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In engineering, maintainability is the ease with which a product can be maintained in order to: correct defects or their cause, repair or replace faulty or worn-out components without having to replace still working parts, prevent unexpected working conditions, maximize a product's useful life, maximize efficiency and safety, meet new requirements, make future maintenance easier, or cope with a changed environment. In some cases, maintainability involves a system of continuous improvement - learning from the past in order to improve the ability to maintain systems, or improve reliability of systems based on maintenance experience. In telecommunication and several other engineering fields, the term maintainability has the following meanings: A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources.

The ease with which maintenance of a functional unit can be performed in accordance with prescribed requirements. In software engineering, these activities are known as software maintenance. Related concepts in the software engineering domain are evolvability, technical debt, code smells; the maintainability index is calculated with certain formulae from lines-of-code measures, McCabe measures and Halstead complexity measures. The measurement and track of maintainability are intended to help reduce or reverse a system's tendency toward "code entropy" or degraded integrity, to indicate when it becomes cheaper and/or less risky to rewrite the code than it is to change it; this article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document: "Federal Standard 1037C". List of system quality attributes Maintenance Supportability Serviceability Software sizing Blanchard S. B. Maintainability: A Key to Effective Serviceability and Maintenance Management, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

NewYork 1995 Ebeling C. E. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Boston 1997. Patton J. D. Maintainability and Maintenance Management, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 19. Calculation, Field testing and history of Maintainability Index Measurement of Maintainability Index Original SEI Technical Report Defining the Maintainability Index

St Mary's Church, Bungay

St Mary's Church is a redundant Anglican church in the town of Bungay, England. The church and the ruins of the adjacent priory are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, are under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; the church stands in the centre of the town on the A144 road. St Mary's was built as the church to a Benedictine priory; this was established in the late 12th century, but the main part of the present church dates from the 14th–15th century. The Domesday Survey records a church dedicated to the Holy Cross in the town, it is thought that St Mary's stands on the site of an earlier Saxon church; the priory was closed in 1536 as a result of the dissolution of the monasteries, St Mary's became a parish church, a grammar school was established in one of the priory's chapels. In 1577 the church was struck by lightning, this event led to the Legend of the Black Dog; the church was damaged in a great fire in the town in 1688. The roof of the south aisle and some of the fittings, including benches and the pulpit, were burnt, but the roof of the nave was not damaged.

The south aisle was re-roofed in 1699, the church re-opened in 1701. In 1879 the tower was repaired, the rest of the church was restored, at a cost of £3,000. During the 20th century the size of the congregation declined and the church was declared redundant, its benefice has been united with that of Holy Trinity Church. A society, The Friends of St Mary's, cleans the church and organises concerts and other events in the church; the church is constructed in stone in Perpendicular style. Its plan consists of a nave with a clerestory and south aisles, a tower; the tower stands at the west end of the south aisle, it is surmounted by four tall crocketted pinnacles. There is no chancel; the tower is 110 feet high. There are ruined remains of the priory in the churchyard to the east of the church; the arcades are supported on five columns consisting of clustered shafts. The west window is large, has complicated tracery in its upper part; the bosses in the roof are carved with a variety of objects, including angels, a lion, two-headed eagles, a bat.

Near the entrance to the church is a dole cupboard, carved with a rat. Bread was placed in the dole cupboard to be given to the poor. Part of the church has been converted into a War Memorial Chapel; this contains a 17th-century Flemish panel depicting the Resurrection, given to the church by the author H. Rider Haggard; the two-manual organ was made by E. W. Norman, was moved to the church from Rose Hall, Bungay, it was rebuilt in 1961 by Walker. There is a ring of eight bells, all cast in 1820 by Thomas Mears II of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry; the church was struck by lightning on Sunday, 4 August 1577. During the thunderstorm an apparition appeared, consisting of a black Hell Hound which dashed around the church, attacking members of the congregation, it suddenly disappeared and re-appeared in Holy Trinity Church, Blythburgh 12 miles away, injuring members of the congregation there. The dog has been associated with Black Shuck, a dog haunting the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk. An image of the Black Dog has been incorporated in the coat of arms of Bungay, has been used in the titles of various enterprises associated with Bungay.

