Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Carlos Saúl Menem is an Argentine politician who was President of Argentina from 1989 to 1999. He has been a Senator for La Rioja Province since 2005, Born in Anillaco, he became a Peronist during a visit to Buenos Aires. He led the party in his province of La Rioja. He was deposed and detained during the 1976 Argentine coup détat and he defeated the Buenos Aires governor Antonio Cafiero in the primary elections for the 1989 presidential elections, which he won. Hyperinflation forced outgoing president Raúl Alfonsín to resign early, shortening the presidential transition, Menem supported the Washington Consensus, and tackled inflation with the Convertibility plan in 1991. The plan was complemented by a series of privatizations, and was a success, Argentina re-established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, suspended since the 1982 Falklands War, and developed special relations with the United States. The country suffered two terrorist attacks, the Peronist victory in the 1993 midterm elections allowed him to force Alfonsín to sign the Pact of Olivos for the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution.
This amendment allowed Menem to run for re-election in 1995, which he won, a new economic crisis began, and the opposing parties formed a political coalition that won the 1997 midterm elections and the 1999 presidential election. Menem ran for the presidency again in 2003, but faced with a defeat against Néstor Kirchner. He was elected senator for La Rioja in 2005, Carlos Saúl Menem was born in 1930 in Anillaco, a small town in the mountainous north of La Rioja Province, Argentina. His parents, Saúl Menem and Mohibe Akil, were Syrian nationals from Yabroud who had emigrated to Argentina and he attended elementary and high school in La Rioja, and joined a basketball team during his university studies. He visited Buenos Aires in 1951 with the team, and met the president Juan Perón and this influenced Menem to become a Peronist. He studied law at the National University of Córdoba, graduating in 1955, after President Juan Peróns overthrow in 1955, Menem was briefly incarcerated. He joined the successor to the Peronist Party, the Justicialist Party and he was elected president of its La Rioja Province chapter in 1973.
In that capacity, he was included in the flight to Spain that brought Perón back to Argentina after his long exile, according to the Peronist politician Juan Manuel Abal Medina, Menem played no special part in the event. Menem was elected governor in 1973, when the proscription over Peronism was lifted and he was deposed during the 1976 Argentine coup détat that deposed the president Isabel Martínez de Perón. He was accused of corruption, and having links with the guerrillas of the Dirty War and he was detained on March 25, kept for a week at a local regiment, and moved to a temporary prison at the ship 33 Orientales in Buenos Aires. He shared a cell with Pedro Eladio Vázquez, Juan Peróns personal physician, during this time he helped the chaplain Lorenzo Lavalle, despite being a Muslim
Peronism or Justicialism is an Argentinian political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife, Eva Perón. The Justicialist Party derives its name from the concept of social justice, since its inception in 1946, Peronist candidates have won 9 of the 12 presidential elections from which they have not been banned. As of 2016, Perón was the only Argentine to have been elected president three times, the pillars of the Peronist ideal, known as the three flags, are social justice, economic independence, and political sovereignty. Peronism can be described as a third position ideology, as it rejects both capitalism and communism, Peronism espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for negotiating compromise in conflicts between managers and workers. It is, however, a generally ill-defined ideology, traditionally the Peronist movement has drawn its strongest support from the working class and sympathetic unions, and has been characterized as proletarian in nature.
From the perspective of opponents, Peronism is an authoritarian ideology, Perón was often compared to fascist dictators, accused of demagoguery, and his policies derided as populist. Proclaiming himself the embodiment of nationality, Peróns government often silenced dissent by accusing opponents of being unpatriotic, the corporatist character of Peronism drew attacks from socialists who accused his administration of preserving capitalist exploitation and class division. Conservatives rejected its modernist ideology and felt their status threatened by the ascent of the Peronist apparat, liberals condemned the Perón regimes arbitrariness and dictatorial tendencies. Defenders of Peronism describe the doctrine as populist, albeit in the sense that they believe it embodies the interests of the masses, admirers hold Perón in esteem for his administrations anti-imperialism, and non-alignment, as well as its socially progressive initiatives. Vast low-income housing projects were created, and paid vacations became standard, all workers were guaranteed free medical care and half of their vacation-trip expenses, and mothers-to-be received three paid months off prior to and after giving birth.
