A mobile game is a game played on a feature phone, smartphone/tablet, smartwatch, PDA, portable media player or graphing calculator. The earliest known game on a mobile phone was a Tetris variant on the Hagenuk MT-2000 device from 1994. In 1997, Nokia launched the successful Snake. Snake, preinstalled in most mobile devices manufactured by Nokia, has since become one of the most played games and is found on more than 350 million devices worldwide. A variant of the Snake game for the Nokia 6110, using the infrared port, was the first two-player game for mobile phones. Today, mobile games are downloaded from an app store as well as from mobile operator's portals, but in some cases are preloaded in the handheld devices by the OEM or by the mobile operator when purchased, via infrared connection, memory card or side loaded onto the handset with a cable. Downloadable mobile games were first commercialised in Japan circa the launch of NTT DoCoMo's I-mode platform in 1999, by the early 2000s were available through a variety of platforms throughout Asia, North America and most territories where modern carrier networks and handsets were available by the mid-2000s.
However, mobile games distributed by mobile operators and third party portals remained a marginal form of gaming until Apple's iOS App Store was launched in 2008. As the first mobile content marketplace operated directly by a mobile platform holder, the App Store changed the consumer behaviour and broadened the market for mobile games, as every smartphone owner started to download mobile apps. Towards the end of the 20th century, mobile phone ownership became ubiquitous in the industrialised world - due to the establishment of industry standards, the rapid fall in cost of handset ownership, use driven by economies of scale; as a result of this explosion, technological advancement by handset manufacturers became rapid. With these technological advances, mobile phone games became sophisticated, taking advantage of exponential improvements in display, storage, network bandwidth and operating system functionality. Preloaded games on turn-of-the-century mobile phones were limited to crude monochrome dot matrix graphics and single channel tones.
Commands would be input via the device's keypad buttons. For a period in the early 2000s, WAP and other early mobile internet protocols allowed simple client-server games to be hosted online, which could be played through a WAP browser on devices that lacked the capability to download and run discrete applications. With the advent of feature phones more hardware power became available in bottom-of-the-range devices. Colour screens, multi-channel sound and most the ability to download and store new applications paved the way for commercial mobile game publishing; some early companies utilized the camera phone technology for mobile games such as Namco and Panasonic. In 2003 Namco released a fighting game that used the cell phone's camera to create a character based on the player's profile and determined the character's speed and power based on the image taken; that same year Panasonic released a virtual pet game in which the pet is fed by photos of foods taken with the camera phone. In the early 2000s, mobile games gained popularity in Japan's mobile phone culture, years before the United States or Europe.
By 2003, a wide variety of mobile games were available on Japanese phones, ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that utilized camera phone and fingerprint scanner technologies to 3D games with exceptionally high quality graphics. Older arcade-style games became popular on mobile phones, which were an ideal platform for arcade-style games designed for shorter play sessions. Nokia tried to create its own dedicated mobile gaming platform with the N-Gage in 2003 but this effort failed due to a mixture of unpopular design decisions, poor software support and competition from handheld game consoles regarded as more technically advanced; the N-Gage brand was retained for a few years as a games service included on Nokia's general-purpose phones. In Europe, downloadable mobile games were introduced by the "Les Games" portal from Orange France, run by In-fusio, in 2000. Whereas before mobile games were commissioned directly by handset manufacturers, now mobile operators started to act as distributors of games.
