History of metallurgy in China
This article concerns the history of Recent evidence indicates that the earliest metal objects in China go back to the late fourth millennium BCE. Copper was the earliest metal to be used by mankind; the use of copper in ancient China goes back to at least 3,000 BC. "The earliest sites that have yielded metal objects date to the late fourth and third millennia BCE. Quite early metal-using communities are found in Qijia and Siba sites in Gansu, with comparable sites in Xinjiang in the west, others in Shandong and Inner Mongolia in the east and north, in the Central Plain in the lowest levels at Erlitou." "Copper manufacturing, a more complex industry than jade working appeared in the Yangshao period. Jiangzhai is the only place where copper artifacts were found in the Banpo culture.... Archaeologists have found a number of remains of copper metallurgy in various cultures from the late fourth millennium B. C. E. to the early third millennium B. C. E; these remains include the copper-smelting remains and copper artifacts in the Hongshan culture, copper slag at the Yuanwozhen site....
Thus we may suppose that the inhabitants of the Yellow River valley by the Yangshao period had learned how to make copper artifacts..." "The Qijia culture of Qinghai and western Shaanxi has yielded copper and bronze utilitarian items and gold and bronze personal ornaments. The earliest dates for metal in this region are found at a Majiayao site at Linjia, Gansu." The majority of early metal items found in China come from the North-Western Region. "Their dates range from 2900 – 1600 BCE. These metal objects represent the Majiayao 马家 窑 Type of the Majiayao Culture, Zongri 宗日 Culture, Machang 马 厂 Type, Qijia 齐家 Culture, Siba 四坝 Culture." At Dengjiawan, within the Shijiahe site complex, belonging to the Shijiahe culture, in Hubei province, some pieces of copper were discovered, making these the earliest copper objects discovered so far in southern China. Linjia site has the earliest evidence for bronze in China, dating to c. 3,000 BC. Although bronze artifacts were exhumed from the archeological sites of Majiayao culture, it is still believed that China's Bronze Age began from around 2100 BC during the Xia dynasty, which most coincides with the Erlitou culture.
Typical for the late Chalcolithic phase and the beginning of the bronze age are the copper bells found at Taosi, along with many jade-artifacts and an isolated, early bronze-object. The Erlitou culture, Shang Dynasty and Sanxingdui culture of early China used bronze vessels for rituals as well as farming implements and weapons. By 1500 BC, excellent bronzes were being made in China in large quantities as a display of status, as many as 200 large pieces were buried with their owner for use in the afterlife, as in the Tomb of Fu Hao, a Shang queen. In the tomb of the first Qin Emperor and multiple Warring States period tombs sharp swords and other weapons were found, coated with chromium oxide, which made the weapons rust resistant; the layer of chromium oxide used on these swords was 10 to 15 micrometers and left them in pristine condition to this day. Chromium was first scientifically discovered in the 18th century; the beginning of new breakthroughs in metallurgy occurred towards the Yangzi River's south in China's southeastern region in the Warring States Period such as gilt-bronze swords.
According to some scholars, lost-wax casting was used in China during the Spring and Autumn period, although this is disputed. In 2008, two iron fragments were excavated at the Mogou site, in Gansu, they have been dated to the 14th century BC. One of the fragments was made of bloomery iron rather than meteoritic iron. Cast-iron artifacts are found in China before the 5th century BC, as early as the Zhou dynasty of the 6th century BC. An Iron Age culture of the Tibetan Plateau has tentatively been associated with the Zhang Zhung culture described in early Tibetan writings. Around 500 BC, metalworkers in the southern state of Wu achieved a temperature of up to 1130 °C, hot enough to use hearth as a blast furnace. At this temperature, iron melts; as a liquid, iron can be cast into molds, a method far less laborious than individually forging each piece of iron from a bloom. If iron ores are heated with carbon to 1420–1470 K, a molten liquid is formed, an alloy of about 96.5% iron and 3.5% carbon. This product is strong, can be cast into intricate shapes, but is too brittle to be worked, unless the product is decarburized to remove most of the carbon.