Workers’ recreation centers were constructed throughout the country. Peróns ideas were embraced by a variety of different groups in Argentina across the political spectrum. Peróns personal views became a burden on the ideology, for example, Peronism is widely regarded as a form of corporate socialism, or right-wing socialism. Peróns public speeches were consistently nationalist and populist and it would be difficult to separate Peronism from corporate nationalism, for Perón nationalized Argentinas large corporations, blurring distinctions between corporations and government. At the same time, the unions became corporate, ceding the right to strike in agreements with Perón as Secretary of Welfare in the military government from 1943–45. In exchange, the state was to assume the role of negotiator between conflicting interests, early in his presidency, Perón envisioned Argentinas role as a model for other countries in Latin America and beyond. Despite his oppositional rhetoric, Perón frequently sought cooperation with the United States government on various issues, Perón and his administration resorted to organized violence and dictatorial rule.
Perón showed contempt for any opponents, and regularly characterized them as traitors, Peróns admiration for Benito Mussolini is well documented
Republican Party of Armenia
The Republican Party of Armenia is a national conservative political party in Armenia. It was the first political party in independent Armenia to be founded and registered and it is the largest party of the right wing in Armenia, and claims to have 140,000 members. The party controls most government bodies in Armenia and it has been described by political commentators as essentially lacking political ideology. The Republican Partys national conservative ideology is based on tseghakron, an early 20th-century Armenian nationalist ideology and it was formulated by Garegin Nzhdeh and holds that the Armenian national identity and state should carry religious significance for all ethnic Armenians. Former Prime Minister Andranik Margaryan classified this ideology as Armenian racism, the Republican Party of Armenia was established in 1990 by Ashot Navasardyan. The birth of the RPA is linked to the 1988 National Awakening, fight for independence. The military-political unit Army of Independence, formed at the outset of the struggle, on May 27,1990 these detachments were among the first to resist the Soviet troops in Nubarashen.
They were involved in the nationalization of the Soviet army weaponry. The RPA was among the founders of the first Armenian military cemetery – Yerablur pantheon, since its foundation and up to November 1997 the late Ashot Navasardyan had been the chairman of RPA. After his death and until March 2007 late Andranik Margaryan headed the party, the party has had a crucial contribution to the work of the coordinating council of voluntary armed detachments, thus promoting the establishment of law and order in the country. Following the formation of the Armenian regular army it issued a statement on its demilitarization, the RPA has convened nine ordinary and three extraordinary congresses. In 1999 the office of the party chairperson was abolished, the RPA has constantly focused on inter-party ties and has been actively involved in setting up different political alliances. The party was among the founders of the National Alliance formed in 1992 after the deterioration of the situation in Artsakh, the RPA had an active participation in the work of the Civil Accord constitutional council shaped in 1993.
In 1995 with the involvement of the RPA the Republic pre-election association was set up. However, due to the disagreements on the regulation of the Artsakh problem, in July 1998 the RPA, the Yerkrapah Volunteers Union and the parliamentary Yerkrapah deputy group issued a joint statement, which commenced the political consolidation process within the RPA. Given the common ideology and political positions the Yerkrapah Volunteers’ Union sector engaged in politics was included in the RPA, vazgen Sargsyan became the party leader. In 1999 together with the People’s Party of Armenia the Republican Party set up the Unity pre-election alliance, following the parliamentary elections in 1999 the role of the RPA in the Armenian political life increased greatly. Functioning within the parliamentary majority Unity faction, in 1999, for the first time, vazgen Sargsyan was appointed Prime Minister, with several RPA member ministers in his Cabinet
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government. One of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature and is referred to as the majority or governing party while the other is the minority or opposition party. Around the world, the term has different senses, in such arrangements, two-party systems are thought to result from various factors like winner takes all election rules. The reasons why a country with free elections will evolve into a two-party system have been debated, a leading theory, referred to as Duvergers law, states that two parties are a natural result of a winner-take-all voting system. There is general agreement that the United States has a two-party system, historically, in the First Party System, only Alexander Hamiltons Federalist Party and Thomas Jeffersons Democratic-Republican Party were significant political parties. Toward the end of the First Party System, the Republicans dominated a one-party system, under the Second Party System, the Democratic-Republican Party split during the election of 1824 into Adams Men and Jacksons Men.
