Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Sheffield is a multi-campus university predominantly over two areas, the Western Bank and the St Georges. The university is organised into five academic faculties composed of multiple departments, Sheffield was placed 84th worldwide by The QS World University Rankings 2016. In 2011, Sheffield was named University of the Year in the Times Higher Education awards, the Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories. There are seven Nobel Prize laureates amongst Sheffield academics, six of which are its alumni or former staff, the University of Sheffield was originally formed by the merger of three colleges. Firth College helped to fund the opening of the Sheffield Technical School in 1884 to teach applied science, the only major faculty the existing colleges did not cover.
The Sheffield Technical School was founded because of concern about the need for technical training, particularly steelmaking in Sheffield. The three institutions merged in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield by Royal Charter, Sheffield was the only large city in England without a University. Steelworkers, coal miners, factory workers and the people of Sheffield donated over £50,000 in 1904 to help found the University of Sheffield and it was originally envisaged that the University College would join Manchester and Leeds as the fourth member of the federal Victoria University. In July 1905, Firth Court on Western Bank was opened by King Edward VII, St Georges Square remained the centre of departments of Applied Science, and the departments of Arts and Science moved to Western Bank. Sheffield is one of the six red brick universities, the universities founded in the major industrial cities of England. In 1905, there were 114 full-time students, and the first Hall of Residence, the number of students increased to a short-lived peak of 1,000 in 1919.
During the First World War, some of the subjects and courses were replaced by teaching of munitions making. Rather than from a centre, the university has expanded since the 1920s from two ends, the Firth Court on Western Bank and the Sir Frederick Mappin Building on the St Georges site. In 1943, the University Grants Committee announced that universities in the UK should look forward to expansion in the years after the Second World War, Sheffield predicted a 50% increase in student population but the university was unprepared for such growth. There was pressure on the university to expand since the student numbers had increased from around 1,000 to 3,000 by 1946, the university grew slowly until the 1950s and 1960s when it began to expand rapidly. Many new buildings were built and older houses were brought into academic use, Student numbers increased to their present levels of just under 26,000. At the same time in the 1950s, the university was expanding at other sites, from the 1960s, many more buildings have been constructed or extended, including the Union of Students and St Georges Library
Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle. Bos can be divided into four subgenera, Bibos and Poephagus, the genus has five extant species. However, this may rise to seven if the domesticated varieties are counted as separate species, most modern breeds of domesticated cattle are believed to have originated from the extinct aurochs. Most species are grazers, with long tongues to twist the plant material they favor and they are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach that allows them to break down plant material. There are about 1.3 billion domestic cattle alive today, members of this genus are currently found in Africa, Asia and western Europe, parts of North America, South America and in Oceania. Their habitats vary greatly depending on the species, they can be found in prairies, rain forests, savannas. Most Bos species have a lifespan of 18–25 years in the wild and they have a 9–11 month gestation, depending on the species and birth one, or rarely two young in the spring. Most species travel in herds ranging in size from 10 members into the hundreds, within most herds, there is one bull for all the cows.
Dominance is important in the herds, calves will usually inherit their mothers position in the hierarchy and they are generally diurnal, resting in the hot part of the day and being active morning and afternoon. In areas where humans have encroached on the territory of a herd, some species are migratory, moving with food and water availability. Modern species of Bos are thought to have evolved from a single ancestor and this particular species survived until the early 17th century when it was hunted to extinction as the last aurochs, a female, died in Poland. Bovine genome Bull Bull versus bear Briggs, H. M. and Briggs, usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals, conserved. De Oeros – Het spoor terug, Cis van Vuure, Wageningen University and Research Centrum / Ministry of the Flemish Community, a record of Bos primigenius from the Quaternary of the Aba Tibetan Autonomous Region. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Volume XXII No.3 pp.
239–245, translated by Jeremy Dehut, April 1991. A monograph of the genus Bos
Homo sapiens is the binomial nomenclature for the only extant human species. Homo is the genus, which includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, the binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus. The Latin noun homō means man, human being, subspecies of H. sapiens include Homo sapiens idaltu and the only extant subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Some sources show Neanderthals as a subspecies, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies, but these last two subspecies classifications are not widely accepted by scientists. Traditionally, there are two competing views in paleoanthropology about the origin of H. sapiens, the recent African origin, since 2010, genetic research has led to the emergence of an intermediate position, characterised by mostly recent African origin plus limited admixture with archaic humans.
