The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, machinery, building infrastructure, supporting utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational. Maintenance functions are referred to as Maintenance and overhaul and MRO is used for Maintenance and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized; the United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions: Any activity—such as tests, replacements and repairs—intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. All action taken to restore it to serviceability, it includes inspections, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair and reclamation. All repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.
The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. Maintenance is connected to the utilization stage of the product or technical system, in which the concept of maintainability must be included. In this scenario, maintainability is considered as the ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, using prescribed procedures and resources. In some domains like aircraft maintenance, terms maintenance and overhaul include inspection, rebuilding and the supply of spare parts, raw materials, sealants and consumables for aircraft maintenance at the utilization stage. In international civil aviation maintenance means: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, replacement, defect rectification, the embodiment of a modification or a repair.
This definition covers all activities for which aviation regulations require issuance of a maintenance release document. The marine and air transportation, offshore structures, industrial plant and facility management industries depend on maintenance and overhaul including scheduled or preventive paint maintenance programmes to maintain and restore coatings applied to steel in environments subject to attack from erosion and environmental pollution; the basic types of maintenance falling under MRO include: Preventive maintenance known as PM Corrective maintenance where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down. Predictive maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs. ReinforcementArchitectural conservation employs MRO to preserve, restore, or reconstruct historical structures with stone, glass and wood which match the original constituent materials where possible, or with suitable polymer technologies when not.
Preventive maintenance is "a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of "noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop." Ideally, "nothing breaks down."The main goal behind PM is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next planned service without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve by replacing worn components before they fail. Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, minor adjustments, so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure; the New York Times gave an example of "machinery, not lubricated on schedule" that functions "until a bearing burns out." Preventive maintenance contracts are a fixed cost, whereas improper maintenance introduces a variable cost: replacement of major equipment. Main objective of PM are: Enhance capital equipment productive life.
Reduce critical equipment breakdown. Minimize production loss due to equipment failures. Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects; the work carried out on equipment in order to avoid its malfunction. It is a routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Maintenance, including tests, adjustments, parts replacement, cleaning, performed to prevent faults from occurring. Other terms and abbreviations related to PM are: scheduled maintenance planned maintenance, which may include scheduled downtime for equipment replacement planned preventive maintenance is another name for PM breakdown maintenance: fixing things only when they break; this is known as "a reactive maintenance strategy" and may involve "consequential damage."
Planned preventive maintenance, more referred
Elections for the Council in the London Borough of Croydon are held every four years to elect 70 councillors. At the last elections, which were held in May 2014, 30 Conservative councillors and 40 Labour councillors, providing a Labour majority of ten seats. At the 2002 local elections, 37 Labour councillors, 32 Conservative councillors and one Liberal Democrat councillor were elected, maintaining Labour control of the Council. Subsequently, one Conservative councillor defected to Labour, defected back to the Conservatives, became an independent and a Liberal Democrat. Following the death of one Labour councillor and the resignation of two councillors, three by-elections were won by the incumbent party in each case. A 6% swing from Labour to Conservative was seen in the last two in the run-up to the 2006 elections. However, following the Conservatives' victory in 2006, a February 2007 by-election saw a large swing back to Labour. In 2002, Labour held Croydon with a tiny majority of votes in its marginal wards - one councillor won by just eight votes - and it was inevitable that in the 2006 election the fight would be keenly fought and observed.
