Major general

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.

See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.

Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.

In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.

With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.

Billy Warbrick

William "Billy" Warbrick was a New Zealand rugby union footballer who toured with the 1888–89 New Zealand Native football team on their 107-match tour of New Zealand and the British Isles. Playing at fullback, he was one of five Warbrick brothers who participated in the tour, captained and organised by his half-brother Joe. Billy Warbrick played at least 59 matches during the Natives' tour, including at least 36 in the British Isles, he was one of the star players on tour, was described by tour manager Thomas Eyton as "a dashing player, grand tackler, first-class kick quick at follow up". Following the tour Warbrick moved to Australia where he played for Queensland, New South Wales, he coached Australia in their first Test match—against the British Isles in 1899. He contracted tuberculosis and returned to New Zealand shortly before he died in 1901. Ryan, Greg. Forerunners of the All Blacks. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 0-908812-30-2

Ernest de Soto

Ernest Frank de Soto was a lithographer, who specialized in American and Mexican prints during his career. De Soto was the first Hispanic Master Printer in the United States, he directed his own printing workshop, the de Soto Workshop, for over 27 years. De Soto was the first American print maker to establish an international relationship with Mexican artists and had a lasting impact on printing in the United States. Ernest de Soto was born on October 1923 in Tucson, Arizona. De Soto was an eighth generation Tucsonian and a member of the group “Los Descendientes del Presidio de Tucson.” In an interview, de Soto discussed his passion for art from a young age, recalled the encouragement of his parents and teachers. As a young man, de Soto attended the Chouinard Art Institute, from 1942 to 1947. While in Los Angeles, de Soto discovered the art of lithography under the master printer, Lynton R. Kistler. De Soto served in World War II as a camouflage technician. De Soto used the G. I. Bill to continue his studies of art in Mexico.

De Soto attended the Escuela de Belles Artes in San Miguel de Allende from 1948 to 1949 where he learned fresco painting. While a student in Mexico, de Soto was an apprentice under David Alfaro Siqueiros, a founder of the Mexican Muralism movement. After finishing his courses, de Soto was hired to teach at the school in Mexico. In an interview, de Soto discussed his experience of teaching in Mexico, recalled the time when he joined an uprising with his fellow teachers to protest their poor compensation, although the school director received money from the GI Bill. De Soto and his fellow teachers created a mural covering 500 square meters in a converted chapel which they called the “Moving Spectator.” José Clemente Orozco, a Mexican artist, worked with them on this project. De Soto explained the title of the mural and described the experience of seeing it in the chapel: “the picture plane tilts so that you’re facing always the picture plane so whether you looked left, down, or in the plane always faced you."In the early 1950s de Soto returned to the United States.

He spent a few years printing lithographs for the Contemporaries Gallery in New York City. In 1955 de Soto moved to Ohio where he taught art. Next, de Soto taught art at the University of Illinois for about 10 years. In 1965, de Soto was awarded a grant from the Ford Foundation to work at the Tamarind Institute in Los Angeles for two years. Upon completion of his program, de Soto was awarded the title of Master Printmaker, becoming the first Latino to achieve this distinction in the field of lithography. After his studies, de Soto had the opportunity to open an art shop in San Francisco. De Soto started the Collector’s Press Lithography Workshop in 1967. In 1972, de Soto became a partner in Edition’s Press with José Luis Cuevas. In 1975, de Soto founded his own workshop called the de Soto Workshop, which “is known for specializing in contemporary Latin American and American lithographs, fine prints and etching by some of the best-known Latin American and American artists of our time.” The website of the de Soto Workshop describes some of their methods: “Each lithograph is an original and numbered by the artist and embossed with the name of the master printer or the workshop that printed it.

Each print in the edition is numbered. A typical edition contains about 100 prints. After the edition is complete, the stone is effaced, making future production impossible.” De Soto’s achievement made him the first Mexican-American to “develop and direct a studio for the creation of original fine art prints” and “the first American master printer to establish an international relationship with artists in Mexico.”De Soto maintained his relationships with Mexican artists throughout his career in the United States. De Soto created lithographs with many Mexican artists, including: Edmundo Aquino, Alejandro Colunga, Jerry Concha, José Luis Cuevas, José Fors, David Gallegos, Byron Galvez, Rupert Garcia, Luis Granda, Luis Jiminez, Gustavo Riviera. Creating prints in de Soto’s workshop allowed many of these artists to gain entrée into the American art world. For example, Francisco Zúñiga created his first lithographs at the de Soto workshop; the Mexican Muralism movement of the 20th century did not feature fresco paintings, but included “architecture and the graphic arts the woodcut and the lithograph, have all shared the same dramatic development.”

De Soto created lithographs with famous muralist artists like Jose Luis Cuevas and David Alfaro Siqueiros. These artists did not “experiment with techniques in the manner of professional printmakers but more used the popular medium to extend and reproduce their paintings.” The Mexican Muralism artists became less political in the 1950s, which can be observed in their art in which “there seems to be less concern with social protest, although the subjects continue for the most part to examine native Mexican life.” De Soto created prints with Mexican artists during this period, such as the piece “Mother and Child” created with David Alfaro Siqueiros in 1956. De Soto’s studies in Mexico and experiences with Mexican Muralism and Surrealism artists shaped him and continued to be a part of his career when he returned to the United States and established his own printing workshop; the life and career of Ernest de Soto demonstrates the interconnectedness of Mexico and the United States. De Soto could trace his Spanish ancestry in Arizona to before the United States was a country and identified as both an American and a Latino.

Historian Felipe Fernandez-Arneseto argues “that there are other US histories than the standard Anglo narrative: in particular, a Spanish