The recent African origin of humans is the mainstream model that describes the origin. The theory is called the Out-of-Africa model in the press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis, Replacement Hypothesis. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin was published in Charles Darwins Descent of Man, the concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens. The recent single origin of humans in East Africa is the near-consensus position held within the scientific community. However, recent sequencing of the full Neanderthal genome suggests Neanderthals, the authors of the study suggest that their findings are consistent with Neanderthal admixture of up to 4% in some populations. But the study suggests that there may be other reasons why humans. That study however does not explain why only a fraction of humans have Neanderthal DNA. The multiregional origin model provides an explanation for the pattern of evolution proposed by Milford H.
Wolpoff in 1988. Scientific study of evolution is concerned, with the development of the genus Homo. Modern humans are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu, the known subspecies, is now extinct. Similarly, the specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
Flowstones are composed of sheetlike deposits of calcite or other carbonate minerals, formed where water flows down the walls or along the floors of a cave. They are typically found in caves, in limestone, where they are the most common speleothem. However, they may form in any type of cave where water enters that has picked up dissolved minerals, flowstones are formed via the degassing of vadose percolation waters. Flowstone may form on manmade structures as a result of calcium hydroxide being leached from concrete and these secondary deposits created outside the cave environment, which mimic the shapes and forms of speleothems, are classified as calthemites and are associated with concrete degradation. Flowing films of water that move along floors or down positive-sloping walls build up layers of carbonate, gypsum. The flowstone forms when thin layers of these deposits build on each other, there are two common forms of flowstones and travertine. Tufa is usually formed via the precipitation of carbonate, and is spongy or porous in nature.
Travertine is a calcium carbonate deposit often formed in creeks or rivers, its nature is laminated, the deposits may grade into thin sheets called draperies or curtains where they descend from overhanging portions of the wall. Some draperies are translucent, and some have brown and beige layers that look much like bacon, though flowstones are among the largest of speleothems, they can still be damaged by a single touch. The oil from human fingers causes the water to avoid the area. Flowstone derived from concrete, lime or mortar, can form on manmade structures, carbon dioxide is absorbed into the hyperalkaline leachate solution as it emerges from the concrete. This facilitates the chemical reactions which deposits calcium carbonate on vertical or sloping surfaces, concrete derived secondary deposits are classified as calthemites. These calcium carbonate deposits mimic the forms and shapes of speleothems and it is most likely that calthemite flowstone is precipitated from leachate solution as calcite, in preference to the other, less stable polymorphs and vaterite.
Other trace elements such as iron from rusting reinforcing or copper oxide from pipework may be transported by the leachate and this may cause the calthemites to take on colours of the leached oxides. Cave onyx is any of various kinds of flowstone considered desirable for ornamental architectural purposes, there are a number of US caves called Onyx Cave because of the presence in them of such deposits
Cradle of Humankind
The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about 50 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Gauteng province. Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999, the site currently occupies 47,000 hectares, the registered name of the site in the list of World Heritage Sites is Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa. The Sterkfontein Caves contain the discovery of a 2. 3-million-year-old fossil Australopithecus africanus, found in 1947 by Robert Broom, Sterkfontein alone has produced more than a third of early hominid fossils ever found prior to 2010. The Dinaledi Chamber contains over 1500 H. naledi fossils, the most extensive discovery of a hominid species ever found in Africa. The name Cradle of Humankind reflects the fact that the site has produced a number of hominin fossils ever found. In 1935, Robert Broom found the first ape-man fossils at Sterkfontein, in 1938, a young schoolboy, Gert Terrblanche, brought Raymond Dart fragments of a skull from nearby Kromdraai which were identified as Paranthropus robustus.
Also in 1938, a single tooth was found at the Coopers site between Kromdraai and Sterkfontein. In 1948, the Camp-Peabody Expedition from the United States worked at Bolts Farm and Gladysvale looking for fossil hominids, in 1948, Robert Broom identified the first hominid remains from Swartkrans cave. Brain began working at sites in the Cradle, including Coopers Cave and he soon would initiate his three-decade work at Swartkrans cave, it would result in the recovery of the second-largest sample of hominid remains from the Cradle. The oldest controlled use of fire by Homo erectus was discovered at Swartkrans. In 1966, Phillip Tobias began his excavations of Sterkfontein which are continuing and are the longest continuously running fossil excavations in the world. In 1994, Andre Keyser discovered fossil hominids at the site of Drimolen, in 1997, Kevin Kuykendall and Colin Menter of the University of the Witwatersrand found two fossil hominid teeth at the site of Gondolin. Also in 1997, the near-complete Australopithecus skeleton of Little Foot, in 2001, Steve Churchill of Duke University and Lee Berger found early modern human remains at Plovers Lake.