In the end, the Conservatives won 43 seats on the Council, defeating the lone Liberal Democrat and taking ten Labour seats in Waddon, South Norwood and Upper Norwood. In 2010, Labour gained six seats from the Conservatives, reducing the Conservative majority on the Council to four seats. In 2016, Croydon Council requested a review of ward boundaries in Croydon. LGBCE published its final recommendations in July 2017; the new ward boundaries came into force at the 2018 local elections. Summary of council election results: 2014 - present: Tony Newman, Labour Co-operative 2006 - 2014: Mike Fisher, Conservative 2005 - 2006: Tony Newman, Labour Co-operative 1999 - 2005: Hugh Malyan, Labour 1997 - 1999: Valerie Shawcross, Labour 1996 - 1997: Geraint Davies, Labour 1994 - 1996: Mary Walker, Labour Co-operative 1976 - 1994: Peter Bowness, Conservative 1964 Croydon London Borough Council election 1968 Croydon London Borough Council election 1971 Croydon London Borough Council election 1974 Croydon London Borough Council election 1978 Croydon London Borough Council election 1982 Croydon London Borough Council election 1986 Croydon London Borough Council election 1990 Croydon London Borough Council election 1994 Croydon London Borough Council election 1998 Croydon London Borough Council election 2002 Croydon London Borough Council election 2006 Croydon London Borough Council election 2010 Croydon London Borough Council election 2014 Croydon London Borough Council election 2018 Croydon London Borough Council election The controlling and majority group in the borough is the Labour Party.
Since the 2018 election the composition has been: There were no by-elections. The by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Susan T. Taylor; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. David L. Congdon; the by-election was called following the death of Cllr. John D. P. Yaxley; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Anthony J. Slatcher; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Ann A. Allan; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Sherwan H. Chowdhury; the by-election was called following the death of Cllr. Bruce T. H. Marshall; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Alison J. Roberts; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Geraint R. Davies; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Louisa P. Woodley; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Valerie Shawcross; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Alexander Burridge.
The by-election was called following the death of Cllr. Mary M. Walker; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Audrey-Marie M. Yates; the by-election was called following the resignation of Cllr. Paula M. Shaw; the by-election was called following the death of Cllr. Jonathan M. Driver. There were no by-elections; the by-election was triggered by the resignation of Councillor Emily Benn to pursue a job in New York City, United States The by-election was caused following the death of Councillor Maggie Mansell. There are 24 wards. All Croydon Council seats were up for re-election for the first time since the 2002 elections, during the election on 4 May 2006. Labour held control of the council. In the election, the Conservatives took 10 seats from one from the Liberal Democrats. Since the election, Cllr Mike Mogul defected from Labour to the Conservatives adding another Conservative councillor, whilst Cllr Enley Taylor left the Conservative Group and Cllr Jonathan Driver, the Mayor at the time, died.
In the 2010 elections Labour gained six seats from the Conservatives, giving the council's political composition as: Croydon Council
Alexis Kerry Ohanian known by the username kn0thing, is an American Internet entrepreneur and investor. He is best known as the executive chairman of the social news website Reddit, he co-founded the early-stage venture capital firm Initialized Capital, helped launch the travel search website Hipmunk, started the social enterprise Breadpig. He was a partner at Y Combinator. In 2012, Andy Greenberg of Forbes magazine dubbed him "Mayor of the Internet."Ohanian is based in Florida, where he lives with his wife, tennis player Serena Williams, their daughter. As of 2019, Forbes estimated his net worth as $70M. Ohanian was born in Brooklyn, New York, to a German mother, an Armenian father, Chris Ohanian. Chris's grandparents came to the US as refugees after the Armenian Genocide. Alexis went to Howard High School in Ellicott City, where he gave the student address for his graduating class in 2001. After graduation from the University of Virginia in 2005 with degrees in commerce and history and friend Steve Huffman pitched the idea MyMobileMenu to Y Combinator.
The company passed on the idea, but encouraged the duo to come up with another idea it could fund. They subsequently came up with reddit.com with the goal of it becoming the "front page of the Internet." Living in Boston at the time, they were less than a month into development when Ohanian learned that his girlfriend had fallen five stories and was in a coma. Shortly after, his father called him to tell him that his mother had been diagnosed with an inoperable tumor. Reddit joined Y-Combinator's first batch of start-ups in the Summer of 2005 and were acquired by Condé Nast in 2006 for an undisclosed amount between 10–20 million dollars. Ohanian continued to work with Reddit as a member of its board of directors, he returned to Reddit full-time with co-founder Huffman on July 10, 2015 to lead the now-independent company. He stepped back from the company in February 2018 to return to focusing on investing. In 2007, Ohanian launched Breadpig, an "uncorporation" that produces geeky merchandise and gives the proceeds to charity.
