Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, painter, urban planner and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930 and his career spanned five decades, he constructed buildings in Europe, Japan and North and South America. Le Corbusier prepared the plan for the city of Chandigarh in India. On July 17,2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites as an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement and it was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. His father was an artisan who enameled boxes and watches, while his mother gave piano lessons and his elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist. He attended a kindergarten that used Fröbelian methods, like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect. He was attracted to the arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking.
Three years he attended the course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles LEplattenier. Le Corbusier wrote that LEplattenier had made him a man of the woods and his father took him frequently into the mountains around the town. He wrote later, we were constantly on mountaintops, we grew accustomed to a vast horizon and his architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusiers earliest house designs. However, he reported that it was the art teacher LEplattenier who made him choose architecture, I had a horror of architecture and architects, he wrote. I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. Le Corbusier began teaching himself by going to the library to read about architecture and philosophy, by visiting museums, by sketching buildings, located on the forested hillside near Chaux-de-fonds. It was a chalet with a steep roof in the local alpine style. The success of this led to his construction of two similar houses, the Villas Jacquemet and Stotzer, in the same area.
In Florence, he visited the Florence Charterhouse in Galluzzo, which made an impression on him. I would have liked to live in one of what they called their cells and it was the solution for a unique kind of workers housing, or rather for a terrestrial paradise. In 1911, he traveled again for five months, this time he journeyed to the Balkans and visited Serbia, Turkey, Greece, as well as Pompeii and Rome. Filling nearly 80 sketchbooks with renderings of what he saw—including many sketches of the Parthenon and he spoke of what he saw during this trip in many of his books, and it was the subject of his last book, Le Voyage dOrient
A beguinage, from the French term béguinage, is an architectural complex which was created to house beguines, lay religious women who lived in community without taking vows or retiring from the world. In most cases, beguines who lived in a convent agreed to certain regulations during their stay. Several of these beguinages are now listed by UNESCO as World Heritage, by the mid-thirteenth century, the French king Louis IX founded a beguinage in Paris, which was modeled on the court beguinages of the Low Countries. The Oxford English Dictionary, citing Du Cange, gives the origin of the beguine in the name of Lambert le Bègue, Lambert the Stammerer. They were encircled by walls and separated from the town proper by several gates which were closed at night, during the day the beguines could come and go as they pleased. Beguines came from a range of social classes, though truly poor women were admitted only if they had a wealthy benefactor who pledged to provide for their needs. Our understanding of womens motivations for joining the beguinages has changed dramatically in recent decades, thirteen Flemish beguinages have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites since 1998.
Beguines and Beghards Frauenfrage, specifically associated with a medieval demographical period, in relation to women Belgiums beguinages offered refuge for women CNN
Boat Lifts on the Canal du Centre
The lifts on the Canal du Centre are a series of four hydraulic boat lifts near the town of La Louvière in Belgium which are classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. All four are located on the Canal du Centre in Belgiums historic sillon industriel industrial belt, along a particular 7 km stretch of the Canal du Centre, which connects the river basins of the Meuse and the Scheldt, the water level rises by 66.2 metres. To overcome this difference, the 15.4 metres lift at Houdeng-Goegnies was opened in 1888, the other three lifts, each with a 16.93 metres rise, opened in 1917. The elevators are double, consisting of two vertically mobile tanks or caissons, each supported in the centre by an iron column. The two columns are linked in such a way that one caisson rises as the other descends. These lifts were designed by Edwin Clark from the British company Clark, the lifts were part of the inspiration behind the Peterborough and Kirkfield Lift Locks in Canada. In the late 19th century Richard Birdsall Rogers visited the locks as to understand and these industrial monuments were designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1998.
The assemblage combines the four lifts with a variety of associated auxiliary buildings, of the eight hydraulic lift locks built in the late 19th and early 20th century, the four on the Canal du Centre are the only ones still functioning in their original form. Since 2002, operation of the lifts has been limited to recreational use, commercial traffic now bypasses the old lifts and is handled by the enormous Strépy-Thieu boat lift, whose rise of 73m was the highest in the world upon completion. Following an accident in January 2002, in which a malfunctioning elevator began rising as a barge was exiting. During the repair work, which began in 2005, a restoration was undertaken. Description from UNESCO Maps and photographs of canal lifts
The Plantin-Moretus Museum is a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium which focuses on the work of the 16th century printers Christophe Plantin and Jan Moretus. It is located in their residence and printing establishment, the Plantin Press. The printing company was founded in the 16th century by Christophe Plantin, Plantins is now suspected of being at least connected to members of heretical groups known as the Familists, and this may have led him to spend time in exile in his native France. After Plantins death it was owned by his son-in-law Jan Moretus, in 1876 Edward Moretus sold the company to the city of Antwerp. One year the public could visit the areas and the printing presses. The collection has been used extensively for research, for example by historian Harry Carter, in 2002 the museum was nominated as UNESCO World Heritage Site and in 2005 was inscribed onto the World Heritage list. The Plantin-Moretus Museum possesses a collection of typographical material. Vol.1, Christopher Plantin and the Moretuses, their lives and their world, london, Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN0710064667 Voet and Kaye, Raymond H.
