The mainstream is the prevalent current thought, widespread. It includes all popular culture and media culture disseminated by mass media; this word is sometimes used in a pejorative sense by subcultures who view ostensibly mainstream culture as not only exclusive but artistically and aesthetically inferior. It is to be distinguished from subcultures and countercultures, at the opposite extreme are cult followings and fringe theories. In the United States, mainline churches are sometimes referred to synonymously as "mainstream." "Mainstreaming" is the practice of bringing disabled students into the “mainstream” of student life. Mainstreamed students attend some classes with typical students and other classes with students that have similar disabilities. Mainstreaming represents a midpoint between full inclusion and dedicated, self-contained classrooms or special schools; the labels "Mainstream media", or "mass media", are applied to print publications, such as newspapers and magazines that contain the highest readership among the public, to radio formats and television stations that contain the highest viewing and listener audience, respectively.
This is in contrast to various independent media, such as alternative media newspapers, specialized magazines in various organizations and corporations, various electronic sources such as podcasts and blogs. Mainstream Christianity is a term used to collectively refer to the common views of major denominations of Christianity as opposed the particular tenets of other Christian denominations; the context is dependent on the particular issues addressed, but contrasts an orthodox majority view against a heterodox minority view. In the most common sense, "mainstream" refers to Nicene Christianity, the traditions which accept the Nicene Creed. Mainstream American Protestant churches are a group of Protestant churches in the United States that have stressed social justice and personal salvation, both politically and theologically, tend to be more liberal than non-mainstream Protestants. Mainstream Protestant churches share a common approach that leads to collaboration in organizations such as the National Council of Churches, because of their involvement with the ecumenical movement, they are sometimes given the alternative label of "ecumenical Protestantism".
While in 1970 the mainstream Protestant churches claimed most Protestants and more than 30 percent of the American population as members, as of 2009 they are a minority among American Protestants, claiming 15 percent of American adults. Mainstream science is scientific inquiry in an established field of study that does not depart from orthodox theories. In the philosophy of science, mainstream science is an area of scientific endeavor that has left the process of becoming established. New areas of scientific endeavor still in the process of becoming established are labelled protoscience or fringe science. A definition of mainstream in terms of protoscience and fringe science can be understood from the following table: By its standard practices of applying good scientific methods, mainstream science is distinguished from pseudoscience as a demarcation problem and specific types of inquiry are debunked as junk science, cargo cult science, scientific misconduct, etc. Mainstream pressure, through actions such as peer pressure, can force individuals to conform to the mores of the group.
Some, such as those of modern Hipster culture, have stated that they see the mainstream as the antithesis of individuality. According to sociologist G. William Domhoff, critiques of mainstream sociology and political science that suggest their allegiance to an elite few, such as the work of sociologists C. Wright Mills and Floyd Hunter, troubles mainstream sociologists, mainstream sociology "often tries to dismiss power structure research as muckraking or mere investigative journalism" and downplays the notion of dominance by a power elite because of doubts about the ability of many business sectors to coordinate a unified program, while overlooking a policy-planning network that can perform this function; the term mainstream refers to the main current of a stream. Its figurative use by Thomas Carlyle to indicating the prevailing taste or mode is attested at least as early as 1831 though one citation of this sense is found prior to Carlyle's, as early as 1599. Collective consciousness Culture industry § Mass culture Public opinion Media culture Zeitgeist
Osnabrück is a district in the southwest of Lower Saxony, Germany. With 2,121 km² it is the second largest district of Lower Saxony; the district in its present form was established on July 1, 1972 by merging the former districts of Melle, Bersenbrück and Wittlage, most of the old district of Osnabrück. Eight municipalities were merged with the city of Osnabrück in the same year; the former district of Osnabrück had been enlarged with the district of Iburg in 1932. The 1972 local government reform led to a considerable decrease of the number of municipalities; the present combined territory of the district and the city of Osnabrück is identical to the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück which existed until 1802, when it was mediatised and assigned to the Electorate of Hanover. It was occupied by France between 1807 and 1813, after which it was returned to the Kingdom of Hanover. After the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia. Since 1 November 1946, the area is part of Lower Saxony.
The northern two thirds of the district belong to the North German plain. The river Hase flows through the district from south to north. In the eastern part flows the Hunte; the district encloses the district-free city of Osnabrück. Together, they form the Osnabrück Land, which can be divided inter alia into the smaller regions of Artland, Grönegau and Wittlage Land; the Tecklenburger Land in the west is the geographical continuation of the Osnabrücker land in the neighbouring federal state North Rhine-Westphalia. It is ascribed to be Münsterland, although it belongs to the Osnabrücker land historically; the district is bounded by the districts of Emsland, Cloppenburg and Diepholz, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the City of Osnabrück. The coat of arms displays the Bennoturm of Bad Iburg, which served as the fortress of the bishops until 1673. There is a wheel displayed in the coat of arms, the heraldic symbol of the City of Osnabrück; the district of Osnabrück incompasses 38 municipalities.