He no longer is involved in the day-to-day operations of Breadpig. In 2009, Ohanian spoke at TED about a whale named Mister Splashy Pants. After leaving Reddit in 2010, Ohanian spent three months working in micro-finance as a Kiva fellow in Yerevan, Armenia. Ohanian helped launch travel search website Hipmunk in 2010, now acts as an adviser. In June 2010, Ohanian announced the launch of his company Das Kapital Capital, which focuses on startup investing and consulting. Ohanian was named the "Ambassador to the East" for early stage venture firm Y Combinator. In this position, he meets with East Coast applicants, mentors New York YC founders, is a general representative for the company, he held the role of part-time partner and full-time partner at Y Combinator, before leaving in 2016 to help launch the third Initialized Capital fund with Garry Tan. Ohanian co-founded Initialized Capital in 2010 and made seed investments in startups including Instacart, Zenefits and Cruise, it has had three funds, totaling over $160 million under management.
In 2014, CB Insights analyzed all the investors in tech and Ohanian was number one ranked investor for network centrality. Through Initialized Capital, Ohanian invested $3 million in childcare startup Kinside in 2019. In late 2010 and early 2011, Ohanian spoke out against Congress's Stop Online Piracy Act and the Senate's PROTECT IP Act, he helped lead the Internet-enabled campaign that overturned the two bills. Ohanian spoke to members of Congress, helped launch the national anti-SOPA/PIPA protests that took place on January 18, 2012, spoke at the rally in New York, organized by NY Tech Meetup. In October 2012, Ohanian teamed up with Reddit General Manager Erik Martin and embarked on the Internet 2012 Bus Tour from Denver, CO to Danville, KY to campaign for the open Internet during the Presidential and Vice Presidential debates. One of the campaign stops spurred the idea for a possible "National Geek Day" in Washington D. C. In response to his work advocating for the Open Internet, The Daily Dot named Ohanian number one in their top ten most influential activists of 2012, Forbes Magazine dubbed him "Mayor of the Internet."In May 2014, Ohanian began lobbying the FCC to support net neutrality, culminating with a day-long phone-a-thon into the FCC and Congress on January 15, 2015.
On July 2, 2015, Reddit fired communications director Victoria Taylor, a well-liked administrator who coordinated celebrity interviews from Reddit's New York office. In protest, volunteer moderators of the IAmA community set their forum to private turning it off, other volunteer moderators followed suit because of "anger at the way the company demands that the volunteers and community accept major changes that reduce efficiency and increase workload." The following day, a moderator of IAmA posted, on July 3, that "Chooter was let go as an admin by u/kn0thing," an assertion, not reported on. Media outlets, such as Variety, blamed interim CEO Ellen Pao for the dismissal. Harassment, being directed toward Pao in relation to other controversies and she resigned a week later. However, On July 12, former CEO Yishan Wong informed the Reddit community that Taylor was fired by "the CEO's boss" and accused Ohanian of scapegoating. In the aftermath of Pao's resignation, Ohanian elaborated on his role in Taylor's dismissal.
Countering that though the AMA / IAmA changes came from him, he still repo
Lloyd Sherr known by his stage name Max Raphael, is an American voice actor. Sherr has been credited in many forms of media, most notably as narrator of the History Channel show Modern Marvels, for which his voice has become a trademark of the History Channel. Sherr has narrated other History Channel series such as Command Decisions, "Engineering Disasters," and Dogfights, he is known for voice-over work in various video games, such as Cronos in God of War II, bounty-hunter Calo Nord in Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, Diego in Gothic 3 and EverQuest II. On television, he performed the roles of Vathek in W. I. T. C. H. Jibolba in the Nickelodeon series Tak and the Power of Juju, Everett in Barnyard and Back at the Barnyard, Father in Star Wars: The Clone Wars, the Narrator in Random! Cartoons, he has voiced narration for videos produced by Scientology regarding Thetan existence, the 8 dynamics. Sherr is the voice of Fillmore in the Cars franchise, in place of George Carlin, who died of heart failure in 2008.