As the operators were not keen on handling hundreds of relationships with one- or two-person developers, mobile aggregators and publishers started to act as a middleman between operators and developers that further reduced the revenue share seen by developers. The launch of Apple's App Store in 2008 radically changed the market. First of all, it widened consumers' opportunities to choose; the Apple users, can only use the Apple App Store, since Apple forbids the distribution of apps via any other distribution channel. Secondly, mobile developers can upload applications directly to the App Store without the lengthy negotiations with publishers and operators, which increased their revenue share and made mobile game development more profitable. Thirdly, the tight integration of the App Store with the device itself
The Wii U is a home video game console developed by Nintendo as the successor to the Wii. Released in November 2012, it was the first eighth-generation video game console and competed with Microsoft's Xbox One and Sony's PlayStation 4; the Wii U was the first Nintendo console to support HD graphics. The system's primary controller is the Wii U GamePad, which features an embedded touchscreen, directional buttons, analog sticks, action buttons; the screen can be used either as a supplement to the main display or in supported games to play the game directly on the GamePad. The Wii U Pro Controller can be used in its place as a more traditional alternative; the Wii U is backward compatible with accessories. Games can support any combination of the GamePad, Wii Remote, Balance Board, or Nintendo's Classic Controller or Wii U Pro Controller. Online functionality centers around the Nintendo Network platform and Miiverse, an integrated social networking service which allows users to share content in game-specific communities.
The Wii U was met with a positive reception, which included praise for its innovative GamePad controller, improvements to online functionality over the Wii, backwards compatibility with existing Wii software and peripherals, relative affordability. However, the Wii U was criticized for the GamePad's short battery life and issues with the console's user interface and functionality; the Wii U was met with slow consumer adoption, with low sales that were credited to a weak lineup of launch titles, limited third-party support, poor marketing. Wii U production ended in January 2017. On March 3, 2017, Nintendo released its successor, the Nintendo Switch, which notably retained and refined concepts that were first introduced with the Wii U; the system was first conceived in 2008, after Nintendo recognized several limitations and challenges with the Wii, such as the general public's perception that the system catered to a "casual" audience. With Wii U, Nintendo wished to bring back "core" gamers. Game designer Shigeru Miyamoto admitted that the lack of HD and limited network infrastructure for Wii contributed to the system being regarded in a separate class to its competitors' systems, the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.
It was decided that a new console would have to be developed to accommodate significant structural changes. Ideas on which direction to take for the new console led to a lot of debate within the company, the project started over from scratch on several occasions; the concept of a touchscreen embedded within the controller was inspired by the blue light on the Wii disc tray that illuminates to indicate new messages. Miyamoto and his team wanted to include a small screen to provide game feedback and status messages to players. Much in development, this was expanded to a full screen that could display the game being played in its entirety, a concept, suggested but not financially viable earlier in the project. Public rumors surrounding the console began to appear in 2010, with speculation of an upcoming revision of the Wii scheduled for 2011 known as the "Wii HD", that would support high definition video and have a Blu-ray disc drive. However, Nintendo president Satoru Iwata stated that he saw "no significant reason" to include HD into the Wii and that such an addition would be better suited for a successor.
Miyamoto expressed Nintendo's interest in working with HD graphics, but clarified that the company is focused on gameplay. In October 2009, Miyamoto said that Nintendo had no concrete plans about its next console, but thought that the new system would continue to feature motion controls and expected its interface to be "more compact" and cheaper. Iwata mentioned that the Wii's successor might be 3D-compatible but concluded that the adoption rates of 3D televisions should increase to at least 30% first. In 2010, Nintendo of America president Reggie Fils-Aimé commented that he felt "confident the Wii home entertainment console has a long life in front of it" and declared that a successor would not be launched in the near future. After its E3 2010 presentation, Iwata revealed to the BBC that Nintendo would begin announcing a new console once it ran "out of ideas with the current hardware and cannot give users any more meaningful surprises with the technology". At an investor's meeting, he disclosed that Nintendo was "of course studying and developing the next console to Wii", but it was keeping its concepts secret because it was "really important for business to positively surprise people."
Fils-Aimé stated that Nintendo's next home console would not feature stereoscopic 3D, based on the 3D technology Nintendo had experimented with. In April 2011, an uncredited source indicated that Nintendo was planning to unveil a successor to the Wii known as "Project Café" at its E3 2011 presentation. Café was claimed to be a high definition console would have backward compatibility with Wii software. Conflicting reports surrounded the console's new controller, with reports suggesting a tablet-like device with an embedded touchcreen and the ability to stream games from the console directly to the screen, while others reported that the controller would be similar to the GameCube controller and feature dual analog sticks, shoulder buttons, triggers. On April 25, 2011, Nintendo released an official statement announcing a system to succeed the Wii to be released during 2012, that playable console units would be present at E3 2011. Speaking at an investor's conference, Iwata stated the Wii successor would "offer something new for home game systems."