List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in the East of England List of English abbeys and friaries serving as parish churches Suffolk Churches: includes photographs of the exterior and interior

Man (Middle-earth)

In J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fiction, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, the terms Man and Men are humans, whether male or female, in contrast to Elves, Dwarves and other humanoid races. Hobbits were a branch of the lineage of Men; the race of Men in Tolkien's fictional world is the second race of beings, the "younger children", created by the One God, Ilúvatar. Because they awoke at the start of the Years of the Sun, long after the Elves, the elves called them the "afterborn", or in Quenya the Atani, the "Second People". Like Elves, Men first awoke in the East of Middle-earth, spread all over the continent and developing a variety of cultures and ethnicities. Unlike Tolkien's elves, Men are mortal. While working on Lord of the Rings, Tolkien found himself searching for an explanation of the Eddaic names of the Dwarves of Dale that he had chosen to use in The Hobbit. Old Norse was a language. Tolkien, a philologist, with a special interest in Germanic languages, was driven to pretend that the names and phrases of Old English were translated from Rohirric, the language of Rohan, just as the English used in The Shire was translated from Middle-earth's Westron or Common Speech, the Old Norse of Dale was translated from the secret language of the Dwarves, Khuzdul.

With his different races of Men arranged from good in the West to evil in the East, simple in the North and sophisticated in the South, Tolkien had – in the view of John Magoun, writing in the J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia – constructed a "fully expressed moral geography"; the peoples of Middle-earth vary from the hobbits of The Shire in the Northwest, evil "Easterlings" in the East, "imperial sophistication and decadence" in the South. Magoun explains that Gondor is both virtuous, being West, has problems, being South. Although all Men in Tolkien's legendarium are related to one another, there are many different groups with different cultures; the friendly races, on the side of the hobbits in The Lord of the Rings, were the edain, the men who fought on the side of the Elves in the First Age against Morgoth in Beleriand, from whom the Rangers, including Aragorn, were descended. Sandra Ballif Straubhaar notes in the J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia that Faramir, Steward of Gondor, makes an "arrogant" speech, of which he "has cause to repent", classifying the types of Men as seen by the Men of Númenórean origin at the end of the Third Age.

The status of the friendly races has been debated by critics. David Ibata, writing in The Chicago Tribune, asserts that the protagonists in The Lord of the Rings all have fair skin, they are blond-haired and blue-eyed as well. Ibata suggests that having the "good guys" white and their opponents of other races, in both book and film, is uncomfortably close to racism; the theologian Fleming Rutledge states that the leader of the Drúedain, Ghân-buri-Ghân, is treated as a noble savage. Michael N. Stanton writes in the J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia that Hobbits were "a distinctive form of human beings", notes that their speech contains "vestigial elements" which hint that they originated in the North of Middle-earth. Two main races of human adversaries are presented in The Lord of the Rings; these are the Easterlings. The Haradrim were hostile to Gondor, used elephants in war. Tolkien describes them as "swart". Peter Jackson clothes them in long red robes and turbans, has them riding their elephants, giving them the look in Ibata's opinion of "North African or Middle Eastern tribesmen".

Ibata notes that The Two Towers film companion book, The Lord of the Rings: Creatures, describes them as "exotic outlanders" inspired by "12th century Saracen warriors". The Easterlings lived in the vast eastern region of Middle-earth. Tolkien describes them as "slant-eyed". In Peter Jackson's film of The Two Towers, the Easterling soldiers are covered in armour, revealing only their "coal-black eyes" through their helmet's eye-slits. Ibata comments that they look Asian, their headgear recalling both Samurai helmets and conical "Coolie" hats. Ibata suggests that the film's director Peter Jackson may have embodied Tolkien's "racial view of the world". Ibata notes too that in the film the Orcs, a non-human race, look much like "the worst depictions of the Japanese drawn by American and British illustrators during World War II." The scholar Margaret Sinex notes further that Tolkiens' construction of the Easterlings and Southrons draws on centuries of Christian tradition of creating an "imaginary Saracen".

Zakarya Anwar judges that while Tolkien himself was anti-racist, his fantasy writings can be taken the wrong way. Other human adversaries include good men gone wrong. "Men". Tolkien Gateway; the history of Middle-Men of Middle-earth The history of Dark Men of Middle-earth

Collin Roesler

Collin Roesler is an American oceanographer. She is known for her work on optical oceanography, including research on harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine and green icebergs. Roesler earned her PhD at the University of Washington, where she studied satellite measurement of phytoplankton concentrations, she grew up in Colorado. Roesler is Oceanographic Science at Bowdoin College, she has varied research interests, with her main focus on optical oceanography techniques, like remote sensing. As part of that work, she has investigated harmful algal blooms and carbon cycling, her 2019 research on green icebergs, published in Journal of Geophysical Research, was of particular interest in the popular media. She collaborates with McLane Research Laboratories, researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, works on several NASA projects; as of 2019, she is working on NASA's Plankton, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem satellite mission, which will measure the color of the ocean to advance biogeochemistry and carbon cycle research.

PACE is scheduled to launch in 2022. Roesler has spent more than 300 days at sea on research cruises. Roesler is passionate about climate science and environmental justice, telling The Bowdoin Orient, "I think we need to be thinking seriously about how we are going to care for our communities that are going to be more impacted than others.” With support from NASA, Roesler helped create Ocean Optics Web Book, a community resource for optical oceanography and remote sensing communities. She credits art with making her a better scientific observer

Labor rights in American meatpacking industry

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates the labor rights of workers in the American meat packing industry. According to scholars of the American meat packing industry, despite federal regulation through OSHA and industry oversight, workers in meat production plants have little agency and inadequate protections. Workers in the industry perform difficult jobs in dangerous conditions, are at significant risk for physical and psychological harm. In addition to high rates of injury, workers are at risk of losing their jobs when they are injured or for attempting to organize and bargain collectively. Several of studies of the industry have found immigrant workers - "an increasing percentage of the workforce in the industry" - at risk of not having their labor rights sufficiently protected. Within the meat production industry, "meatpacking" is defined as "all manufacturing of meat products including the processing of animals." This includes production of beef, pork and fish. The scope of the American meat production industry is large.

Since 2004, four companies control the American meat production industry. Broken down, the companies managed 81% of the beef production, 59% of the pork production and 50% of the poultry market. Within the poultry industry and Perdue control each stage of chicken production, from raising the chicks to shipping the meat to grocery stores; the number of animals butchered in the meat production industry appears to be growing. In 2010, nearly 10.2 billion land animals were raised for food in the United States. According to a report by the Farm Animal Rights Movement, based on data from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, these numbers indicate a 1.7% increase from the 2009 data. There was a 0.9% increase in U. S. population between 2009 and 2010, "meaning that animals per-capita increased slightly" by 0.8%. While American agriculture has been dependent on migrant workers for the last century, thousands of immigrants from Mexico, El Salvador, now travel north to work in slaughterhouses and meat processing plants.

According to a study in the Drake Journal of Agricultural Law, "most meatpacking employees are poor, many are immigrants struggling to survive, most are now employed in rural locations." In 1998, the Immigration and Naturalization Service estimated that about a quarter of meatpacking workers in Nebraska and Iowa were illegal immigrants. The USDA published similar numbers, estimating the percentage of Hispanic meat-processing workers rising from less than 10% in 1980 to 30% in 2000; the lack of rights of undocumented workers makes them invisible to the public. In addition, following the 2002 Supreme Court decision in Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. v. National Labor Relations Board, "immigration law takes precedence over labor law," which challenges undocumented workers' ability to get compensation benefits. Slaughterhouse employee turnover rates tend to be high. One company, ConAgra Red Meat, reported a 100% annual turnover rate in the 1990s; such high turnover rates makes it harder for the workforce to unionize and easier for the industry to control its workers.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2000, 148,100 people worked in meatpacking and over 250,000 worked in poultry processing. Despite the growth of the meat production industry, slaughterhouse workers' wages have been decreasing rapidly. Slaughterhouse workers' wages were higher than the average manufacturing wage; this trend reversed in 1983 when slaughterhouse worker wages fell below the average manufacturing wage. By 2002, slaughterhouse workers' wages were 24% below the average manufacturing wage. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2006, the median wage for slaughterhouse workers was $10.43 per hour which comes out to $21,690 per year. In the 19th century, the south side of Chicago became the main home of American slaughterhouses. In order to avoid paying higher wages for a skilled workforce, the larger slaughterhouses in Chicago established an assembly line process; the original slaughterhouse workers were recent immigrants of Irish and Scandinavian background. In the slaughterhouses, they worked in difficult conditions.

Not only were they required to slaughter and dismember enormous numbers of animals each day, but they were exposed to poor environmental conditions, including leaks of contaminated water, liquid waste and sewage across the floors, poorly lit, cold rooms. Both injuries and illness were commonplace among workers. In addition, most workers lived in slums next to the slaughterhouses. In the early 1880s, workers attempted to organize, calling for higher wages and better working conditions. In response, slaughterhouse owners used ethnic differences to maintain control: they "recruited vulnerable Poles, Croatians and other recent Southern and Eastern European immigrants as workers." When the white workers were able to organize and go on strike in 1894, slaughterhouse owners instead began recruiting African American workers to break the strike. Upton Sinclair's polemical 1906 novel The Jungle revealed the alleged abuses of the meat production industry, was a factor in the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Federal Meat Inspection Act.

