. Just AppleWorks from the IIe and IIc world"; the magazine wondered in an editorial, "AppleWorks, Where Are You?", stating that a IIGS version of AppleWorks or another AppleWorks-like integrated suite "could galvanize the machine's sales" and warned that otherwise "the IIGS may well languish". In 1988, Claris acquired an integrated package called GS Works from StyleWare and renamed it AppleWorks GS, bringing the AppleWorks brand to the 16-bit Apple IIGS, though no code from the 8-bit Apple II version is used.

In addition to the word processing and spreadsheet functions, AppleWorks GS includes telecommunications, page layout and graphics modules. Only one major version of AppleWorks GS exists, progressing as far as 1.1. AppleWorks GS can open AppleWorks files without needing to import them first; the second incarnation of AppleWorks started life as ClarisWorks, written by Bob Hearn and Scott Holdaway and published by Claris, a wholly owned subsidiary of Apple known as FileMaker Inc.) The Creator code of