He confirmed that the device would not launch in fiscal year 2012, meani
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Ambient music is a genre of music that emphasizes tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. A form of slow instrumental music, it uses repetitive, but gentle, soothing sound patterns that can be described as sonic wallpaper to complement or alter one’s space and to generate a sense of calmness; the genre is said to evoke an "unobtrusive" quality. Ambient music focuses on creating a mood or atmosphere through synthesizers and timbral qualities lacking the presence of any net composition, beat, or structured melody, it uses textural layers of sound without prevalent musical tropes, rewarding both passive and active listening. Nature soundscapes are included, the sounds of acoustic instruments such as the piano and flute, among others, may be emulated through a synthesizer. According to Brian Eno, one of its pioneers, "Ambient music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular. Eno popularized ambient music in 1978 with his album Ambient 1: Music for Airports.
It saw a revival towards the late 1980s with the prominence of house and techno music, growing a cult following by the 1990s. Ambient music may have elements of new-age music and drone music, as some works may use sustained or repeated notes. Ambient music did not achieve large commercial success, being criticized as having a "boring" and "over-intellectual" sound, it has attained a certain degree of acclaim throughout the years in the Internet age. Due to its open style, ambient music takes influences from many other genres, ranging from classical, avant-garde music, folk and world music, among several others; as an early 20th-century French composer, Erik Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations to create an early form of ambient/background music that he labeled "furniture music". This he described as being the sort of music that could be played during a dinner to create a background atmosphere for that activity, rather than serving as the focus of attention. In his own words, Satie sought to create "a music...which will be part of the noises of the environment, will take them into consideration.
I think of it as melodious, softening the noises of the knives and forks at dinner, not dominating them, not imposing itself. It would fill up those heavy silences, it would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their own banal remarks. And at the same time it would neutralize the street noises which so indiscreetly enter into the play of conversation. To make such music would be to respond to a need." In the 1960s, many music groups experimented with unusual methods, with some of them creating what would be called ambient music. In 1969, the group Coum Transmissions were performing sonic experiments in British art schools. Many pieces of ambient music were released in England and the United States of America between the late 1960s and the 1990s; some 1960s music with ambient elements include Music for Zen Meditation by Tony Scott, Soothing Sounds for Baby by Raymond Scott, Music for Yoga Meditation and Other Joys by Tony Scott. Developing in the 1970s, ambient stemmed from the experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of the period.
Although Jamaican dub musicians such as King Tubby, Japanese electronic music composers such as Isao Tomita, as well as the psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's Environments series, German bands such as Popol Vuh, Ash Ra Tempel and Tangerine Dream, predate him in the creation of ambient music and/or were contemporaneous with him, Brian Eno played a key role in its development and popularization. The concept of background or furniture music had existed some time before, but only in the 70s was ambient music first created, which incorporated New Age ideals with the newly invented modular synthesizer. Eno went on to record 1975's Discreet Music with this in mind, suggesting that it be listened to at "comparatively low levels to the extent that it falls below the threshold of audibility", referring to Satie's quote about his musique d'ameublement; the impact the rise of the synthesizer in modern music had on ambient as a genre cannot be overstated. The only limit is with the composer"; the Yellow Magic Orchestra developed a distinct style of ambient electronic music that would be developed into ambient house music.