However, representatives of the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry reported to Congress that that Sinclair's novel was inaccurate in many particulars, was "intentionally misleading and false", furthermore engaged in "willful and deliberate misrepresentations of fact". The American public "paid little attention to the...abusive working conditions and treatment"

Bozor Sobir

Bozor Sobir was a preeminent Tajik poet and politician, known as the national poet of Tajikistan and'the conscience of the nation'. Sobir established his reputation during the Soviet era, his poems and articles have been published throughout the former Soviet Union and translated into Western languages, as well as Farsi, Uzbek, Slavic languages, several other languages of the Soviet Republics. His poetry books were published in Afghanistan and Iran. Sobir's poetic style is known for its imagery, patriotism, its inclusion of the history of the Tajik people, for its strong political views. Many of his poems have been set to music by various Tajik composers. After his poem We are of Siyovush's Bloodline was set to music, it became the de facto Tajikistan national anthem; as a poet, he contributed much to the revival of Tajik national culture after Mikhail Gorbachev's call for perestroika. Many Tajiks know his poems by heart. Sobir is a laureate of a prestigious National Rudaki Poetry Award, Tajikistan's most eminent prize for poetry and the Star of the President 3rd degree.

With the advent of glasnost, Sobir became involved in political and cultural movements for an independent national identity. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party, serving as its deputy leader; the Democratic Party was the secular component of the Democratic-Islamic coalition that governed Tajikistan in 1992, until it was overthrown by pro-communist forces with Russian military support. He was elected a senator in the Supreme Council of Tajikistan, but resigned from this post and remains the only politician to have done so, he subsequently resigned from the party because of a disagreement with the leadership over the growing Islamic elements within the party. A strong proponent of separation of state and religion, Sobir believed religious figures should not engage in politics. Sobir is the best-known Tajik poet outside the country. Numerous books have been written about his poems. A play about his life called A Night Away from Homeland was performed by the Tajik State Theater named after M. Vakhidov, with the role of Sobir played by the Honored Artist of Tajikistan, Abdumumin Sharifi.

Bozor Sobir was born on 20 November 1938 in Sufiyen, part of the city of Ordzhonikidzobod in Tajikistan. He is the fourth-youngest of seven children. After his father died at an early age, he was sent to study at a boarding school in Hisor in western Tajikistan, about 15 kilometres from the capital of Dushanbe. There, he met Turkish poet Nazim Hikmet; the poet's father was a government tax collector. His mother was a housewife, his younger brother Temur Sobirov was a respected mathematician, with a school and a street named after him in Tajikistan. His second youngest brother a mathematician, ran for a Senate seat; the poet's nephew, another mathematician, was the head of a Democratic Party in Tajikistan until his resignation in the 2000s. Another relative was head of the now-banned Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, whose closure Bozor Sobir had advocated, his other siblings went into teaching. The first publication of Bozor Sobir's poetry was in 1960. In 1962, he completed his graduate work in philology and Tajik-Farsi literature at the Tajik National University.

After completing his studies, Sobir served as a translator in Afghanistan for a year. Thereafter, he worked at various newspapers and magazines in Soviet Tajikistan, including Education and Culture, Voice of the East, Justice, he was commissioned to translate works of British poet and politician Lord Byron, French poets Arthur Rimbaud and Guillaume Apollinaire, Chilean poet and politician Pablo Neruda, Russian poet Sergei Yesenin and Lithuanian-Soviet poet Eduardas Mieželaitis. In 1979, he began working at the Writers' Union of Tajikistan as a editorial consultant. At their request, he edited and improved the poems of all famous Tajik poets throughout his lifetime, though he worked at the Writers' Union for ten years; the poems of Bozor Sobir are characterized by their novel form, penetrating lyricism, high spirituality, a tense search for truth and beauty in work and love. Defining motifs are: the recent history of Tajikistan's people. Sobir contributed much to the revival of Tajik national culture, the formation of the Tajik identity and building of a national consciousness in Tajikistan before and after the Soviet era.

His poems are known for their creativity. They are nuanced and make creative use of grammar, linguistic features, subtle semantic features; the art of speech as a praise and antithesis is used in the artistry and imagery of his poems, which may account for their soulfulness. According to a study of his works by Shahlo Tohiriyon, a notable feature of Sobir's poetry is that its style reveals the essence of the concept, the case and the images through comparison and contrasts. Antonyms in various forms and manifestations of meaning are a feature of his poetry. A certain order of application of antonyms and homonyms in the work of the poet indicates that he always expresses his opinion with exact thought about each word; the same use of one of the lexical means of expression, such