The vast majority of Chinese iron manufacture, from the late Zhou dynasty onward, was of cast iron. However forged swords began to be made in the Warring-States-period: "Earliest iron and steel Jian appear, made by the earliest and most basic forging and folding techniques."Iron, however remained a product for non-military and non-aristocratic use, employed by farmers for hundreds of years, did not affect the nobility of China until the Qin dynasty, when iron long-swords became a part of the Qin army's equipment. Shen Kuo's written work of 1088 contains, among other early descriptions of inventions, a method of repeated forging of cast iron under a cold blast similar to the modern Bessemer process. Chinese metallurgy was practiced during the Middle Ages.
Qinghai, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country. As one of the largest province-level administrative divisions of China by area, the province is ranked fourth-largest in area, has the third-smallest population. Located on the Tibetan Plateau, the province has long been a melting pot for a number of ethnic groups including the Han, Hui, Tu, Salars. Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast, the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest. Qinghai province was established in 1928 under the Republic of China period during which it was ruled by Chinese Muslim warlords known as the Ma clique; the Chinese name, "Qinghai" is named after the largest lake in China. The province was known as Kokonur in English, derived from the Oirat name for Qinghai Lake. During China's Bronze Age, Qinghai was home to the Qiang people who traditionally made a living in agriculture and husbandry, the Kayue culture; the eastern part of the area of Qinghai was under the control of the Han dynasty about 2000 years ago.
It was a battleground during the Tang and subsequent Chinese dynasties when they fought against successive Tibetan tribes. In the middle of 3rd century CE, nomadic people related to the Mongolic Xianbei migrated to pasture lands around the Qinghai Lake and established the Tuyuhun Kingdom. In the 7th century, Tuyuhun Kingdom was attacked by both the Tibetan Empire and Tang dynasty as both of them sought control over trade routes. Military conflicts weakened the kingdom and it was incorporated into the Tibetan Empire. After the disintegration of the Tibetan Empire, small local factions emerged, some under the titular authority of China; the Song dynasty defeated the Tibetan Kokonor Kingdom in the 1070s. During the Yuan dynasty's administrative rule of Tibet, the region comprising the headwaters of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers - what modern Tibetan nationalists call "Amdo" - was apportioned to different administrative divisions than Tibet proper. Most of Qinghai was once a short time under the control of early Ming dynasty, but gradually lost to the Khoshut Khanate founded by the Oirats.
The Xunhua Salar Autonomous County is. The Salars migrated to Qinghai from Samarkand in 1370; the chief of the four upper clans around this time was Han Pao-yuan and Ming granted him office of centurion, it was at this time the people of his four clans took Han as their surname. The other chief Han Shan-pa of the four lower Salar clans got the same office from Ming, his clans were the ones who took Ma as their surname. From 1640 to 1724, a big part of the area, now Qinghai was under Khoshut Mongol control, but in that year it was conquered by the armies of the Qing dynasty, it was during the 1720s when Xining Prefecture was established and its borders were those of modern Qinghai province. Xining, the capital of modern Qinghai province was built in this period as the administrative center. During the rule of the Qing dynasty, the governor was a viceroy of the Qing Emperor, but the local ethnic groups enjoyed much autonomy. Many chiefs retained their traditional authority; the Dungan revolt devastated the Hui Muslim population of Shaanxi, shifting the Hui center of population to Gansu and Qinghai.
Another Dungan revolt broke out in Qinghai in 1895 when various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu rebelled against the Qing. Following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the region came under Chinese Muslim warlord Ma Qi control until the Northern Expedition by the Republic of China consolidated central control in 1928. In July–August 1912, General Ma Fuxiang was "Acting Chief Executive Officer of Kokonur". In 1928, Qinghai province was created, it was part of Gansu, as the "Tibetan frontier district". The Muslim warlord and General Ma Qi became military governor of Qinghai, followed by his brother Ma Lin and Ma Qi's son Ma Bufang. In 1932 Tibet invaded Qinghai, attempting to capture southern parts of Qinghai province, following contention in Yushu, Qinghai over a monastery in 1932; the army of Ma Bufang's defeated the Tibetan armies. Governor of Qinghai, Ma Bufang was described as a socialist by American journalist John Roderick and friendly compared to the other Ma Clique warlords.
Ma Bufang was reported to be jovial in contrast to the brutal reign of Ma Hongkui. Most of eastern China was ravaged by the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, by contrast, Qinghai was untouched. Ma Bufang increased the prominence of the Hui and Salar people in Qinghai's politics by recruiting to his army from the counties in which those ethnic groups predominated. General Ma started a state run and controlled industrialization project, directly creating educational, medical and sanitation projects, run or assisted by the state; the state provided money for food and uniforms in state run or private. Roads and a theater were constructed; the state controlled all the press, no freedom was allowed for independent journalists. As the 1949 Chinese revolution approached Qinghai, Ma Bufang abandoned his post and flew to Hong Kong, traveling abroad but never returning to China. On January 1, 1950, the Qinghai Province People's Government was declared, owing its allegiance to the new People's Republic of China.
Aside from some minor adjustments to suit the geography, the PRC maintained the province's territorial integrity. Resistance to Communist rule continued in the form of the Huis' Kuomintang Islamic insurgency
Modern archaeology is the discipline of archaeology which contributes to excavations. Johann Joachim Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art, he was "the prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology". The next major figure in the development of archaeology was Mortimer Wheeler, whose disciplined approach to excavation and systematic coverage in the 1920s and 1930s brought the science into the modern era. Wheeler developed the grid system of excavation, further improved on by his student Kathleen Kenyon; the two constant themes in their attempts to improve archaeological excavation were first, to maintain strict stratigraphic control while excavating, second, to publish a record of the excavation promptly and in a form that would tell the story of the site to the intelligent reader. Bomb damage during the Second World War and subsequent rebuilding gave archaeologists the opportunity to meaningfully examine inhabited cities for the first time.
Bombed sites provided windows onto the development of European cities whose pasts had been buried beneath working buildings. Urban archaeology necessitated a new approach as centuries of human occupation had created deep layers of stratigraphy that could only be seen through the keyholes of individual building plots. In Britain, post-war archaeologists such as W. F. Grimes and Martin Biddle took the initiative in studying this unexamined area and developed the archaeological methods now employed in much cultural resource management and rescue archaeology. Archaeology became a professional activity during the first half of the 20th century. Although the bulk of an excavation's workforce would still consist of volunteers, it would be led by a professional, it was now possible to study archaeology as a subject in universities and other schools, by the end of the 20th century nearly all professional archaeologists, at least in developed countries, were graduates of such programs. Undoubtedly the major technological development in 20th century archaeology was the introduction of radiocarbon dating, based on a theory first developed by American scientist Willard Libby in 1949.
Despite its many limitations, the technique brought about a revolution in archaeological understanding. For the first time, it was possible to put reasonably accurate dates on discoveries such as bones; this in some cases led to a complete reassessment of the significance of past finds. Classic cases included the Red Lady of Paviland, it was not until 1989 that the Catholic Church allowed the technique to be used on the Turin Shroud, indicating that the linen fibres were of medieval origin. Other developments spin-offs from wartime technology, led to other scientific advances. For field archaeologists, the most significant of these was the use of the geophysical survey; this encompasses a number of remote sensing techniques, such as aerial photography and satellite imagery. Used is light detection and ranging, a technology that measures the height of the ground surface and other features in large areas of landscape with resolution and accuracy, not available. Subsurface remote sensing techniques such as magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar enable an advanced picture to be built up of what lies beneath the soil before excavation commences.