The golden compass, a history and evaluation of the printing and publishing activities of the Officina Plantiniana at Antwerp, vol.2 The management of a printing and publishing house in Renaissance and Baroque, Vangendt & Co. London, Routledge & KeganPaul, ISBN0839000049 Museum Plantin-Moretus Pictures from the museum A review of the Plantin-Moretus Museum
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval and about 430 hectares in size, the citys total population is 117,073, of whom around 20,000 live in the city centre. The metropolitan area, including the commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam and Stockholm, Bruges has a significant economic importance thanks to its port and was once one of the worlds chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, the name probably derives from the Old Dutch for bridge, brugga. Also compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd, the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant.
The Dutch word and the English bridge both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-, Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory. This Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development, in the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesars conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks took over the region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century. The Viking incursions of the century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications, trade soon resumed with England. Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, and new walls and canals were built, in 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city became the commercial outpost for Bruges.
Bruges had a location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and they employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange and letters of credit. The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices, the citys entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotlands wool-producing districts
Belfries of Belgium and France
UNESCO inscribed 32 towers onto its list of Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia in 1999. In 2005, the belfry of Gembloux in the Walloon Region of Belgium and 23 belfries from the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, one notable omission is the Brussels City Hall belfry, as it is already part of the Grand Place World Heritage Site. Most of the structures in this list are towers projecting from broader buildings, however, a few are notably standalone, of which, a handful are rebuilt towers formerly connected to adjacent buildings. ID numbers correspond to the order in the complete list ID 943/943bis from UNESCO, see External links
International Style (architecture)
A visually weightless quality engendered by the use of cantilever construction. Glass and steel, in combination with usually less visible reinforced concrete, are the materials of the construction. Commissioned in 1931 by the director of the Museum of Modern Art, Alfred H. Barr Jr. The original exhibition catalogue was followed up immediately by the book titled The International Style, the aesthetics-based definition of The International Style identified and expanded upon characteristics said to be common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects. Hitchcock and Johnson identified three principles, the expression of volume rather than mass, the emphasis on rather than preconceived symmetry. The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to define a style that would encapsulate this modern architecture, all the works in the 1932 Museum of Modern Art exhibition were carefully selected, only displaying those that strictly followed these rules. Many Modernists disliked the term, believing that they had arrived at an approach to architecture that transcended style, the British architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner commented, To me what had been achieved in 1914 was the style of the century.
It never occurred to me to look beyond, here was the one and only style which fitted all those aspects which mattered, aspects of economics and sociology, of materials and function. It seems folly to think anybody would wish to abandon it. The exhibition Modern Architecture, International Exhibition opened on February 9,1932, at the Museum of Modern Art, in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Room B was a section titled Housing, presenting the need for a new domestic environment” as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Raymond Hood and Richard Neutra, among these works was shown Alvar Aaltos Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland. The exhibition is significant for its approach to the architectural exhibition. Highly curated in nature, the 1932 exhibition was driven by a desire to promote and consolidate the theory of international modernism, as such, the exhibition featured prominently the work of the core of the modernist group.
With Van Der Rohe, Corbusier and Gropius at the forefront, moMAs director Alfred H. Barr hired art historians Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock to curate the museums first architectural exhibition. In 1929, Johnson attended the ceremony of his sister in Wellesley College, where he met Barr. In one month, Barr would be interviewed by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller for the position of the director of the MOMA, Barr added Johnson to MOMAs Junior Advisory Committee. Hitchcock graduated in 1924 after having completed his studies in three years and spending his senior year in architecture
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
The Sonian Forest or Sonian Wood is a 4, 421-hectare forest that lies at the south-eastern edge of Brussels, Belgium. Thus, it out over the three Belgian Regions. It is maintained by Flanders, the Brussels-Capital Region, and Wallonia, there are some contiguous tracts of privately held forest and the Kapucijnenbos, the Capuchin Wood, which belongs to the Royal Trust. The forest is part of the remains of the ancient Silva Carbonaria or Charcoal Forest. The first mention of the Sonian Forest dates from the early Middle Ages, the forest south of Brussels was crossed by the river Zenne/Senne and extended as far as Hainaut, covering most of the high ground between the Zenne and the Dijle. The ninth-century vita of Saint Foillan mentions the forest, next to the abbey of Saint Gertrude, called the Sonesian In the sixteenth century it was still seven leagues in circumference. At the start of the 19th century the area of the wood was still about 100 square kilometres, but due to wood cutting its area diminished to its current area of 44.21 km².
The Forest extended in the Middle Ages over the part of Brabant up to the walls of Brussels and is mentioned, under the name of Ardennes. Originally it was part of the Forest of Ardennes, the Romans Arduenna Silva, king William I of the Netherlands continued to harvest the woods, and from 29,000 acres in 1820 the forest was reduced to 11,200 in 1830. This portion of the forest was converted into farms in the time of the second duke. The Bois de la Cambre on the outskirts of Brussels was formed out of the forest in 1861, in 1911 the forest still stretched to Tervuren and Argenteuil close to Mont-Saint-Jean and Waterloo. Formerly the forest held the Abbey of Saint Foillan not far from Nivelles, the forest served for a long period as an exclusive hunting ground for the nobility, but today is open to the general public. Today the forest consists mainly of European beeches and oaks, several trees are more than 200 years old. The forest contains a somewhat reduced fauna and flora, due to human influence and impoverishment of the ecosystem, various plants and animals have become extinct.
The forest was home to 46 different mammal species, of these, seven have disappeared altogether, the brown bear, the wolf, the hazel dormouse, the Red Deer, the badger, and the hare. The boar was thought to have been extinct since 1957, but in 2007, according to the Flemish Agency for Nature and Forest, this is unlikely to be a natural spread, but probably two to four animals that most likely were either released or escaped from captivity. The many species of bat in the forest led to it being classified as a Natura 2000 protected site, in 2016, the Sonian Forest joined the European Rewilding Network, an initiative of the Rewilding Europe organisation. The project aims to enable the growth in numbers of natural fauna such as roe deer, various types of wildlife crossings have been or are due to be constructed to reconnect the areas of the forest that are currently divided by large roads
The Grand Place or Grote Markt is the central square of Brussels. It is surrounded by opulent guildhalls and two edifices, the citys Town Hall, and the Breadhouse building containing the Museum of the City of Brussels. The square is the most important tourist destination and most memorable landmark in Brussels and it measures 68 by 110 metres, and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the 10th century, Duke of Lower Lorraine constructed a fort on Saint-Géry Island and this was the seed of what would become Brussels. By the end of the 11th century, a marketplace was set up on a dried-up marsh near the fort that was surrounded by sandbanks. The market was called the Nedermerckt, or Lower Market, the market likely developed around the same time as the commercial development of Brussels. A document from 1174 mentions a lower market not far from the port on the Senne river, the market was well situated along the Causeway, an important commercial road which connected the prosperous regions of the Rhineland and the County of Flanders.
At the beginning of the 13th century, three indoor markets were built on the edge of the Grand Place, a meat market, a bread market. Other buildings, made of wood or stone, enclosed the Grand Place, improvements to the Grand Place from the 14th century onwards would mark the rise in importance of local merchants and tradesmen relative to the nobility. Short on money, the Duke transferred control of mills and commerce to the local authorities, the city of Brussels, as with the neighbouring cities of Mechelen and Leuven constructed a large indoor cloth market to the south of the square. At this point, the square was still laid out. The city expropriated and demolished a number of buildings that clogged the Grand Place, the Brussels City Hall was built on the south side of the square in stages between 1401 and 1455, and made the Grand Place the seat of municipal power. It towers 96 metres high, and is capped by a 4-metre statue of Saint Michael slaying a demon or devil. To counter this symbol of power, from 1504 to 1536 the Duke of Brabant built a large building across from the city hall as symbol of ducal power.
It was built on the site of the first cloth and bread markets, which were no longer in use and it is currently known as the Maison du roi in French, though in Dutch it continues to be called the Broodhuis, after the market whose place it took. Wealthy merchants and the increasingly powerful guilds of Brussels built houses around the edge of the square, the French launched a massive bombardment of the mostly defenseless city centre with cannons and mortars, setting it on fire and flattening the majority of the Grand Place and the surrounding city. Only the stone shell of the hall and a few fragments of other buildings remained standing. That the town hall survived at all is ironic, as it was the target of the artillery fire