ByWard Market is a district in Lower Town located east of the government and business district, surrounding the market buildings and open-air market on George, York, ByWard and William streets. The district is bordered on the west by Sussex Drive and Mackenzie Avenue, on the east by Cumberland Street, it stretches northwards to Cathcart Street. The name refers to the old'By Ward' of the City of Ottawa; the district comprises the main commercial part of the historic Lower Town area of Ottawa. According to the Canada 2011 Census, the population of the area was 3,063; the market itself is regulated by a City of Ottawa municipal services corporation named Marchés d'Ottawa Markets, which operates the smaller west-end Parkdale Market. The corporation is run by a nine member board of directors; the market building is open year-round, open-air stalls are operated in the warmer months offering fresh produce and flowers. Traditionally, the ByWard Market area has been a focal point for Ottawa's French and Irish communities.
The large Catholic community supported Notre Dame Cathedral, one of the largest and oldest Roman Catholic churches in Ottawa. The shape of the cathedral was taken into account in the design of the National Gallery of Canada, built across Sussex Drive; the ByWard Market has been an area of fluid change, adapting to the cosmopolitan nature of downtown Ottawa, as well as trends in Canadian society as a whole. A multitude of restaurants and specialty food stores have sprouted around the market area, making this neighbourhood one of the liveliest in Ottawa outside of normal business hours. A four-block area around the market provides the most dense concentration of eating places and nightclubs in the National Capital Region; the areas beyond this zone offer boutiques and restaurants in abundance, are frequented by a considerable number of buskers. Having acquired a reputation as the city's premier bar district, Byward Market is thronged at night with university students and other young adults. Over the years the city has developed a series of five small, human-scale, open air courtyards east of Sussex Drive, stretching from Saint Patrick Street to George Street.
These cobblestone courtyards are filled with flowers, park benches and sculptures. Several of the houses surrounding them are historic buildings. At the other extreme on the west side of Sussex Drive is the United States Embassy; the building's design, by noted architect David Childs, was somewhat controversial in Ottawa. Others complained; the neighbourhood is today markedly heterogeneous, being visited by a mix of young professionals, many families and some homeless people. At one time, the area had a serious prostitution problem, remedied by a controversial rerouting of traffic through much of the residential area; the area is English-speaking but there exists a significant francophone population as well. The Market is located in close proximity to the downtown, to the Rideau Centre shopping mall, to Parliament Hill and to a number of foreign embassies. In 1826, Lieutenant Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers was sent from England to oversee the construction of the Rideau canal system, designed to connect the Ottawa River to Kingston, on the St. Lawrence River.
It was out of this massive project that the small community of Bytown grew into a flourishing commercial and economic centre. Colonel By prepared plans for two village sites: one on the west side of the Rideau canal, known as Upper Town; the land was surveyed. Both villages were divided into building lots; the Village of Lower Town was bounded by the Rideau River and Sussex and Rideau Streets. This town plan included an area designated as a commercial section within the block bounded by George, Sussex and King Streets. Lt.-Col By designed George and York Streets 132 feet wide in order to leave room for a proposed market building and courthouse, to leave room for the flow of the By Wash. Most of the Lower Town site was covered with swampland. Excess water from the canal was released through a sluice gate; this became known as the By Wash and emptied into the Rideau River. From the beginning Bytown was divided, not only physically by the canal but ethnically and economically. Upper Town was settled by officers and professionals, most of whom were Protestants and Anglicans of English or Scottish descent.