The entire Roman town of Viroconium, modern day Wroxeter, has been surveyed by these methods, though only a small portion has been excavated. The application of physical sciences to archaeology, known as archaeometry or archaeological science, is now a major part of archaeology. Archaeology has come to use geographic information systems, designed to capture, manipulate, analyze and visualize all types of geospatial data; the discovery in 1991 in the Ötztaler Alps of the prehistorical mummy dubbed Ötzi resulted in the techniques of genetics being brought to bear on archaeological science. With the help of DNA analysis, scholars were able to ascertain that Ötzi does not belong to any known human population. In the subsequent years, genetics has helped us reconstruct human migrations that occurred during prehistory. Clunas, Craig. Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. P. 97. ISBN 0-8248-2820-8.attribution copied from History_of_archaeology&oldid=859046461
Dongxiang Autonomous County
Dongxiang Autonomous County is an Autonomous County in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China. With ethnic minority of the Dongxiang. Dongxiang Autonomous County contains the town of Tangwangchuan. A town called Tangwangchuan in Dongxiang Autonomous County had a multi ethnic populace, the Tang and Wang families being the two major families; the Tang and Wang families were of non-Muslim Han Chinese extraction, but by the 1900s some branches of the families became Muslim by "intermarriage or conversion" while other branches of the families remained non-Muslim. People in the area have changed their ethnicity by marrying members of other groups or converting to their religion; the Tang and Wang families are now composed of all three different ethnic groups, with Han Chinese and Dongxiang people. The Dongxiang and Hui are Muslims. Tangwangchuan and Hanjiaji were notable for being the lone towns with a multi ethnic community, with both non-Muslims and Muslims.
The Kuomintang official Ma Hetian visited Tangwangchuan and met an "elderly local literatus from the Tang clan" when he was on his inspection tour of Gansu and Qinghai. In the local music of Hezhou/Linxia, a Hui and Han song called "Hezhou" contains the verse "tang wang chuan you yi ge" in its third Ling. China National Highway 213
Princeton University Art Museum
The Princeton University Art Museum is the Princeton University's gallery of art, located in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1882, it now houses over 92,000 works of art that range from antiquity to the contemporary period; the Princeton University Art Museum dedicates itself to supporting and enhancing the University's goals of teaching and service in fields of art and culture, as well as to serving regional communities and visitors from around the world. Its collections concentrate on the Mediterranean region, Western Europe, the United States, Latin America; the museum has a large collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles and Roman mosaics from Princeton University's excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture and stained glass; the collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the nineteenth century, there is a growing collection of twentieth-century and contemporary art. Photographic holdings are a particular strength, numbering over 27,000 works from the invention of daguerreotype in 1839 to the present.
The museum is noted for its Asian art gallery, which includes a wide collection of Chinese calligraphy, ancient bronze works, jade carvings, as well as porcelain selections. In addition to its collections, the museum mounts regular temporary exhibitions featuring works from its own holdings as well as loans made from public and private collections around the world. Admission is free and the museum is open Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday, 10:00 am to 5:00 pm, Thursday, 10:00 am to 9:00 pm, Sunday 12:00 to 5:00 pm. A new building for the museum will be constructed on the same site over the course of three years starting in 2020 with David Adjaye serving as architect; the first art work owned and displayed by the College of New Jersey was a full-length portrait of Jonathan Belcher, the Governor of the province of New Jersey who had promoted the establishment of the College. The portrait was a donation from Belcher himself, given shortly before the College moved in 1756 to the newly built Nassau Hall.
It was joined by a portrait of King George II, who had issued the letters patent establishing the College. The two portraits hung in the central prayer hall, were displayed alongside various antiquities and objects of natural history; the two paintings were destroyed during the 1777 Battle of Princeton and further objects were lost in the 1802 Nassau Hall fire, but the College continued its commitment to collecting and teaching from works of art and historical note. The creation of the Art Museum in a more formal sense took place under the leadership of James McCosh, who served as president of the College of New Jersey from 1868–88; the Scottish McCosh brought with him from Europe new progressive academic disciplines, including the history of art. By 1882, McCosh charged William Cowper Prime, a Princeton alumnus and founding trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, George B. McClellan, the Civil War general and Governor of New Jersey, with creating a curriculum in the subject, they argued: "The foundation of any system of education in Historic Art must be in object study.