The English producer Brian Eno is credited with coining the term "ambient music" in the mid-1970s. He said that "I just gave it a name. Which is what it needed... By naming something you create a difference. You say. Names are important." He used the term to describe music that can be "actively listened to with attention or as ignored, depending on the choice of the listener", which exists on the "cusp between melody and texture". In the liner notes for his 1978 album Ambient 1: Music for Airports, Eno wrote:Whereas the extant canned music companies proceed from the basis of regularizing environments by blanketing their acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient Music is intended to enhance these. Whereas conventional background music is produced by stripping away all sense of doubt and uncertainty from the music, Ambient Music retain
Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Toshiba developed flash memory from EEPROM in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in 1984; the two main types of flash memory are named after the NOR logic gates. The individual flash memory cells exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates. While EPROMs had to be erased before being rewritten, NAND-type flash memory may be written and read in blocks which are much smaller than the entire device. NOR-type flash allows a single machine word to be written – to an erased location – or read independently; the NAND type is found in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives, similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. NAND or NOR flash memory is often used to store configuration data in numerous digital products, a task made possible by EEPROM or battery-powered static RAM. One key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can only endure a small number of write cycles in a specific block.
Example applications of both types of flash memory include personal computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, medical electronics. In addition to being non-volatile, flash memory offers fast read access times, although not as fast as static RAM or ROM, its mechanical shock resistance helps explain its popularity over hard disks in portable devices, as does its high durability, ability to withstand high pressure and immersion in water, etc. Although flash memory is technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is used to refer to non-flash EEPROM, erasable in small blocks bytes; because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over non-flash EEPROM when writing large amounts of data. As of 2013, flash memory costs much less than byte-programmable EEPROM and had become the dominant memory type wherever a system required a significant amount of non-volatile solid-state storage.
Flash memory was invented by Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba circa 1980. According to Toshiba, the name "flash" was suggested by Masuoka's colleague, Shōji Ariizumi, because the erasure process of the memory contents reminded him of the flash of a camera. Masuoka and colleagues presented the invention at the IEEE 1987 International Electron Devices Meeting held in San Francisco. Intel Corporation introduced the first commercial NOR type flash chip in 1988. NOR-based flash has long erase and write times, but provides full address and data buses, allowing random access to any memory location; this makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory chips, which are used to store program code that needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes. Its endurance may be from as little as 100 erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, to a more typical 10,000 or 100,000 erase cycles, up to 1,000,000 erase cycles. NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media.
NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash. However, the I/O interface of NAND flash does not provide a random-access external address bus. Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits; this makes NAND flash unsuitable as a drop-in replacement for program ROM, since most microprocessors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access. In this regard, NAND flash is similar to other secondary data storage devices, such as hard disks and optical media, is thus suitable for use in mass-storage devices, such as memory cards; the first NAND-based removable media format was SmartMedia in 1995, many others have followed, including: MultiMediaCard Secure Digital Memory Stick, xD-Picture Card. A new generation of memory card formats, including RS-MMC, miniSD and microSD, feature small form factors. For example, the microSD card has an area of just over 1.5 cm2, with a thickness of less than 1 mm.
As of August 2017 microSD cards with capacity up to 400 GB are available. Flash memory stores information in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors. In single-level cell devices, each cell stores only one bit of information. Multi-level cell devices, including triple-level cell devices, can store more than one bit per cell; the floating gate may be non-conductive. In flash memory, each memory cell resembles a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor except that the transistor has two gates instead of one; the cells can be seen as an electrical switch in which current flows between two terminals and is controlled by a floating gate and a control gate. The CG is similar to the gate in other MOS transistors, but below this, there is the FG insulated all around by an oxide layer; the FG is interposed between the MOSFET channel. Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped; when the FG is charged with electrons, this charge screens the electric field from the CG, inc
Fan translation of video games
In video gaming, a fan translation is an unofficial translation of a video game made by fans. The fan translation practice grew with the rise of video game console emulation in the late 1990s. A community of people developed that were interested in replaying and modifying the games they played in their youth; the knowledge and tools that came out of this community allowed them to work with translators to localize video game titles that had never been available outside of their original country of origin. Fan translations of video game console games are accomplished by modifying a single binary ROM image of the game. Fan translations of PC games, on the other hand, can involve translation of many binary files throughout the game's directory which are packaged and distributed as fan patch. In dealing with translations of console games, a console emulator is utilized to play the final product, although unofficial hardware, hardware mods or software mods can be used to run the translated ROM image on its native hardware.