In 1828, the modern Democratic Party formed in support of Andrew Jackson, the National Republicans were formed in support of John Quincy Adams. After the National Republicans collapsed, the Whig Party and the Free Soil Party quickly formed and collapsed, in 1854, the modern Republican Party formed from a loose coalition of former Whigs, Free Soilers and other anti-slavery activists. Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican president in 1860, during the Third Party System, the Republican Party was the dominant political faction, but the Democrats held a strong, loyal coalition in the Solid South. During the Fourth Party System, the Republicans remained the dominant Presidential party, although Democrats Grover Cleveland, in 1932, at the onset of the Fifth Party System, Democrats took firm control of national politics with the landslide victories of Franklin D. Roosevelt in four consecutive elections. Other than the two terms of Republican Dwight Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961, Democrats retained firm control of the Presidency until the mid-1960s.
In the election of 2012, only 4% separated the popular vote between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney, although Obama won the vote by a landslide. Throughout every American party system, no party has won a Presidential election or majorities in either house of Congress. Despite that, third parties and third party candidates have gained traction, in the election of 1912, Theodore Roosevelt won 27% of the popular vote and 88 electoral votes running as a Progressive. In the 1992 Presidential election, Ross Perot won 19% of the popular vote, sometimes these systems are described as two-party systems but they are usually referred to as multi-party systems. There is not always a sharp boundary between a two-party system and a multi-party system, Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom. Other parties in these countries may have seen candidates elected to local or subnational office, historian John Hicks claims that the United States has never possessed for any considerable period of time the two party system in its pure and undefiled form.
In some governments, certain chambers may resemble a two-party system, for example, the politics of Australia are largely two-party for the Australian House of Representatives, which is elected by instant-runoff voting, known within Australia as preferential voting
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence, the designation of the Bahamas can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas is the site of Columbus first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas, they brought their slaves with them, Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period.
Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834, Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population, issues related to the slavery years are part of society. The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, in terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance. The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma, alternatively, it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning. In English, the Bahamas is one of two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word the, along with The Gambia. Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century and they came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus arrival in 1492, Columbuss first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador.
Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, an alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbuss log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive, on the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them. The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour, the slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity, half of the Taino died from smallpox alone. The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished, in 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom and they settled New Providence, naming it Sayles Island after one of their leaders.
To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks, in 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America
Social Democratic Party of Austria
The Social Democratic Party of Austria is a social-democratic political party in Austria. The SPÖ has ties to the Austrian Trade Union Federation and the Austrian Chamber of Labour and workers movements and associations had already started to form in Austria by the mid-19th century. The partys first meeting place in 1874 in Neudörfl in what became Burgenland. The following years saw factional infighting, and the party split into moderate and it was united in 1889 as the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria through the work of Doctor Victor Adler. At the party congress in Hainfeld, the party decided to accept Adlers Declaration of Principles on 30 December 1888,1 January 1889 is therefore considered the partys founding date. On 12 July 1889 the first issue of the party newspaper the Arbeiter-Zeitung was printed, initially close to Marxism, the party continued to grow especially in Vienna and the industrial areas of Bohemia, Styria, Lower Austria and Upper Austria. The party participated in the founding of the Second International in Paris on 14 July 1889, the party campaigned for more rights for workers, including their right to vote.
In the Brünner Programm of September 1899, the Socialists demanded that the Austro-Hungarian Empire be reformed into a democratic state. The Social Democrats were allowed to run in the City Council elections of Vienna on 30 May 1890, in Trieste the Italian-speaking Social Democratic League decided at its congress in December 1897 to change its name to Adriatic Italian Section of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria. Notably, the Trieste Socialists preferred to use the label socialist rather than social democrat, in 1907, after a general strike, universal suffrage was granted. In the elections to the House of Deputies in the Reichsrat, out of a total of 516 seats, the party won 87 seats, becoming the second strongest fraction in parliament after the Christian Social Party. Eventually, by 1911, the Socialists became the strongest party in parliament, after the death of Emperor Franz Joseph, the first peace-meeting was held in December 1916. By January 1918, strikes were breaking out, calling for an end of the war, the Social Democrats wanted a new form of government and, on 12 November 1918, the republic was proclaimed by Renner.