Also in 2001, the first hominid fossils and stone tools were discovered in-situ at Coopers, in 2008, Lee Berger discovered the partial remains of two hominids in the Malapa Fossil Site that lived between 1.78 and 1.95 million years ago. Cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered hominid fossils in an unexplored area of the Rising Star/Westminster Cave System assigned site designation UW-101. In November 2013, Lee Berger led a joint expedition of the University of the Witwatersrand, the site is still in the process of being dated. In the last days of the Rising Star Expedition, cavers Rick Hunter, preliminary excavations at this site, designated UW-102, have begun and yielded complete hominid fossil material of its own. It is unknown what the relationship of sites 101 and 102 is, hominids may have lived all over Africa, but their remains are found only at sites where conditions allowed for the formation and preservation of fossils
Historical Monuments Commission
The Historical Monuments Commission was the national heritage conservation authority of South Africa from 1923 to 1969. From 1934 onwards the Commission became known principally for its declaration of several hundred historical monuments, known as national monuments and it was the first government agency to be specifically tasked with conservation of the countrys heritage. Prior to its creation the only such protections had been limited powers afford the Minister of the Interior to control archaeology, under the 1923 Act the Commission was appointed by the Governor General and consisted of seven or more unpaid members. It had powers to identify monuments of the Union, but could not protect them other than by negotiating an agreement between the owner and a government agency, with an owners agreement it could control access to monuments and charge an entrance fee. In 1934 the Natural and Historical Monuments Act of 1923 was replaced by the Natural and Historical Monuments and Antiques Act, the new act retained the Commission with the same membership provisions as previously and now fell under the responsibility of the Minister of the Interior.
The major difference between this act and its predecessor was that the HMC could now, employ staff, erect information tablets explaining the significance of a heritage site. During the 46 years of its existence the HMC proclaimed around 300 historical monuments and this logo remained the symbol for heritage conservation in South Africa up to the establishment of SAHRA in 2000. Under the 1923 Act the Commission was responsible for raising its own funds from donations and subscriptions, the 1934 Act retained similar provisions and throughout its existence, and unlike its successors, the organisation received no funding from State coffers. 406, No 19974, Cape Town,28 April 1999 National Heritage Act, Government Notice 287, Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia, No
The Waterberg is a mountainous massif of approximately 14,500 square kilometers in north Limpopo Province, South Africa. The average height of the range is 600 m with a few peaks rising up to 2000 m above sea level. Vaalwater town is located just north of the mountain range, the extensive rock formation was shaped by hundreds of millions of years of riverine erosion to yield diverse bluff and butte landform. The ecosystem can be characterised as a dry deciduous forest or Bushveld, within the Waterberg there are archaeological finds dating to the Stone Age, and nearby are early evolutionary finds related to the origin of humans. Waterberg is the first region in the part of South Africa to be named as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. The underlying rock formation derives from the Kaapvaal Craton, formed as an island roughly 2.7 billion years ago. This crustal formation became the base of the Waterberg, which was transformed by upward extrusion of igneous rocks. These extruded rocks, containing minerals such as vanadium and platinum, are called the Bushveld Igneous Complex, the original extent of this rock upthrust involved about 250,000 square kilometers, and is sometimes called the Waterberg Supergroup.
Sedimentary deposition from rivers cutting through Waterberg endured until roughly 1.5 billion years ago, in more recent time the Kaapvaal craton collided with the supercontinent Gondwana, and split Gondwana into its modern-day continents. Waterberg today contains mesas and some kopje outcrops, some of cliffs stand up to 550 meters above the plains, with exposed multi-coloured sandstone. The sandstone formations could retain groundwater sufficient to make an environment for primitive man. The cliff overhangs offered natural shelters for these early humans, the first human ancestors may have been at Waterberg as early as three million years ago, since Makapansgat,40 kilometers distant, has yielded skeletons of Australopithecus africanus. Hogan suggests that Homo erectus, whose remains were discovered in Makapansgat. Bushmen entered Waterberg around two years ago. They produced rock paintings at Lapalala within the Waterberg, including depictions of rhinoceros, early Iron Age settlers in Waterberg were Bantu, who had brought cattle to the region.