The central focus of the fan translation community is of Japanese-exclusive computer and video games being made playable in English for the first time, sometimes of games released in Japan that are import-worthy and are unlikely to be localized to English speaking countries. It has since expanded to include other languages as well. Fan translations to English have provided a starting point for translations to many other languages. A fan translation is started if a certain game released in Japan is not announced for localization within one year from its Japanese release. Fan translations may be done to titles that have received official localizations that fans perceive as flawed; the fan translation community was at its most popular, attracted the most media attention, when certain popular game titles were still being worked on. These were parts of popular series such as Square Enix's Final Fantasy and Dragon Quest; some consider the peak to have been reached with the translation of Seiken Densetsu 3, a title, desirable to RPG players and very difficult to translate on a technical basis.
Some translated RPGs are available on reproduction cartridges to play on the real hardware for some systems like the SNES. The earliest fan translations were done by Oasis, a group formed by Dennis Lardenoye and Ron Bouwland, two Dutch fans of the MSX system. Konami’s RPG SD Snatcher was translated in April 1993, The Legend of Heroes was translated in 1995, their other projects include Fray, Rune Master 3, Xak - The Art of Visual Stage, Xak 2, Xak - The Tower of Gazzel, Ys, Ys II: The Final Chapter and Wanderers From Ys. These were possible before emulation on PCs became popular because the games were on floppy disks, were therefore easier to distribute to the users, in comparison to ROM cartridges used by video game consoles; the development of console emulators led to access to foreign video games. A revival began in 1996 when a group calling themselves Kowasu Ku formed under the lead of one "Hazama"; the group stated plans to translate Final Fantasy V. That summer, a user called Demi announced work on a Final Fantasy V translation and founded Multiple Demiforce.
It was dropped in favor of Final Fantasy II, a more manageable goal at that time. Demi and Som2Freak used Pasofami to post four screenshots of their work to Archaic Ruins, an emulation website. Shortly after, the translation stalled and the group disbanded. Derrick Sobodash and David Timko both saw the Archaic Ruins website and contacted Som2Freak expressing interest in translating Final Fantasy V, he provided each with some primitive tools, for the next few months and Timko worked against each other. Both projects generated renewed interest in fan translation. After months of working against each other and Timko began cooperating. RPGe, the first major translation group was established on July 8 in the #ff5e IRC channel, on the EsperNet IRC network by Shadow, Timko and Thermopyle; the start of RPGe sparked many other efforts to unify and within months, Translation Corporation, DeJap Translations and Starsoft Translations had formed. RPGe's translation of Final Fantasy V was completed October 16, 1997.
Notable fan translations include that of Mother 3, Final Fantasy II, III, IV, V and VI, Seiken Densetsu 3, Bahamut Lagoon, Takeshi's Challenge, Clock Tower: The First Fear, Radical Dreamers, Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon: Another Story, Ace Attorney Investigations 2, Fire Emblem: Shadow Dragon and the Blade of Light through The Binding Blade as well as New Mystery of the Emblem, For the Frog the Bell Tolls, Danganronpa: Trigger Happy Havoc, Kingdom Hearts II Final Mix, Front Mission: Gun Hazard and Policenauts. The first hub of the fan translation community was The ROM Hack Board; the board began in fall of 1996 operating on the Matt's WWWBOARD script. It reappeared in 1997. Early community news was posted to emulation websites such as EMU News Service, now archived by ClassicGaming, it wasn't until July 8, 1998 that Cataclysm-X, Jason Li and WildBill opened RPG Dimension, a site dedicated to reporting fan translation news as well as releases of general ROM hacking tutorials and utilities. RPG Dimension met competition on March 31, 2000 when Spinner 8 and opened The Whirlpool, a rival news site
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states; as of the first quarter of 2016, the Wii led its generation over the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold. The Wii introduced the Wii Remote controller, which can be used as a handheld pointing device and which detects movement in three dimensions; the console runs games supplied on Wii optical discs. It supported the now discontinued WiiConnect24 service, which enabled Wii to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. Like other seventh-generation consoles it supported a service, called "Virtual Console", that downloaded emulated games from past Nintendo consoles, support for online video streaming such as BBC iPlayer, other services provided by Nintendo over the Internet. Internet services were withdrawn. Wii Points could no longer be purchased after March 2018, could not be used and were permanently lost from 31 January 2019.