Renners government introduced an eight-hour workday and paid holidays, the party had moderate success in the 1920s, but its conflict with right wing forces escalated until it was defeated in the Austrian Civil War. The first republic was founded on principles from Machiavellis The Prince. The SDAPÖ played an important role in the establishment of the First Republic, on November 11,1918, Emperor Charles I relinquished his right to take part in Austrian affairs of state. The following day Karl Renner was declared Chancellor of the Republic of German-Austria, the party clearly wanted to steer Austria towards political union with Germany, calling the new Austrian republic Deutsch-Österreich. But the Treaty of St. Germain clearly forbade any unification between Austria and Germany, the SDAPÖ nevertheless still advocated such a union during the existence of the First Republic, as they hoped for a strengthening of their position and the socialist cause within a Greater Germany
Liberal National Party of Queensland
The Liberal National Party of Queensland is a conservative political party in Queensland, Australia. It was formed in 2008 by a merger of the Queensland divisions of the Liberal Party of Australia, at a federal level and in most other states the two parties remain distinct and operate as a more or less permanent Coalition. The LNP is a member of the Liberal Party, and has observer status within the National Party. Campbell Newman became the first LNP Premier of Queensland, the Newman Government was subsequently defeated by the opposition Labor Party at the 2015 election. Prior to the merger the National Party and Liberal Party had found themselves in frequent competition with one another for seats in Queensland since the 1970s, the Liberal Party and the National Party have been in a coalition at the federal level for all but a few years since 1923. In most parts of Australia the Liberal Party is the party, concentrated in urban areas. Competition between the two is thus minimised as the two attempt to win more seats combined than the Australian Labor Party, Queensland is Australias most decentralised state, the urban-rural divide is not as pronounced in Queensland as in the rest of Australia.
In other states, 60% or more of the lives in. These are areas where the National Party is stronger than the Liberal Party, as a result, the Country/National Party had more seats than the Liberal Party and its predecessors, and had been the senior partner in the non-Labor Coalition since 1924. The formation of the LNP was actually the third attempt to unite the non-Labor side in Queensland, in 1925, the United Party — the Queensland branch of the urban-based Nationalist Party — and the Country Party merged as the Country and Progressive National Party. This party won government in 1929 under former Queensland Country leader Arthur Edward Moore, in 1941, the Queensland divisions of the United Australia Party and Country Party merged as the Country-National Party, under Frank Nicklin of the Country side. However, this only lasted until 1944. During the 1970s, the Country Party began running candidates in the more urbanised south-east corner of the state, including the Brisbane area, in direct competition with the Liberals.
The Liberals pulled out of the Coalition in 1983, and the Nationals came up one seat short of a majority in their own right in the election that year. The Nationals persuaded two Liberals to cross over to them, and governed alone until their defeat in 1989, the other change in 1992 was the end of the old zonal electoral system for the Legislative Assembly, the sole chamber of the states parliament. As a result,40 of the 89 seats—almost half of the seats in the legislature—were now based in Brisbane. It was now all but impossible to win a majority government without significant support in Brisbane, Labor was in government for all but three years from 1989 to 2012 in large part because it won at least 30 seats in greater Brisbane at every election. Even when it was consigned to opposition by the Rob Borbidge-led Coalition from 1996 to 1998
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola is the second-largest political party in Angola. Founded in 1966, Unita fought alongside the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola in the Angolan War for Independence, Unita was led by Jonas Savimbi from its foundation until his death in 2002. His successor as president of Unita is Isaías Samakuva, following Savimbis death, Unita abandoned armed struggle and participated in electoral politics. The party won 16 out of 220 seats in the 2008 parliamentary election, Jonas Savimbi and Antonio da Costa Fernandes founded Unita on March 13,1966 in Muangai in Moxico province in Portuguese Angola. 200 other delegates were present in the event, Unita launched its first attack on Portuguese colonial authorities on December 25,1966. Savimbi was originally affiliated with Holden Robertos National Liberation Front of Angola, Unita moved to Jamba in Angolas southeastern province of Cuando Cubango. Unitas leadership was drawn heavily from Angolas majority Ovimbundu ethnic group and its policies were originally Maoist and they aimed at rural rights and recognized ethnic divisions.
In years, Unita became more aligned with the United States, after the Portuguese withdrawal from Angola in 1974–75 and the end of their colonial rule, the MPLA and Unita splintered, and civil war began as the movements clashed militarily and ideologically. MPLA leader Agostinho Neto became the first president of post-colonial Angola, backed by Soviet and Cuban money and troops, the MPLA defeated the FNLA militarily and forced them largely into exile. Unita was destroyed in November 1975, but it managed to survive. Unita was hard-pressed but recovered with South African aid and was strengthened considerably by U. S. support during the 1980s, the MPLAs military presence was strongest in Angolan cities, the coastal region and the strategic oil fields. But Unita controlled much of the interior, notably the Bié Plateau. Up to 300,000 Angolans died in the civil war, in the 1980s and early 1990s, Savimbi sought out vastly expanded relations with the U. S. In 1986, U. S. conservatives convinced President Ronald Reagan to meet with Savimbi at the White House, under Savimbis leadership, Unita proved especially effective militarily before and after independence, becoming one of the worlds most effective armed resistance movements of the late 20th century.