On the other hand, Lower Town was settled by labourers who had come to Bytown seeking employment during the building of the canal. These inhabitants were Catholic Irish immigrants and French Canadians. In 1827, the two towns were connected along Rideau Street by Sappers Bridge, which spanned the canal. In 1827, Colonel By used 160 pounds of revenue from property rents to build a market building with a courthouse behind it on George Street; this was the original market building, large for the time, constructed of timber with dovetailed corners, a veranda on each side, an attached weighing machine. This building served both as a centre for market activities, as a public hall for political and religious meetings. In the 1830s, Lower Town enjoyed a period of rapid commercial growth. Stores of every description, hotels and industrial buildings sprang up all ar
Canada Day is the national day of Canada. A federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of July 1, 1867, the effective date of the Constitution Act, 1867, which united the three separate colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick into a single Dominion within the British Empire called Canada. Called Dominion Day, the holiday was renamed in 1982, the year the Canada Act was passed. Canada Day celebrations take place throughout the country, as well as in various locations around the world, attended by Canadians living abroad. Although Canada existed prior to 1867, within both the French and British empires, Canada Day is informally referred to as "Canada's birthday" in the popular press. However, the term "birthday" can be seen as an oversimplification, as Canada Day is the anniversary of only one important national milestone on the way to the country's full independence, namely the joining on July 1, 1867, of the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick into a wider British federation of four provinces.
Canada became a "kingdom in its own right" within the British Empire known as the Dominion of Canada. Although still a British colony, Canada gained an increased level of political control and governance over its own affairs, the British parliament and Cabinet maintaining political control over certain areas, such as foreign affairs, national defence, constitutional changes. Canada gained increasing independence over the years, notably with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, until becoming independent with the passing of the Constitution Act, 1982 which served to patriate the Canadian constitution. Under the federal Holidays Act, Canada Day is observed on July 1, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case July 2 is the statutory holiday. Celebratory events will still take place on July 1 though it is not the legal holiday. If it falls on a weekend, businesses closed that day dedicate the following Monday as a day off. Most communities across the country will host organized celebrations for Canada Day outdoor public events, such as parades, festivals, barbecues and maritime shows and free musical concerts, as well as citizenship ceremonies.
There is no standard mode of celebration for Canada Day. There doesn't seem to be a central recipe for how to celebrate it—chalk it up to the nature of the federation." However, the locus of the celebrations is the national capital, Ontario, where large concerts and cultural displays are held on Parliament Hill, with the governor general and prime minister officiating, though the monarch or another member of the Royal Family may attend or take the governor general's place. Smaller events are mounted in other parks in neighbouring Gatineau, Quebec. Given the federal nature of the anniversary, celebrating Canada Day can be a cause of friction in the province of Quebec, where the holiday is overshadowed by Quebec's National Holiday, on June 24. For example, the federal government funds Canada Day events at the Old Port of Montreal—an area run by a federal Crown corporation—while the National Holiday parade is a grassroots effort, met with pressure to cease from federal officials; the nature of the event has been met with criticism outside of Quebec, such as that given by Ottawa Citizen columnist David Warren, who said in 2007: "The Canada of the government-funded paper flag-waving and painted faces—the'new' Canada, celebrated each year on what is now called'Canada Day'—has nothing controversially Canadian about it.
You could wave a different flag, choose another face paint, nothing would be lost."Canada Day coincides with Quebec's Moving Day, when many fixed-lease apartment rental terms expire. The bill changing the province's moving day from May 1 to July 1 was introduced by a federalist member of the Quebec National Assembly, Jérôme Choquette, in 1973, in order not to affect children still in school in the month of May. Canadian expatriates will organize Canada Day activities in their local area on or near the date of the holiday. Examples include Canada D'eh, an annual celebration that takes place on June 30 in Hong Kong, at Lan Kwai Fong, where an estimated attendance of 12,000 was reported in 2008. In China, Canada Day celebrations are held at the Bund Beach by the Canadian Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai and at Canadian International School in Beijing by Canada China Business Council; the enactment of the British North America Act, 1867, which confederated Canada, was celebrated on July 1, 1867, with the ringing of the bells at the Cathedral Church of St. James in Toronto and "bonfires and illuminations, military displays and musical and other entertainments", as described in contemporary accounts.
On June 20 of the following year, Governor General the Viscount Monck issued a royal proclamation asking for Canadians to celebrate the anniversary of Confederation, the holiday was not established statutorily until May 15, 1879, when it was designated as Dominion Day, alluding to the reference in the British North America Act to the country as a dominion. The holiday was in
Wellington Street (Ottawa)
Wellington Street is a major street in Ottawa, Canada. The street is notable for being the main street of the Parliamentary Precinct of the Parliament of Canada, it is one of the first two streets laid out in Bytown in 1826. The street runs from Booth Street to the Rideau Canal where it connects with Rideau Street and delimits the northern border of the downtown core, it is named after the Duke of Wellington, in recognition of his role in the creation of the Rideau Canal, therefore of Ottawa. Starting at its easternmost point, Wellington forms the northern edge of Confederation Square, south of which runs Elgin Street. West of Confederation Square, Parliament Hill can be found on its north side, while the Langevin Block, home of the Prime Minister's Office and of the Privy Council Office, the former American embassy and the Wellington Building can be found to the south. West of the intersection with Bank Street, are located the Confederation Building and the Justice Building, while the headquarters of the Bank of Canada can be found opposite the Hill.
Beyond Parliament Hill, the Supreme Court of Canada is situated west of the Justice building, opposite St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church; the East and West Memorial Buildings can be seen next standing east and west of Lyon Street and linked by the Memorial Arch. West of the Supreme Court is the National Library and Archives of Canada main building, with the Garden of the Provinces across the street. Between the Supreme Court and the National Library is a large open area, today a mix of parkland and large parking lots; until the 1970s, this was home to a cluster of temporary buildings, erected in the Second World War to provide much-needed office space. In the 1970s, there was a plan to build both a home for the National Gallery. A design competition was held for the National Gallery, but in the end, the government cancelled both projects. Wellington Street continues west past the Portage Bridge, north of the eastern half of the Lebreton Flats, becomes the Sir John A. Macdonald Parkway after crossing Booth Street at the Canadian War Museum.
West of the O-Train Bayview station, a separate segment is known as Wellington Street West, passes through the Hintonburg and Island Park neighbourhoods before becoming Richmond Road at Island Park Drive. Both sections of Wellington are four-lane historic urban arterial roads with a speed limit of 50 km/h, although the flow is even slower than that due to high pedestrian traffic. A number of proposals have been made to change the street's name, some as recent as 2010. From Bronson Avenue until Rideau Street, Wellington is known as Ottawa Road #34. From Western Avenue to Somerset Street, Wellington is known as Ottawa Road #36. Wellington Street from Bay Street to the Rideau Canal showing the prominent structures located along it. See Downtown Ottawa for a map of the entire area. "City of Ottawa map showing Wellington Street downtown". Accessed 15 November 2006 West Wellington Community Association, accessed 15 November 2006 List of Ottawa roads
Architecture of Ottawa
The architecture of Ottawa is most marked by the city's role as the national capital of Canada. This gives the city a number of monumental structures designed to represent the federal government and the nation, it means that as a city dominated by government bureaucrats, much of its architecture tends to be formalistic and functional. However, the city is marked by Romantic and Picturesque styles of architecture such as the Parliament Building's gothic revival architecture. While the political capital, Ottawa has always been influenced from the larger cities of Toronto and Montreal; this has held true in architecture, over its history Ottawa has followed the prevailing architectural trends popular in Canada and North America. The city is thus a mix of different styles, varying based on what era a building or neighbourhood was constructed in. While founded in the early nineteenth century, few buildings survive from that era and the vast majority of the city's structures date from the twentieth century.
Much of the downtown was greatly transformed in the 1960s and 1970s, the swath of suburbs that surround the city date from this period. The general stereotype of Ottawa architecture is that it unambitious. Urban design consultant Trevor Boddy said that "with the relative extremes of poverty and wealth removed here, along with the vital concentrations of immigrant cultures which denote most Canadian cities, Ottawa seemed to me to represent only the hollow norm, the vacant centre.". Ottawa Citizen architecture critic Rhys Phillips has echoed these concerns, saying that Ottawa "looks like some tired little Prairie town on its last legs." Unlike several other national capitals, such as Paris and Washington, D. C. Ottawa was never built to a master plan. However, several commissions have played a role in determining the shape of the city. Colonel By envisioned building several grand boulevards but the difficulties of expropriation and demolition prevented this from happening. In the late 1880s, Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier developed a 50-year vision of the city's future development and created the Ottawa Improvement Commission.
The early years of the OIC under the direction of Montreal-born architect Frederick Todd saw the removal of industry along the canal, the definition of Patterson Creek and the transfer of Rockcliffe Park to the federal government. In 1913, Sir Robert Borden appointed the Sir Henry Holt Commission, the first to state the need for a national capital region and the removal of railway lines from the downtown core. Twenty years the Federal District Commission and Prime Minister Mackenzie King urged the federal government to acquire land, which led to the creation of Confederation Square. In 1939, King invited Jacques Gréber to create a master plan for the city; this plan proposed new parkways along the Ottawa and Rideau Rivers, included the idea for the Greenbelt, urged the need for a ceremonial route to Parliament but the plan was not approved until 1951 by the government of Louis St. Laurent. Gréber's Plan has been implemented and still affects the city today. In 1958, the National Capital Commission replaced the Federal District Commission.
As a federal agency, the NCC worked along with the many individual municipal governments on the Ontario and Quebec sides in planning and designing the city. It acquired the lands for the Greenbelt and in the 1960s it removed the railway tracks from downtown, making rail travel less accessible, but opening the Rideau Canal as a scenic tourist destination; the NCC continues to have a major role in planning and does have a long range plan for how to showcase the region as a national capital, but has limited legitimacy as an unelected bureaucracy. The streets of central Ottawa follow a grid pattern, but it is disrupted by the Rideau River and Rideau Canal, ensuring that few streets in most of the older neighbourhoods are long. Outside of the core, the roads follow the modern standard of large avenues forming a grid, interspersed with a network of crescents and cul-de-sacs which create low-traffic, suburban neighbourhoods; the Queensway, a major highway, crosses all of the city from east to west, going just south of downtown.
It was built in the 1960s over former railway tracks, thus did not entail the same urban destruction as expressways in other cities. There are five road bridges, one rail bridge, crossing over the Ottawa River, four of which are in the downtown area, ensuring that much of the interprovincial traffic, including many large trucks, pass through the centre of town. Several planning decisions have played an important role in the development of Ottawa and its architecture. One long standing rule that had a great effect on the downtown core, was a prohibition on buildings being taller than the 92 meter tall Peace Tower, it was instituted to prevent the Parliament Buildings from being dwarfed by more modern structures. While today there are a number of taller buildings, Ottawa's central business district still does not have the towering buildings found in most other North American cities, instead having a considerable number of mid-sized towers. Ottawa is home to a large Greenbelt circling the entire urban core.
It was created as an attempt to encourage density, with mixed success. The Greenbelt has remained intact, but Ottawa's newest suburbs such as Kanata and Orleans have jumped over the belt; the Greenbelt is becoming a wide avenue of green between two developed areas. Prior to amalgamation in 2000 the region was divided into several communities each with its own planning guidelines and the suburbs have distinct characters. Kanata is notable as developer Bill Teron's att
Anishinaabe Scout is a statue in Ottawa, Canada. It is located in Major's Hill Park, however it was part of a sculpture to Samuel De Champlain which resides across the river in Nepean, Ontario; the Champlain sculpture was created by Hamilton MacCarthy and installed in 1915. In 1918, MacCarthy created a bronze sculpture of a kneeling “Indian,” envisioned to be seen kneeling in a canoe. Group funding of the sculpture however, ran out of money needed to fabricate the canoe and as a result only the "Indian Scout” was placed on the pedestal at the base of Champlain's monument. In the 1990s the Assembly of First Nations protested the subservient placement of the Indian Scout in relation to Samuel de Champlain, lobbied for it to be removed from the monument; the “Indian” sculpture was renamed Anishinabe Scout and now sits in Major's Hill Park, a short distance away from its original home
Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport
Ottawa/Macdonald–Cartier International Airport or Macdonald–Cartier International Airport, in Ottawa, Canada is an international airport named after the Canadian statesmen and two of the "founding fathers of Canada", Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir George-Étienne Cartier. Located in the south end of the city, 5.5 nautical miles south of downtown Ottawa, it is Canada's sixth-busiest airport, Ontario's second-busiest airport by airline passenger traffic, Canada's sixth-busiest by aircraft movements, with 4,839,677 passengers and 150,815 aircraft movements in 2017. The airport is the home base for First Air; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada, is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. The airport is one of eight Canadian airports that have United States border preclearance facilities; the airport used to be a military base known as CFB Ottawa South/CFB Uplands. Although it is no longer a Canadian Forces Base, it is still home to the Royal Canadian Air Force's 412 Transport Squadron, which provides air transport for Canadian and foreign government officials.
On July 2, 1927, twelve P-1 airplanes under command of Major Thomas G. Lanphier, Air Corps, proceeded from Selfridge Field to Ottawa, acting as Special Escort for Colonel Charles Lindbergh, to attend at the opening of the Dominion Jubilee. First Lieutenant J. Thad Johnson, Air Corps, commanding 27th Pursuit Squadron, was killed in an unsuccessful parachute jump after a collision with another plane of formation in demonstration on arrival over Ottawa. There is now a street leading to the airport industrial section named after the aviator; the airport was opened at Uplands on a high plateau south of Ottawa by the Ottawa Flying Club, which still operates from the field. During World War II, when it was known as Uplands, the airport hosted No. 2 Service Flying Training School for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, providing advanced pilot training in Harvard and Yale aircraft. In 1950, to allow for a southward expansion of the airport, the nearby farming community of Bowesville, settled from 1821, was expropriated.
The last residents left and the village school was torn down in 1951. The current main airport terminal now stands on the site of the crossroads at the centre of the village; the road to the south of the airport still bears the name "Bowesville Road". During the 1950s, while the airport was still named Uplands and a joint-use civilian/military field, it was the busiest airport in Canada by takeoffs and landings, reaching a peak of 307,079 aircraft movements in 1959, nearly double its current traffic. At the time, the airport had scheduled airline flights by Trans-Canada Air Lines, Trans Air, Eastern Air Lines. With the arrival of civilian jet travel, the Canadian government built a new field south of the original one, with two much longer runways and a new terminal building designed to handle up to 900,000 passengers/year; the terminal building had been scheduled to open in 1959, but during the opening ceremonies, a United States Air Force F-104 Starfighter went supersonic during a low pass over the airport, the resultant sonic boom shattered most of the glass in the airport and damaged ceiling tiles and window frames, structural beams.
As a result, the opening was delayed until April 1960. The original terminal building and Trans-Canada Airways/DOT hangar continued in private use on the airport's north field until the Fall 2011 when it was demolished; the airport was renamed "Ottawa International Airport" in 1964. It became "Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport" in 1993. In 2017, the Canadian Border Services Agency started to use facial recognition technology to process incoming international travellers. All international passengers are directed to Primary Inspection Kiosks before seeing a Border Services Officer and are no longer required to fill out a declaration card; the airport consists of two distinct airfields connected by a taxiway. The smaller north field referred to as Uplands, was founded by the Ottawa Flying Club in the late 1920s and used by Trans-Canada Air Lines, the predecessor of Air Canada; this was the area used by No. 2 Service Flying Training School. Several hangars were all demolished by the early 2000s.
The north field is still popular for general aviation, although only one of its runways, 04/22, is still in use. There are a number of aircraft component repair facilities located within the same grouping of buildings as the Ottawa Flying Club; the south field consists of 07/25 and 14/32, designed for jet airliners. The public passenger terminal is tucked into the north side of the intersection of the two runways, while the two general aviation FBOs for the south field are nearer to the threshold of runway 25. Customs services for private aircraft are available at the two fixed-base operators, Shell Aerocentre and Esso, on the south field. There are a number of aviation component repair facilities on airport grounds in the Esso Avitat complex; the Government of Canada operates a number of hangars, including the Canada Reception Centre, used to greet visiting dignitaries. The National Research Council operates two facilities on the north side of the grounds, including a wind tunnel. Transport Canada operates two facilities on airport grounds, one which houses training equipment, including flight simulators, a hangar for maintenance and storage of government owned aircraft.
At the turn of the millennium, the Ottawa Airport Authority announced plans to build
Canada Science and Technology Museum
The Canada Science and Technology Museum is located in Ottawa, Canada, on St. Laurent Boulevard, to the south of the Queensway; the role of the museum is to help the public to understand the technological and scientific history of Canada and the ongoing relationships between science and Canadian society. The National Museum of Science and Technology was established in 1967 as a Centennial project by the Canadian Government. In October 1966 the government appointed David McCurdy Baird as the first director of the museum, he found and arranged the purchase of a large former bakery on St. Laurent Boulevard with truck bays and high ceilings; the government had an aeronautical collection and a collection of railroad artifacts, within a few months these were installed in the building. A collection of farm equipment from Massey Ferguson arrived soon after. In 2001, the museum began looking for a new location to move to, citing a lack of space and accessibility; the desire for more scenic surroundings was a factor, as the museum is surrounded by warehouses and strip malls.
Four locations were considered: the western section of LeBreton Flats, on the Rockcliffe Parkway next to the Canada Aviation and Space Museum, in Jacques Cartier Park on Rue Laurier, a site on Rue Montcalm. In 2006, Conservative cabinet minister and MP for Pontiac Lawrence Cannon put his support behind the Jacques Cartier Park option. During routine maintenance on a leaky roof in September 2014, workers discovered that the roof was in danger of collapse and that mould was spreading from the building's south wall; the museum closed to visitors, the staff offered to lend out some of the exhibits to other museums while renovation and repairs were made to the building. Most of the original building was demolished, leaving only the "crazy kitchen" and the hall of trains. $80 million was spent to create a modern replacement on the same site. The museum reopened on November 17, 2017; the main museum building on St Laurent Boulevard houses a number of permanent displays, as well as temporary exhibits of the museum's collection and visiting exhibitions.
The most famous of these exhibitions is the crazy kitchen, a room, built on a tilted surface, thus causing gravity to pull visitors towards the wall, but has all its furniture nailed to the floor so they won't fall, thus creating the illusion that the room is on an ordinary, flat surface. This competing information confuses visitors' brains. Artifact Alley, which runs diagonally across the building, displays about 700 historical objects at any one time; the Ingenium storage facility, located at 1867 St. Laurent Blvd, it includes more than over 268,000 artifacts, such as a prototype for the Bombardier Innovia ART 100, a driverless rail car, an Iron Lung once used at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, the FIU-301, the Ontario Provincial Police's first Unmanned Aerial vehicle; the museum is operated by Ingenium, a Crown corporation that reports to the Department of Canadian Heritage, responsible for preserving and protecting Canada's scientific and technical heritage. The Corporation has a staff of about 275 and is responsible for three museums: the Canada Science and Technology Museum, the Canada Agriculture and Food Museum and the Canada Aviation and Space Museum.
The museum is affiliated with: Canadian Museums Association, Canadian Heritage Information Network, Virtual Museum of Canada. Canadian university scientific research organizations Canadian industrial research and development organizations Technological and industrial history of Canada Natural scientific research in Canada Canada lunar sample displays Invention in Canada Official website CSTM Origins: A History of the Canada Science and Technology Museum Canada Science and Technology Museum at Google Cultural Institute