The Bantu created a problem in Waterberg, since cattle reduced grassland caused invasion of brush species leading to an outbreak of the tse-tse fly, the ensuing epidemic of sleeping sickness depopulated the plains, but at higher elevations man survived, because the fly cannot survive above 600 meters. Later people left the first Stone Age artifacts recovered in northern South Africa, archaeologists continue to excavate Waterberg to shed light on the Nguni culture and the associated dry-stone architecture. The first white settlers arrived in Waterberg in 1808 and the first naturalist a Swede appeared just before mid 19th century, around the mid 19th century, a group of Dutch travelers set out from Cape Town in search of Jerusalem
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct species of the australopithecines, the first of an early -form species to be classified as hominin. Recently it was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times, it is debated as being a direct ancestor of modern humans. A. africanus was of slender, or gracile and has found only in southern Africa at four sites, Sterkfontein, Makapansgat. Dart assigned the specimen the name Australopithecus africanus, it was dubbed the Taung child. This was the first time the word ape was formally assigned to any hominin, Dart theorized the Taung child skull must represent an intermediate species between apes and humans. And the rejection was buttressed by the widespread belief then, especially in British academia and he dismissed Darts claim, suggesting instead that the Taung child skull belonged to a young ape, most likely an infant gorilla or chimpanzee. Keith immersed himself in defending the Piltdown man and his reputation suffered greatly after the hoax was exposed in 1953, phillip Tobias, in a lengthy essay published in Current Anthropology in 1992, detailed the history of the investigation of the hoax.
As part of the essay Tobias debated the inconsistencies in Keiths statements, Darts theory—that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor—was supported by Robert Broom, a paleontologist with the Transvaal Museum of natural history in Pretoria. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult australopithecine, Broom classified an adult endocranial cast having a brain capacity of 485 cc as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In April 1947, while blasting at Sterkfontein, he and John T. Robinson discovered a skull belonging to a female which he classified as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. Both fossils were classified as Australopithecus africanus. Mrs. Ples, whose capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size. And, in comparison to modern apes, Dart noted as with the Taung child the lack of facial projection and it has slightly human-like, advanced cranial features, but presents primitive features including ape-like curved fingers adapted to tree climbing.
Both P. robustus and A. africanus crania seem very alike despite the heavily built features of P. robustus. A. africanus had a pelvis that would enable more efficient bipedalism than that of A. afarensis, such a morphology would support an earlier time for making and using tools than previously had been thought likely. Evidence of human-like sexual dimorphism in the spine has recently been described in the primate A. africanus. Recent analysis of the Little Foot specimen dated it to about 3, the Makapansgat fossils have been dated to between 3.0 and 2.6 mya. Those at Sterkfontein currently are dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 mya with the Mrs Ples fossil dating to around 2.0 million years, and Gladysvale fossils were dated between about 2.4 and 2.0 mya
Phillip V. Tobias
Phillip Vallentine Tobias FRS was a South African palaeoanthropologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He was best known for his work at South Africas hominid fossil sites and he was an activist for the eradication of apartheid and gave numerous anti-apartheid speeches at protest rallies and to academic audiences. In 1945, he started his career as demonstrator in histology and he received his Bachelor of Science in Histology and Physiology in 1946–1947. In 1948 he was elected the first President of the National Union of South African Students and he graduated in Medicine, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1950. He was appointed as a lecturer in anatomy in 1951, in 1953, he received his Doctor of Philosophy for a thesis entitled Chromosomes, Sex-Cells, and Evolution in the Gerbil. In 1955, Tobias started his research at the University of Cambridge, England. The following year, at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the University of Chicago, he was the Rockefeller Traveling Fellow in anthropology, human genetics, and dental anatomy and growth.
In 1959, he became Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, succeeding his mentor and eminent scholar, in 1967, he was awarded a Doctor of Science in palaeoanthropology for his work on hominid evolution. During this period he attended the University of the Witwatersrand and he was Dean of Medicine from 1980 to 1982. He was appointed Honorary Professor of Palaeoanthropology at the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research in 1977, in 1981, Tobias became a founding member of the World Cultural Council. Tobias excavated at the Sterkfontein caves and worked at almost all major sites in Southern Africa since 1945. He opened some 25 archaeological sites in Botswana during the French Panhard-Capricorn Expedition while conducting a survey of the Tonga People of Zimbabwe. He was one of the instrumental in unmasking the Piltdown fraud. His research has mainly in the fields of paleoanthropology and the human biology of Africas various populations. He has studied the Kalahari San, the Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe and his best known work was on the hominids of East Africa, particularly those of the Olduvai Gorge.
Collaborating with Louis Leakey, Tobias identified and named the new species Homo habilis, Cambridge University Press published two volumes on the fossils of Homo habilis from the Olduvai Gorge. He is closely linked with the excavation at the Sterkfontein site. This site has yielded the largest single sample of Australopithecus africanus as well as the first known example of Homo habilis from Southern Africa and it is now a World Heritage Site