According to the U. S. State Department, Unita came to control vast swaths of the interior, critics, on the other hand, responded that the support given Savimbi and the Afghan mujahideen was inflaming regional conflicts at great expense to these nations. Furthermore, like the Angolan government it fought, was criticized for human rights abuses, fighting in Angola continued until 1989, with Unita advancing militarily, Cuba withdrew its support, removing several thousand troops that it had dispatched to Angola to fight Savimbis Unita. Meanwhile, an agreement was reached that provided for the removal of troops from Angola in exchange for the independence of Namibia from South Africa. In Angola, Savimbi told Johns and conservative leader Howard Phillips that he had not felt adequately consulted on the negotiations or agreement and was in opposition to it, there are a lot of loopholes in that agreement
Freedom Party of Austria
The Freedom Party of Austria is a right-wing populist and national-conservative political party in Austria. The party, led by Heinz-Christian Strache, is a member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom group in the European Parliament, as well as of the Movement for a Europe of Nations, the partys first leader was Anton Reinthaller, a former Nazi functionary and SS officer. When Jörg Haider was chosen as new FPÖ leader in 1986 and this new political course soon resulted in a strong surge in electoral support, although it led the SPÖ to break ties. In the 1999 legislative election the FPÖ won 26. 9% of the vote, its result in a nationwide election. This led the ÖVP to agree to form a government with the FPÖ in 2000. In 2005 increasing internal disagreements in the FPÖ led Haider and several leading members to defect and form the Alliance for the Future of Austria, since then, under Straches leadership, the party has again attracted an increase in its popular support. The FPÖ is a descendant of the pan-German and national liberal camp dating back to the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas, after a short civil war, the Federal State of Austria, an authoritarian Christian Social dictatorship, was established in 1934.
Both Socialists and Christian Socials were persecuted under the Nazi regime, the VdU won 12% of the vote in the 1949 general election, but saw its support beginning to decline soon afterward. It evolved into the FPÖ by 1955/56 after merging with the minor Freedom Party in 1955, a new party was formed on 17 October 1955, the first FPÖ party leader was Anton Reinthaller, a former Nazi Minister of Agriculture and SS officer. He had been asked by ÖVP Chancellor Julius Raab to take over the movement rather than let it be led by a more socialist-leaning group. While the majority of former Nazis had probably joined the two parties in absolute numbers, they formed a greater percentage of FPÖ members due to the partys small size. Nevertheless, none of them were real revolutionaries and they pursued pragmatic, the ÖVP and the FPÖ ran a joint candidate for the 1957 presidential election, who lost. Reinthaller was replaced as leader in 1958 by Friedrich Peter, who led the party through the 1960s and 1970s, in 1966 the ÖVP-SPÖ Grand Coalition which had governed Austria since the war was broken, when the ÖVP gained enough votes to govern alone.
In 1967 the more extreme faction in the FPÖ broke away and established the National Democratic Party, under the influence of Kreisky, a new generation of liberals brought the FPÖ into the Liberal International in 1978. During the years under Peter the party never won more than 8% of the vote in general elections. Liberal Norbert Steger was chosen as new FPÖ party leader in 1980, in an effort to gain popularity and his vision was to transform the FPÖ into an Austrian version of the German Free Democratic Party, focusing on free-market and anti-statist policies. In the 1980s, the Austrian political system began to change, the dominance of the SPÖ and ÖVP started to erode, SPÖ leader Bruno Kreisky had encouraged the FPÖs move to the centre, in order to establish an SPÖ-FPÖ alliance against the ÖVP. The 1983 general election was a watershed, the SPÖ lost its majority in Parliament
Politics of Argentina
Legislative power is vested in both the President and the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the Executive and the Legislature, elections take place regularly on a multi-party system. The government structure of Argentina is a democracy it contains the three branches of government, the current Chief of State and Head of Government is President Mauricio Macri. The General Auditing Office of the Nation and the Ombudsman are part of this branch, as of 1913, Argentina operated as a representative democracy. Since the 1930s, coups détat have disrupted this democracy, after World War II and Juan Peróns presidency, recurring economic and institutional crises fostered the rise of military regimes. Law 8871, or the Sáenz Peña Law of 1912 established universal and this marked the moment when the middle classes entered government, displacing the landowning elite. Female suffrage came in 1947, under Perón, Carlos Menem of the Justicialist Party served as president for ten years and made a pact with Alfonsín in order to achieve a 1994 constitutional reform that would allow him to be re-elected.
