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Maitreya

Maitreya, Metteyya, is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita. According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to Gautama Buddha; the prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been forgotten by most on the terrestrial world. Maitreya has been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist religions in the past, such as the White Lotus, as well as by modern new religious movements, such as Yiguandao; the name Maitreya is derived from the Sanskrit word maitrī "friendship", in turn derived from the noun mitra "friend". The Pali form Metteyya is mentioned in the Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta of the Pāli Canon, in chapter 28 of the Buddhavamsa. Most of the Buddha's sermons are presented as having been presented in answer to a question, or in some other appropriate context, but this sutta has a beginning and ending in which the Buddha is talking to monks about something different.

This leads scholar Richard Gombrich to conclude that either the whole sutta is apocryphal or that it has at least been tampered with. In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, in the first centuries CE in northern India, Maitreya was the most popular figure to be represented along with Gautama Buddha. In 4th to 6th-century China, "Buddhist artisans used the names Shakyamuni and Maitreya interchangeably... indicating both that the distinction between the two had not yet been drawn and that their respective iconographies had not yet been set". An example is the stone sculpture found in the Qingzhou cache dedicated to Maitreya in 529 CE as recorded in the inscription; the religious belief of Maitreya developed around the same time as that of Amitābha, as early as the 3rd century CE. One mention of the prophecy of Maitreya is in the Maitreyavyākaraṇa, it implies that he is a teacher of meditative trance sādhanā and states that gods and other beings: Will lose their doubts, the torrents of their cravings will be cut off: free from all misery they will manage to cross the ocean of becoming.

No longer will they regard anything as their own, they will have no possession, no gold or silver, no home, no relatives! But they will lead the holy life of oneness under Maitreya's guidance, they will have torn the net of the passions, they will manage to enter into trances, theirs will be an abundance of joy and happiness, for they will lead a holy life under Maitreya's guidance. Maitreya is pictured seated, with either both feet on the ground or crossed at the ankles, on a throne, waiting for his time, he is dressed in the clothes of either a Indian royalty. As a bodhisattva, he would be standing and dressed in jewels, he wears a small stupa in his headdress that represents the stupa with relics of Gautama Buddha to help him identify it when his turn comes to lay claim to his succession, can be holding a dharmachakra resting on a lotus. A khata scarf is always tied around his waist as a girdle. In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, Maitreya is represented as a northern Indian nobleman, holding a kumbha in his left hand.

Sometimes this is a "wisdom urn". He is flanked by his two acolytes, the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu, who founded the Yogacara tradition; the Maitreyasamiti was an extensive Buddhist play in pre-Islamic Central Asia. The Maitreyavyakarana in Central Asia and the Anagatavamsa of South India mention him. Maitreya resides in the Tuṣita Heaven, said to be reachable through meditation. Gautama Buddha lived here before he was born into the world as all bodhisattvas live in the Tuṣita Heaven before they descend to the human realm to become Buddhas. Although all bodhisattvas are destined to become Buddhas, the concept of a bodhisattva differs in Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. In Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one, striving for full enlightenment, whereas in Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who has reached a advanced state of grace or enlightenment but holds back from entering nirvana so that he may help others. In Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhas preside over pure lands, such as Amitābha over Sukhavati.

Once Maitreya becomes a buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati pure land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the city of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. In Theravada Buddhism, Buddhas are born as unenlightened humans, are not rulers of any paradise or pure land. Maitreya's arising would be no different from the arising of Gautama Buddha, as he achieved full enlightenment as a human being and died, entering parinibbana. In Mahayana schools, Maitreya is traditionally said to have revealed the Five Treatises of Maitreya through Asanga; these texts are the basis of the Yogacara tradition and constitute the majority of the third turning within the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma. According to Buddhist tradition, each kalpa has 1,000 Buddhas; the previous kalpa was the vyuhakalpa, the present kalpa is called the bhadrakalpa. The Seven Buddhas of Antiquity are seven Buddhas which bridge the vyuhakalpa and the bhadrakalpa: Vipassī Sikhī (the 999th Buddha of