A museum of art objects is so necessary to the system that without it we are of opinion it would be of small utility to introduce the proposed department.” The intention was to go beyond the fields of art and classics to include, “many other branches of the collegiate course.” They anticipated, “large future growth,” as the College could “look with confidence to her sons, in all parts of the world,” for future donations. The museum, what is now the Department of Art and Archaeology, were formally created in 1882, with Allan Marquand, of the Princeton Class of 1874, serving as the inaugural lecturer in the new department and director of the museum, a position he would hold until his retirement in 1922. Marquand was instructor in Latin and logic at the College and was the son of Henry Gurdon Marquand, a major benefactor of the College and one of the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the collections of the museum were held in Nassau Hall, along with the growing natural history collection of professor Arnold Henry Guyot, part of, still on display in Guyot Hall.
A new purpose-built fireproof Romanesque Revival Museum was designed by A. Page Brown and completed in 1890 on the site of the current museum. On completion of the building the museum received the Trumball-Prime collection of pottery and porcelain from William Prime and his wife. Early additions included the purchase of a large collection of Cypriot pottery from the Metropolitan Museum in 1890, purchases of Etruscan and South Italian pottery. Marquand established an endowment from his own resources to enable further purchases and it was augmented by a donation from Edward Harkness. Frank Jewett Mather joined the faculty in 1910 and succeeded Marquand as museum director in 1922, he was a collector of Medieval and Renaissance art but led the university to large holdings of paintings and prints, including the 1933 bequest of several thousand objects by Junius Spencer Morgan II, of the Princeton Class of 1888. In 1923, the first of many expansions of the Art Museum was completed with the addition of the Venetian Gothic McCormick Hall, designed by Ralph Adams Cram and donated by the family of Cyrus McCormick, Jr.
Class of 1879 and Harold Fowler McCormick, Class of 1895. The new building enabled the older structure to be devoted to the museum, led to the creation of a hall of casts on the ground floor; as Marquand had before him, Mather augmented the museum's collections through the use of his personal fortune, with con
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces. It is the largest tributary of the Yellow River and important in the early development of Chinese civilization; the source of the Wei River is close to Weiyuan County – Wei yuan meaning "Wei's source" – in Gansu province, less than 200 kilometres from the Yellow River at Lanzhou. However, due to the sharp turn north the Yellow River takes in Lanzhou, the Wei and the Yellow River do not meet for more than 2,000 kilometres further along the Yellow River's course. In a direct line, the Wei's source lies 700 kilometres west of the main city along its course, Xi'an in Shaanxi province; the length of the river is 818 kilometres and the area drained covers 135,000 square kilometres. The Wei River's tributaries include the Luo River, Jing River, Niutou River, Feng River and the Chishui River. In Chinese mythology, the giant Kua Fu drained the Yellow River and the Wei River to quench his burning thirst as he pursued the Sun.
The valley of the Wei was one of the early cradles of Chinese civilization, along which the capitals of the Zhou, Qin and Tang Dynasties were situated. The area of Dingxi around its headwaters in Gansu has numerous stone age sites from various early cultures; the Wei Valley is the earliest center of Chinese civilization, the location of China's first major irrigation works. Some Chinese historians now believe the Wei is the ancient Jiang River that gave its name to the families of Shennong and the Yan emperor, two Chinese legendary heroes credited with the early development of agriculture there; the headwaters of the Wei River are notable in the development of the Northern Silk Road. The Chinese segment of the Northern Silk Road connected Xi'an to the west via Baoji, Tianshui at the Wei's headwaters, Lanzhou and the Wushao Ling Mountain, before looping north of the Takla Makan on its way to Kashgar and the routes into Parthia. In September 2003 extensive rainfall led to flooding that caused over 30 fatalities, temporarily displaced over 300,000 persons.
Ecological aspects of the Wei River have been examined with respect to flow rates in the Wei River. The Wei River Bridge featured in the design of the 5000-yuan note of the first series of the renminbi, dated 1953, shows a train passing over the bridge
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.