Following a neoliberal program, he ruled until 1999, and Fernando de la Rúa of the Alianza, led by the UCR and this marked the first time in decades that an Argentine president properly finished his term and passed on his charge to another democratically elected president. De la Rúa, could not manage a crisis and finally resigned on December 21,2001. Several short-lived interim presidents came and went until Congress chose Eduardo Duhalde of the Justicialist Party to rule until some sort of social, Duhalde took care of the most critical matters and called for democratic elections, which Néstor Kirchner of the Justicialist Party won. Kirchner took office on 25 May 2003, in December 2007 he stepped down to allow his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner to win election in his place. Representatives are elected by voting to the Argentine National Congress by party-list proportional representation. Traditionally, the UCR had more urban middle-class support and the PJ more labor support, most of the numerous political parties that emerged in the past two decades have their origins or even the bulk of their identity tied to them.
Smaller parties occupy various positions on the spectrum and a number of them operate only in certain districts. Provincial parties grew in popularity and number after the return of democracy in 1983 and this has in turn been a factor in the ongoing factionalism within the two principal parties at national and local levels. Historically, the labor and the armed forces have played significant roles in national life. Labors political power was weakened by free market reforms during the 1990s. They now seem to be returning to their position, since the current government focuses on a productive model with local industry as one of the top priorities
National Party of Australia
The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Traditionally representing graziers and rural voters generally, it began as the Australian Country Party in 1920 at a federal level and it would briefly adopt the name National Country Party in 1975, before adopting its current name in 1982. In Opposition the Coalition was usually maintained, but otherwise still generally continued to work in co-operation with the Liberal Party of Australia. In Queensland however, they were the coalition party between 1925 and 2008, after which they merged with the junior Liberal Party of Australia to form the Liberal National Party. The current federal leader and Deputy Prime Minister is Barnaby Joyce, both were elected in a party-room ballot on 11 February 2016, following the retirement of former leader and Deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss and the elevation of former deputy leader Joyce. Australias first Country Party was founded in 1912 by Harry J. Stephens, editor of The Farmer & Settler, the VFU won a seat in the House of Representatives at the Corangamite by-election held in December 1918, with the help of the newly-introduced preferential voting system.
At the 1919 federal election the state-based Country Parties won federal seats in New South Wales and they began to win seats in state parliaments. In 1920 the Country Party was established as a party led by William McWilliams from Tasmania. McWilliams would leave the Country Party to sit as an Independent, according to historian B. D. Graham, the graziers who operated the sheep stations were politically conservative. They disliked the Labor Party, which represented their workers, and feared that Labor governments would pass legislation and listen to foreigners. The graziers were satisfied with the organisation of their industry, opposed any change in land tenure and labour relations, and advocated lower tariffs, low freight rates. On the other hand, Graham reports, the farmers, not the graziers. The farmers advocated government intervention in the market price support schemes. The graziers often politically and financially supported the Country party, which in turn made the Country party more conservative, at the 1922 election, it won enough seats to deny the Nationalists an overall majority, and was the Nationalists only realistic coalition partner.
However, Page let it be known that his party would not serve under Hughes, Page entered negotiations with the Nationalists new leader, Stanley Bruce, for a coalition government. Pages terms were stiff—five seats in a Cabinet of 11, including the Treasurer portfolio, Bruce readily agreed, and the Bruce-Page Ministry was formed—thus beginning the tradition of the partys leader ranking second in Coalition cabinets. The coalition was re-formed under Archie Cameron in 1940, and continued until October 1941 despite the election of Arthur Fadden as leader after the 1940 Election, Fadden was well regarded within conservative circles and proved to be a loyal deputy to Menzies in the difficult circumstances of 1941. When Menzies was forced to resign as Prime Minister, the UAP was so bereft of leadership that Fadden briefly succeeded him, the two independents who had been propping up the government rejected Faddens budget and brought the government down