He voiced Fillmore in Cars 2 and Cars 3. In Cars 2: The Video Game and Disney Infinity, Sherr reprised his role as Fillmore. Sherr's stage name is a combination of his children's names and Raphael. Black Russian - Ivan Cars 2 - Fillmore Cars 3 - Fillmore Fly Me to the Moon - Mission Control 1969 Gnomes and Trolls: The Secret Chamber - Jalle Hate Crime - Radio News Man Revenge of the Nerds - The Moper The Big Chingon - Ivan Troll Hunters - Jalle Turbo - Spanish DJ Archer - Detective Murphy, Paddy Back at the Barnyard - Everett, Flying Machine Guy, Driver, Ad Voiceover, Judge, Crop Duster, Narrator, Opening Announcer Hey Arnold! - Tape Voice, Restaurant Captain, Salon Man Marked by the Mob Mater's Tall Tales - Fillmore Mega Machines - Narrator Monster Machines - Narrator Random! Cartoons - Narrator Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated - Lord Barry, Paramedic #1, Nerd Pirate #1 Star vs. the Forces of Evil - Additional voices Star Wars: The Clone Wars - The Father Tak & the Power of Juju - Jibolba, Mask Guy, Oonga Ungataka, Guard, Villager Wala, Ant #2 Tales from Radiator Springs - Fillmore Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Captain Dread W.
I. T. C. H. - Vathek, Guard #2, Coach O'Neill, Sandpit Say the Secret Word - Corn Dog Spy Age of Mythology - Setna, Theocrat Armored Core V - City Police Officer D, AC Pilot, Narrator Battlezone II: Combat Commander - Male Ensemble Bioshock Infinite: Burial at Sea - Additional voices Cars Race-O-Rama - Fillmore Command & Conquer 4: Tiberian Twilight - Additional voices Disney Infinity - Fillmore Dragon Age: Origins - Spirit of Valor EverQuest II - Generic Male Human, Generic Male Barbarian Merchant, Generic Male Dwarf Merchant, Generic Male Ogre Merchant, Generic Male Troll Merchant, Generic Male Iksar, Generic Male Dark Elf GuardGothic 3 - Diego Infamous - Male Pedestrian Legendary - Lexington James Bond 007: From Russia with Love - Additional voices Mafia III - Additional voices Medal of Honor: Allied Assault - Additional voices Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time - Kip Darling RTX Red Rock - Old Soul #1 Skylanders: Giants - Additional voices Skylanders: Spyro's Adventure - Additional voices SOCOM: U.
S. Navy SEALs Combined Assault - Senator Lloyd Thomason SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs Fireteam Bravo 2 - Senator Lloyd Thomason Starhawk - Captain Bennett, Terminal Operator Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic - Calo Nord, Tanis Venn, Slave Syndicate - Additional voices The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II - The Rise of the Witch-king - Hwaldar, Chieftain of Rhudaur World of Warcraft: Warlords of Draenor - Additional voices Radiator Springs Racers - Fillmore Official website Lloyd Sherr on IMDb History Channel's official Modern Marvels site
The National Prize for Medicine was created in 2001 by the Chilean Academy of Medicine, the Association of Medical Faculties, the Association of Medical Scientific Societies, the Medical College of Chile. It is given to recognize the work of those doctors who have excelled among their peers in the area of clinical or public health and, in addition, have had a prominent role in teaching, academic administration, or research; the prize consists of a diploma, a commemorative medal, an amount of money, contributed by the medical community. It is awarded every two years. 2002: Julio Meneghello, surgeon of the University of Chile, pediatrician 2004: Helmut Jaeger, surgeon of the University of Chile, pediatric heart surgeon 2006: Alejandro Goic Goic, surgeon of the University of Chile and gastroenterologist 2008: Esteban Parrochia, surgeon of the University of Chile, internist 2010: Rodolfo Armas Merino, surgeon of the University of Chile and gastroenterologist 2012: Fernando Mönckeberg Barros, medical surgeon of the University of Chile 2014: Juan Verdaguer Tarradella, surgeon of the University of Chile, ophthalmologist 2016: Manuel García de los Ríos Álvarez, surgeon of the University of Concepción, internist and diabetologist 2018: Otto Dörr Zegers, psychiatrist of the University of Chile List of medicine awards Regulations of the National Prize for Medicine
The history of Albany, New York from 1942 to 1983 begins with the beginning of the tenure of Erastus Corning 2nd as mayor and ends with Corning's death in 1983. Erastus Corning 2nd, arguably Albany's most notable mayor, was elected in 1941. Although he was the longest-serving mayor of any city in United States history, one historian describes Corning's tenure as "long on years, short on accomplishments," citing Corning's preference for maintaining the status quo as a factor that held back potential progress during his tenure. While Corning brought stability to the office of mayor, it is said that those that idolize him cannot come up with a sizable list of "major concrete Corning achievements." Corning is given credit for saving, albeit somewhat unintentionally, much of Albany's historic architecture. During the 1950s and 1960s, a time when federal aid for urban renewal was plentiful, Albany did not see much progress in either commerce or infrastructure, it lost more than 20 percent of its population during the Corning years, most of the downtown businesses moved to the suburbs.
While cities across the country experienced similar issues, the problems were magnified in Albany: interference from the Democratic political machine hindered progress considerably. Governor Nelson Rockefeller, who had a preference for grandiose, monumental architecture and large, government-sponsored building projects, was the driving force behind the construction of the Empire State Plaza, SUNY Albany's uptown campus, much of the W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus. Albany County Republican Chairman Joseph C. Frangella once quipped, "Governor Rockefeller was the best mayor Albany had." Corning, though opposed to the project, was responsible for negotiating the payment plan for the Empire State Plaza. Rockefeller did not want to be limited by the Legislature's power of the purse, so Corning devised a plan to have the county pay for the construction and have the state sign a lease-ownership agreement; the state would pay off the bonds until 2004. It was Rockefeller's only viable option, he agreed.
Due to the clout Corning gained from the situation, he was able to get the State Museum, a convention center, a restaurant, back in the plans—ideas that Rockefeller had vetoed. The county gained $35 million in fees and the city received $13 million for lost tax revenue. Another major project of the 1960s and 1970s was the South Mall Arterial. Construction began in the early 1960s. One of the project's main consequences was separating the city from the Hudson River. Corning is sometimes called shortsighted with respect to use of the waterfront, as he could have used his influence to change the location of I-787, which now cuts the city off from "its whole raison d'être". Much of the original plan never came to fruition, however: Rockefeller had wanted the South Mall Arterial to pass through the Empire State Plaza; the project would have required an underground trumpet interchange below Washington Park, connecting to the Mid-Crosstown Arterial. To this day, evidence of the original plan is still visible.
In 1967 the hamlet of Karlsfeld became the last annexation to be added to the city limits, having come from Bethlehem. Grondahl, Paul. Mayor Erastus Corning: Albany Icon, Albany Enigma. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7294-1. Lemak, Jennifer A. "Albany, New York and the Great Migration." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 32.1: 47-74. Lemak, Jennifer A. Southern Life, Northern City: The History of Albany's Rapp Road Community.</ref> McEneny, John. Albany, Capital City on the Hudson: An Illustrated History. Sun Valley, California: American Historical Press. ISBN 1-892724-53-7