The Wii succeeded the GameCube. Nintendo first spoke of the console at the E3 2004 press conference and unveiled it at E3 2005. Nintendo CEO Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show. At E3 2006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8, 2006, it had completed its launch in the four key markets. Models are no longer compatible with Nintendo GameCube. In late 2011, Nintendo released a reconfigured model, the "Wii Family Edition", not released in Japan; the Wii Mini, Nintendo's first major console redesign since the compact SNES, succeeded the standard Wii model and was released first in Canada on December 7, 2012. The Wii Mini can only play Wii optical discs, as it has neither GameCube compatibility nor any networking capabilities; the Wii's successor, the Wii U, was released on November 18, 2012. On October 20, 2013, Nintendo confirmed it had discontinued production of the Wii in Japan and Europe; the console was conceived in 2001.
According to an interview with Nintendo game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, the concept involved focusing on a new form of player interaction. "The consensus was. Too many powerful consoles can't coexist. It's like having only ferocious dinosaurs, they might fight and hasten their own extinction."In 2003, game engineers and designers were brought together to develop the concept further. By 2005 the controller interface had taken form, but a public showing at that year's Electronic Entertainment Expo was canceled. Miyamoto stated. So we decided not to reveal the controller and instead we displayed just the console." Nintendo president Satoru Iwata unveiled and demonstrated the Wii Remote at the September Tokyo Game Show. The Nintendo DS is said to have influenced the Wii's design. Designer Ken'ichiro Ashida noted, "We had the DS on our minds as we worked on the Wii. We thought about copying the DS's touch-panel interface and came up with a prototype." The idea was rejected because of the notion that the two gaming systems would be identical.
Miyamoto stated, " if the DS had flopped, we might have taken the Wii back to the drawing board." In June 2011 Nintendo unveiled the prototype of its successor to the Wii, to be known as the Wii U. The console was known by the code name "Revolution" from May 11, 2004 when its codename was announced at Nintendo's 2004 pre-Electronics Entertainment Expo press conference in Los Angeles, California until April 27, 2006 before E3. Before the Wii's codename was announced, the media referred to the console as "GCNext" or Gamecube Next and "N5" or Nintendo's fifth major home console. Nintendo's spelling of "Wii" is intended to resemble two people standing side-by-side and to represent the Wii Remote and Nunchuk. One reason the company has given for this name choice since the announcement is: Some video game developers and members of the press stated that they preferred "Revolution" over "Wii". Forbes expressed a fear "that the name would convey a continued sense of'kidiness' to the console." The BBC reported the day after the name was announced that "a long list of puerile jokes, based on the name," had appeared on the Internet.
Nintendo of America's Vice President of Corporate Affairs Perrin Kaplan defended the choice of "Wii" over "Revolution" and responded to critics of the name, stating "Live with it, sleep with it, eat with it, move along with it and they'll arrive at the same place." Nintendo of America's president Reggie Fils-Aime acknowledged the initial reaction and further explained the change: The Nintendo Style Guide refers to the console as "simply Wii, not Nintendo Wii", making it the first home console Nintendo has marketed outside Japan without the company name in its trademark. The Wii's successor, the Wii U, was marketed without Nintendo in its name, although its successor, the Nintendo Switch, brought back the Nintendo name in marketing. On September 14, 2006 Nintendo announced release information for J