Portballintrae

Portballintrae is a small seaside village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is four miles east of Portrush and two miles west of the Giant's Causeway. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 734 people, a decline of 10% compared to 1991, it lies within the Causeway Glens District Council area. Portballintrae was a fishing village. Many of its earlier buildings have been maintained; the original village houses were built in a line along the seashore and many old cottages still stand on the shore. Portballintrae has undergone rapid growth since the 1970s. However, there has been a steady change in its character, with all the recent dwellings completed acquired as second homes, a considerable proportion of the older housing changing to second homes. Less than half of the dwellings in the village remain as permanent residences. House prices are high. In the summer of 2009, a new village hall was constructed by the seafront car park, complete with conference suite, IT facilities, a newsagents. Portballintrae was considered as a location for a proposed £1 billion golf course complex by American tycoon Donald Trump.

Off the coast of Portballintrae a team of Belgian divers brought up the greatest find of Spanish Armada treasure recovered from a wrecked ship. The Girona's recovered gold jewellery is on show in the Ulster Belfast; the ruins of Dunluce Castle sit on the edge of a cliff between Portrush. The castle was the main stronghold of the MacDonnell chiefs of Antrim. Much of Portballintrae and its surrounding area is owned by the Macnaghten family of Dundarave House and Runkerry House. Runkerry, once the home of Lord Macnaghten has since been converted into a series of apartments; the Giant's Causeway Tramway runs through the sand dunes above the largest beach in Portballintrae known as Runkerry Strand, Bushfoot Golf Club. This railway, popular with tourists runs between The Giants Bushmills. Portballintrae is classified as hamlet by the NI Statistics and Research Agency. On Census day there were 734 people living in Portballintrae. Of these: 12.0% were aged under 16 years and 33.4% were aged 60 and over 48.9% of the population were male and 51.1% were female 1.0% were from a Catholic background and 96.5% were from a Protestant background.

2.1% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed Coleraine Borough Council Draft Northern Area Plan 2016 Portballintrae website Portballintrae.net NI Neighbourhood Information Service

Single-chain variable fragment

A single-chain variable fragment is not a fragment of an antibody, but instead is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids. The linker is rich in glycine for flexibility, as well as serine or threonine for solubility, can either connect the N-terminus of the VH with the C-terminus of the VL, or vice versa; this protein retains the specificity of the original immunoglobulin, despite removal of the constant regions and the introduction of the linker. The image to the right shows how this modification leaves the specificity unaltered; these molecules were created to facilitate phage display, where it is convenient to express the antigen-binding domain as a single peptide. As an alternative, scFv can be created directly from subcloned heavy and light chains derived from a hybridoma. ScFvs have many uses, e.g. flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, as antigen-binding domains of artificial T cell receptors.

Unlike monoclonal antibodies, which are produced in mammalian cell cultures, scFvs are more produced in bacteria cell cultures such as E. coli. Single-chain variable fragments lack the constant Fc region found in complete antibody molecules, thus, the common binding sites cannot be used to purify antibodies; these fragments can be purified or immobilized using protein L, since protein L interacts with the variable region of kappa light chains. More scientists incorporate a six histidine tag on the c-terminus of the scFv molecule and purify them using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. For unknown reasons, some scFv can be captured by protein A. Divalent single-chain variable fragments can be engineered by linking two scFvs; this can be done by producing a single peptide chain with two VH and two VL regions, yielding tandem scFvs. Another possibility is the creation of scFvs with linker peptides that are too short for the two variable regions to fold together, forcing scFvs to dimerize.

This type is known as diabodies. Diabodies have been shown to have dissociation constants up to 40-fold lower than corresponding scFvs, meaning that they have a much higher affinity to their target. Diabody drugs could be dosed much lower than other therapeutic antibodies and are capable of specific targeting of tumors in vivo. Still shorter linkers lead to the formation of so-called triabodies or tribodies. Tetrabodies have been produced, they exhibit an higher affinity to their targets than diabodies. All of these formats can be composed from variable fragments with specificity for two different antigens, in which case they are types of bispecific antibodies; the furthest developed of these are bispecific tandem di-scFvs, known as bi-specific T-cell engagers. Pexelizumab, a scFv binding to component 5 of the complement system and designed to reduce side effects of cardiac surgery C6.5, a diabody targeting HER2/neu found in some breast cancers Brolucizumab, a scFV binding to VEGF-A and used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration