Sir George Williams affair
The Sir George Williams affair was a 1969 event at Sir George Williams University in Montreal, Canada, now a part of Concordia University. It was the largest student occupation in Canadian history, resulted in $2 million of property damage; the Sir George Williams Affair has been labelled as a riot when in fact was a peaceful protest until the riot police arrived. It all started in 1968 when six West Indian students accused biology professor Anderson of discrimination because of unfair grading; these accusations were laid against Anderson on May 1968. There was no meeting held to find a solution; this issue could have been resolved promptly but it was not taken by the administrators. Eight months students took matters into their own hands by organizing meetings, sit-ins and peaceful protests. There were additional events happening at the university and in the city of Montreal that contributed to the festering crisis and its destructive conclusion. In October 1968, a few months before the riot, Montreal hosted two conferences on the position of black people in society.
The first conference was hosted at the University and organized by black alumni and some professors and other members of the University. The first was a conference engaging Black organizations across Canada represented by Black leaders from Halifax to Vancouver. According to "Expression", a quarterly publication of the Negro Citizenship Association Inc the purpose of the conference was to examine the "problems in the Canadian society with reference to Black people." The second, "The Black Writers Conference" was hosted at McGill University. This conference was focused on "the ideology of Black Power and Black Nationalism"; the two conferences held weeks apart and at the two different venues reflected formal agreements to disagree on priorities and span of action: domestic versus international. Both of these conferences contributed to the tensions at Sir George Williams University. Other elements that contributed to the riots were a series of miscommunications between the students and the University administration, the nature of the University itself, an institution that encouraged non-traditional educational philosophy and accessible higher education to a wider range of students from different backgrounds and different social standings.
In Montreal, the estimated population of black people was 7,000 in 1961 which increased to 50,000 in 1968. McGill University was the first choice of University for many students but since they had a strict admission policy and had a quota for Jewish students, they could not be accepted. Sir George Williams University had a more lenient admissions policy and accepted students from various backgrounds. Classes were offered during the day and night, convenient for students. Sir George Williams University was popular among foreigners. Beginning on January 29, 1969, over 400 students occupied the university's computer lab; the occupation was sparked by the university's mishandling of racism allegations against professor Perry Anderson at the school. Fed up with what they considered to be intransigence on the part of the administration and white students left a meeting and occupied the university computer lab on the ninth floor of the Henry F. Hall Building. Most of the occupation was quite peaceful: the police were not involved, negotiations continued.
Some claim that the computer lab was not damaged, except for several million computer punched cards that were sent fluttering to the street below. The damage was listed in millions of dollars, it is unknown. The police accused the occupiers of the damages, while the occupiers accused the police of setting the fire as an easy way to get all the students out of the room without physically entering it. Other students claim that they saw police locking doors and exits that were open and police confiscated fire axes from students the day before the fire was set; the occupation continued until February 11 when negotiations broke down and riot police were called in. A fire broke out in the computer lab. Once in custody, they were divided by race; the computer lab was destroyed. Windows were broken and computer tapes and punched cards tossed onto the street below; the charges against most of the rioters were dismissed. Several of the occupiers had privileged backgrounds. Arrested was Anne Cools, now a Canadian Senator.
Involved was student Cheddi "Joey" Jagan, Jr. son of Guyana's prime minister. The riot was covered extensively by the Canadian media: all of the television networks filmed the event live from outside the university; the occupation became a key event illustrating the widespread disaffection and rebelliousness among the nation's youth during the 1960s. Assistant professor Perry Anderson was suspended for the duration of the crisis, he was reinstated on February 12, 1969, on June 30, The Hearing Committee appointed to the case found that "there was nothing in the evidence to substantiate a general charge of racism". He was found not guilty of racism towards the six complainants; the Computer Centre incidence forced a number of changes on the Sir George Williams University: Student representation on university decision-making bodies was establis
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and high schools. In higher education, the students' union is accorded its own building on the campus, dedicated to social, organizational activities and academic support of the membership. In the United States, student union only refers to a physical building owned by the university with the purpose of providing services for students without a governing body; this building is referred to as a student activity center, although the Association of College Unions International has hundreds of campus organizational members. Outside the US, student union and students' union refer to a representative body, as distinct from a student activity centre. Depending on the country, the purpose, assembly and implementation of the group might vary. Universally, the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students in some fashion.
In some cases, students' unions are run by independent of the educational facility. The purpose of these organizations is to represent students both within the institution and externally, including on local and national issues. Students' unions are responsible for providing a variety of services to students. Depending on the organization's makeup, students can get involved in the union by becoming active in a committee, by attending councils and general meetings, or by becoming an elected officer; some students' unions are politicized bodies, serve as a training ground for aspiring politicians. Students' unions have similar aims irrespective of the extent of politicization focusing on providing students with facilities and services; some students' unions officially recognize and allocate an annual budget to other organizations on campus. In some institutions, postgraduate students are within the general students' unions, whereas in others they have their own postgraduate representative body. In some cases, graduate students lack formal representation in student government.
As mentioned before universally the purpose of students' union or student government is to represent fellow students. Many times student's unions focusing on providing students with facilities and services. Simple variations on just the name include the name differences between the United States and other countries. Depending on the country there are different methods of representation compulsory education to Higher education or tertiary. In Australia, all universities have one or more student organizations. Australian student unions provide such services as eateries, small retail outlets, student media and support for a variety of social, political, special interest and sporting clubs and societies. Most operate specialized support services for female, LGBT, international and indigenous students. Many expressed concerns over the introduction of voluntary student unionism in 2006. In 2011, the Government passed legislation to allow universities to charge students a compulsory service fee to fund amenities such as sporting facilities and counselling, as well as student media and "advocating students’ interests".
The legislation passed. The National Union of Students of Australia represents most undergraduate students' unions at a national level. Azerbaijan Students Union was established by students from Baku on 15 September 2008. ASU is an organization, established on basis of international experience and it was the first student organization which united students irrespective of gender, creed, nationality. During its action period ASU has formed stable structure, presented new suggestions about student policy to appropriate bodies, made close relations with international and regional student organizations, prepared new action plan according to the universities-students-companies' relations in Azerbaijan. ASU considered international relations important. For the first time ASU's delegates were participants of the First Asia IAESTE Forum in Shanghai during 12–15 November 2009. After that forum ASU established close relations with IAESTE, one of the biggest student exchange organizations; as a result of relations on 21 January 2010 ASU was accepted a member of IAESTE.
Our union gained right to represent Azerbaijan students in IAESTE. That membership was the union's first success on international level. During 20–27 January Azerbaijan Students Union was accepted as associative member of IAESTE in 64th Annual Conference in Thailand. Azerbaijan Students Union has been a full member of European Students' Union until 2015. In China, the student body is referred to as 学生会 or 学生联合会. Membership in different universities has different functions; some universities may give the membership a task of recording the students' attendance and the complex grades. Student associations of Chinese universities are under the leadership of Communist Youth League of China, which to a large extent limit its function as an organization purely belonging to students themselves. All universities in Hong Kong have students' unions. Most of these students' unions are members of the Hong Kong Federation of Students. Many secondary schools have students' unions or the equivalent. India
Daniel Roland Michener was a Canadian lawyer and diplomat who served as Governor General of Canada, the 20th since Canadian Confederation. Michener was educated in Alberta. In 1917 he served in the Royal Air Force, he acquired a university degree attended the University of Oxford as a Rhodes scholar. Michener returned to Canada and practised law before entering politics, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1957, where he served as Speaker until 1962, served in diplomatic postings between 1964 and 1967. After that he was appointed Governor General by Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada Lester B. Pearson, to replace Georges Vanier, he occupied the post until succeeded by Jules Léger in 1974. Michener proved to be a populist governor general whose tenure is considered to be a key turning point in the history of his office. On October 15, 1962, Michener was sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, he served on the boards of various corporations and charities and sat as Chancellor of Queen's University.
Michener was born in Alberta, to Senator Edward Michener and Mary E. Roland, he attended the University of Alberta, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Rhodes Scholarship that took him to Hertford College at the University of Oxford. There, he played for the Oxford University Ice Hockey Club and met Lester B. Pearson, who would be his lifelong friend. After completing his Master of Arts and Bachelor of Civil Law degrees, Michener returned to Canada, settled in Toronto and practised law. At the same time, he sat on the Executive Council of Ontario, acted as the General Secretary for the Rhodes Foundation in Canada between 1936 and 1964 and sat as chairman of the Manitoba Royal Commission on Local Government. On February 26, 1927, in St. Mary Magdalene Anglican Church, Michener married Norah Willis. Michener first ran for political office in Ontario's 1943 election as the Progressive Conservative candidate in the riding of St. David, but was defeated by William Dennison of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation.
Michener ran in St. David again in the 1945 election and defeated Dennison this time Michener was appointed to Premier George Drew's cabinet as Provincial Secretary and Registrar of Ontario, being responsible for formalising cabinet procedures, including agenda and minutes. In the 1948 provincial election, Dennison took St. David back from Michener. Michener tried to enter federal politics in the 1949 election but was unsuccessful, he was elected in the riding of St. Paul's. In 1956, the Progressive Conservative party chose John Diefenbaker as its leader at its leadership convention, in the election the following year the Tories attained a minority government. Michener was appointed Speaker of the House; as Speaker, Michener angered Diefenbaker by allowing the opposition a great degree of latitude during Question Period. Actions like these, among others, impressed parliamentary observers and a group of university professors initiated a campaign to make Michener's position as speaker permanent.
No such agreement, however came to pass, when Michener ran for re-election in 1962 he was defeated. This was the first time since 1867 that a speaker had lost his riding in an election in which his party formed the government. Michener returned to Toronto and dedicated his time to his law practice, Lang Michener LLP. In the 1963 federal election the Liberal Party under Michener's old friend, Lester Pearson, won a minority in the House. A year Pearson advised Governor General Georges Vanier to appoint Michener to the diplomatic post of high commissioner to India, which Michener took up on July 9, 1964. Six months Michener became Canada's first ambassador to Nepal. While stationed on those foreign duties, Michener was told by the Prime Minister that he would be considered among the leading candidates for the post of Governor General when he returned to Canada, but Vanier was in poor health and, though he offered to stay on as viceroy through to the end of the Canadian Centennial celebrations, Pearson did not wish to advise Queen Elizabeth II to allow it.
The night after he conferred with the prime minister about that matter, Vanier died on March 5 at Rideau Hall, leaving Chief Justice Robert Taschereau as Administrator of the Government in the absence of a viceroy. Michener was recalled from India and it was on March 29, 1967 that Queen Elizabeth II, by commission under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada, appointed Michener as the Queens representative on Pearson's advice. Although he was a Conservative, Liberal members of parliament and cabinet ministers welcomed the selection of Michener. People just felt that this was a good appointment." Michener was sworn in during a ceremony in the Senate chamber on April 17, after one of the shortest periods served by a Governor General-designate. Only ten days after Michener was made viceroy, he opened Expo 67 in Montreal; the exposition, held on the 100th anniversary of Confederation, attracted fifty-three heads of state and numerous other dignitaries.
Saint Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
St. Augustine is a town in the northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, it is the site of one of the four campuses of the University of the West Indies. St. Augustine is home to thousands of university students and is now being converted to a university town as the economy of the area is fuelled by the spending power of the 60 000 plus university population. Many houses in the general university area have been converted to students' accommodation, but due to the lack of fee regulation, they are more than double the cost of university housing. Four of the five halls of residence provided by the University are located here, namely St. John's Hall, Freedom Hall, Canada Hall, Trinity Hall. St. John's Road in St. Augustine is the main access road for Mount St. Benedict, one of the notable historic sites in Trinidad and Tobago. On the mount, one can find a Catholic Church along with a monastery and a factory where yogurt is made. On this road, there is the St. John the Baptist Roman Catholic Church; the church is opposite to a Community Centre, which underwent renovations and now houses a new field for the residents to engage in football, one of the more popular sports of this area.
St. Augustine is home to the Hugh Wooding Law School, a prestigious law school which attracts many inter-island students of the Caribbean and beyond. Further educational establishments include St. Augustine Girls' High School and Lakshmi Girls' Hindu College. In close proximity to the law school is the Seismic Research Center, the official source of information on earthquakes and volcanoes in the English-speaking Caribbean, it is the headquarters of the Sanatan Dharma Maha Sabha. Ian McDonald, writer, * 1933
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
University of the West Indies
The University of the West Indies University College of the West Indies, is a public university system established to serve the higher education needs of the residents of 17 English-speaking countries and territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands; each country is either a member of the Commonwealth of a British Overseas Territory. The aim of the university is to help'unlock the potential for economic and cultural growth' in the West Indies, thus allowing improved regional autonomy; the University was instituted as an independent external college of the University of London. The University has produced students who have excelled in a number of disciplines such as the arts and sciences, business and sports. Notable alumni and faculty include three UWI Nobel Laureates, 72 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Gates Cambridge Scholarship winners, 18 current or former Caribbean Heads of Government, an Olympic medallist.
The university's cricket team participated in West Indian domestic cricket, but now participates as part of a Combined Campuses and Colleges team. The university was founded in 1948, on the recommendation of the Asquith Commission through its sub-committee on the West Indies chaired by Sir James Irvine; the Asquith Commission had been established in 1943 to review the provision of higher education in the British colonies. In a special relationship with the University of London, the University College of the West Indies was seated at Mona, about five miles from Kingston, Jamaica; the university was based at the Gibraltar Camp used by evacuated Gibraltarians during the war. Seeking to address a need for medical care the first faculty established; the foundation stone for a hospital was added in 1949 and the University College Hospital of the West Indies opened in 1953. On 18 January 1953, Sir Winston Churchill visited the hospital on 18 January 1953 and unveiled a plaque in recognition of the contribution made by the government of the United Kingdom to the hospital.
The hospital was renamed the University Hospital of the West Indies in 1967 when the University gained full university status. The hospital offers patient care, the hospital facilitates research and teaching along with the Medical Services department of the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies; the University College achieved independent university status in 1962. The St Augustine Campus in Trinidad the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, was established in 1960, followed by the Cave Hill Campus in Barbados in 1963. Before the establishment of the Open Campus, University Centres, headed by a Resident Tutor, were established in each of the other 13 contributing territories. In 1950, HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, the last surviving granddaughter of Queen Victoria, became the first Chancellor of the University College of the West Indies. Sir William Arthur Lewis was the first Vice-Chancellor under the UWI’s independent Charter. A native of St Lucia, he served as the first West Indian Principal of the UCWI from 1958 to 1960 and as Vice-Chancellor from 1960 to 1963.
He was succeeded by Sir Philip Sherlock who served as Vice-Chancellor from 1963 to 1969. Sir Roy Marshall, a Barbadian, was the next Vice-Chancellor, serving from 1969 to 1974, he was succeeded by Dr Aston Zachariah Preston, a Jamaican, who died in office on 24 June 1986, having served from 1974. The fifth Vice-Chancellor was Sir Alister McIntyre, who served from 1988 to 1998, followed by alumnus and Professor Emeritus Rex Nettleford who served from 1998 to 2004; the current Vice-Chancellor is Professor Sir Hilary Beckles, who succeeded Professor E. Nigel Harris in May 2015; the University of the West Indies Museum exhibits some of the university's history. The UWI is the largest, most longstanding higher education provider in the Commonwealth Caribbean, with four constituent campuses: Mona in Jamaica, St. Augustine in Trinidad and Tobago, Cave Hill in Barbados, an Open Campus serving 17 Caribbean island-nations; the following are the satellite campuses of the university: Mount Hope Campus in Mount Hope and Tobago Western Jamaica Campus in Montego Bay, Jamaica Centre for Hotel and Tourism Management in Nassau, Bahamas The other contributing countries are served by the Open Campus.
Various islands have proposed adding further campuses to the UWI system this includes Hope and Five Islands and Barbuda The Open Campus was established to improve services to the non-campus territories. It brought together several existing UWI units, namely the University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre, the School of Continuing Studies, the Tertiary Level Institutions Unit, the Office of the Board for Non-Campus Countries & Distance Education; the Extra-Mural Department was first established in 1947 when UWI was still the University College of the West Indies. As it developed into the School of Continuing Studies, it incorporated the Caribbean Child Development Centre, the Hugh Lawson Shearer Trade Union Education Institute, the Human Resources Development Unit, the Social Welfare Training Centre and the Women and Development Unit; the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment was an initiative funded by a USD 600,000 grant from USAID. The telecommunications sys