17 municipalities are part of a Samtgemeinde. Populations at 31 December 2007 are given in parentheses. Michael Lübbersmann is the full-time Landrat since the 1st of November, 2011, he is the political president of the district government. Every five years the citizens of the district Osnabrück elect their representatives into the district assembly; the district assembly is the uppermost organ of the district.. The next election takes place in the autumn of 2016. At the last local election on September 11, 2011, 68 delegates and the Landrat were elected into the assembly; the district committee prepares the decisions of the district assembly and decides affairs which the district assembly must not decide. The committee consists of twelve members from the district assembly, eleven of whom are eligible to vote. Composition of the district assembly since 2011: CDU - 30 seats SPD - 23 seats Alliance'90/The Greens - 10 seats FDP - 2 seats Independent - 2 seats The Left - 1 seat Since 1999 a partnership exists to Olsztyn County in the north-east of Poland.
From historical attachment and in view of the entry of Poland in the European Union the Osnabrück district performs its special contribution to the development of the German-Polish friendship. During the past years resulted narrow municipal connections to Polish districts, thus the district as well as the municipality Bad Essen signed a declaration in 2002 about the collaboration with Wałcz County. The Landschaftsverband Osnabrücker Land, an incorporated society, looks after cultural interests under sponsorship of the administrative district and the district-free city of Osnabrück; the area of the district Osnabrück has been confessionally mixed since Protestant Reformation and the Peace of Westphalia: Lutherans and Catholics. Because the Osnabrücker Land bordered on Lutheran territories, there have been Lutherans in the district since the 19th century; the confessional distribution has not changed in spite of the influx of Heimatvertriebene after 1945. The following long distance roads pass through the district: Federal motorway A 1 from Cologne to Bremen and Hamburg A 30 from Amsterdam to Bad Oeynhausen, connecting with A 2 to Berlin and Warsaw A 33 from Osnabrück past Bielefeld and Paderborn to A 44 Federal highway B 51 Cologne - Bremen B 65 Osnabrück - Hannover B 68 Paderborn – Bielefeld – Cloppenburg B 214 Lingen – Braunschweig B 218 Fürstenau - Bohmte The first railway to reach the district territory was the Hannoversche Westbahn, connecting Osnabrück with Hanover in 1855.
It was extended to Rheine in 1856. The Köln-Mindener Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft connected Osnabrück with Bremen in 1871, with Münster in 1873; this turned the town into a significant railway interchange. Today the following railway lines are used for public transport: Hanover-Rheine, serving a.o. Osnabrück and Melle Münster-Bremen, serving a.o. Osnabrück, Hasbergen and Bohmte Oldenburg-Osnabrück, serving a.o. Osnabrück, Bramsche and Quakenbrück Vechta-Hesepe, serving a.o. Neuenkirchen and Rieste Osnabrück-Bielefeld, serving a.o. Osnabrück, Oesede and Dissen Media related to Landkreis Osnabrück at Wikimedia Commons Official website (German
Dean Cummings is a Scottish professional footballer playing as a midfielder for Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale. Cummings has played for Falkirk, Livingston and Edinburgh City, is the older brother of former Nottingham Forest forward Jason Cummings. Cummings Joined Livingston in July 2008 from Falkirk becoming a member of Livingston's under 19 squad; the youth side reached the 2010 SFL Youth Cup final with Cummings scoring the opening goal with the match resulting in a 2–1 defeat to Partick Thistle. During the tournament Cummings helped set a club record by scoring four goals in a 14–0 victory against Ayr United; the following year the under-19 side won the league securing the title with a 10–0 victory against Stranaer. He signed a new two-year contract in April 2011 extending his stay until May 2013 and made his first team debut on 12 November 2011 as a substitute against Hamilton Academical. On 25 February 2012, he scored his first goal for the club in a 3–1 defeat to Ayr United. After spells with Tynecastle and Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale, Cummings signed for promoted Scottish League Two side Edinburgh City in June 2016.
Cummings spent a season with Edinburgh City, before returning to Lothian Thistle for the 2017–18 season. As of 11 March 2012 Dean is the older brother of Hibs forward Jason Cummings, like his brother played for Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale. Dean Cummings at Soccerbase