It was described in 1991 from subfossil material collected in 1976 by Storrs Olson from the calcareous Makawehi dunes on the south-eastern coast of the island of Kauai. Its remains have found at the nearby Makauwahi Cave site. The generic name Chelychelynechen comes from the Greek chelys, with chen, referring to the distinctly turtle-like appearance, the specific epithet is from the Latin quassus, alluding to the fragmentary condition of the type material. Apart from the head, the bird was similar to other species, with robust legs and reduced. The structure of this feeding apparatus appears convergent on that of tortoises and indicates adaptation to a diet of plants
According to the law of superposition and volcanic rock layers are deposited on top of each other. They harden over time to become a rock column, that may be intruded by igneous rocks. At a certain locality on the Earths surface, the rock provides a cross section of the natural history in the area during the time covered by the age of the rocks. This is to say that in a location, the geologic record can be and is quite often interrupted as the ancient local environment was converted by geological forces into new landforms. Sediment core data at the mouths of large drainage basins. By comparing overall formations, geologic structures and local strata, calibrated by those layers which are widespread, correcting for discordancies can be done in a number of ways and utilizing a number of technologies or field research results from studies in other disciplines. In this example, the study of layered rocks and the fossils they contain is called biostratigraphy and utilizes amassed geobiology, fossils can be used to recognize rock layers of the same or different geologic ages, thereby coordinating locally occurring geologic stages to the overall geologic timeline.
The pictures of the fossils of monocellular algae in this USGS figure were taken with an electron microscope and have been magnified 250 times. This is one form of discordancy and the means geologists use to compensate for variations in the rock record. This gives the pairing between the layers of the left column and the time units of the center column in the table at right
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail. The study of pollen is called palynology and is useful in paleoecology, archaeology. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen itself is not the male gamete, each pollen grain contains vegetative cells and a generative cell. In flowering plants the vegetative tube cell produces the pollen tube, pollen is produced in the microsporangia in the male cone of a conifer or other gymnosperm or in the anthers of an angiosperm flower. Pollen grains come in a variety of shapes, sizes. Pollen grains of pines and spruces are winged, the smallest pollen grain, that of the forget-me-not, is around 6 µm in diameter.
Wind-borne pollen grains can be as large as about 90–100 µm, in angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a partially differentiated dermis. As the flower develops, four groups of cells form within the anther. The fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac. Some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells, in a process called microsporogenesis, four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the exine is what is preserved in the fossil record. Two basic types of microsporogenesis are recognised and successive, in simultaneous microsporogenesis meiotic steps I and II are completed prior to cytokinesis, whereas in successive microsporogenesis cytokinesis follows.
While there may be a continuum with intermediate forms, the type of microsporogenesis has systematic significance, the predominant form amongst the monocots is successive, but there are important exceptions. During microgametogenesis, the unicellular microspores undergo mitosis and develop into mature microgametophytes containing the gametes, in some flowering plants, germination of the pollen grain may begin even before it leaves the microsporangium, with the generative cell forming the two sperm cells. Except in the case of submerged aquatic plants, the mature pollen grain has a double wall
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. Such interpretations aid the reconstruction of past environments, paleoecologists have studied the fossil record to try to clarify the relationship animals have to their environment, in part to help understand the current state of biodiversity. They have identified links between vertebrate taxonomic and ecological diversity, that is, between the diversity of animals and the niches they occupy. The aim of paleoecology is therefore to build the most detailed model possible of the environment of previously living organisms found today as fossils. Such reconstruction takes into consideration complex interactions among environmental factors such as temperatures, food supplies, often much of this information is lost or distorted by the fossilization process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, making interpretation difficult. The environmental complexity factor is normally tackled through statistical analysis of the numerical data.
Much of the original research has focused on the last two million years, because older environments are less well represented in the fossil timeline of evolution. Indeed, many studies concentrate on the Holocene epoch, or the last glacial stage of the Pleistocene epoch, such studies are useful for understanding the dynamics of ecosystem change and for reconstructing pre-industrialization ecosystems. Many public policy decision-makers have pointed to the importance of using palaeoecological studies as a basis for choices made in conservation ecology, historical ecology Palaeogeography Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Fox D. Taylor, P. D. and Wilson, M. A.2003, Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities
Cordia subcordata is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, that occurs in eastern Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific Islands. The plant is known by a variety of names including Mareer, Kerosene wood, Snottygobbles, Narrow-leafed Bird Lime Tree, Kanawa and Kou. In Java and Madura, it is known as Kalimasada, Purnamasada, or Pramasada, C. subcordata grows to 7–10 m at maturity, but may be as tall as 15 m. It has ovate leaves that are 8–20 cm and 5–13 cm wide, the tubular flowers of C. subcordata are 2. 5–4 cm in diameter and form cymes or panicles. Petals are orange and the sepals are pale green, blooming occurs throughout the year, but most flowers are produced in the spring. C. subcordata produces fruit year round and they are spherical, 2–3 cm long, and woody when mature. Each fruit contains four or fewer seeds that are 10–13 mm long, the fruit are buoyant and may be carried long distances by ocean currents. C. subcordata is a tree of the coasts, found at elevations from sea level to 30 m and it grows in areas that receive 1, 000–4,000 mm of annual rainfall. C. subcordata prefers neutral to alkaline soils, such as originating from basalt, clay.
Allowable soil textures include sand, sandy loam, sandy loam, sandy clay, clay loam. The seeds are edible and have been eaten during famine, C. subcordata burns readily, and this led to the nickname of Kerosene Tree in Papua New Guinea. The wood of the tree has a gravity of 0.45, is soft, easily worked. In ancient Hawaiʻi kou wood was used to make ʻumeke, utensils, ʻUmeke lāʻau were 8–16 litres and used to store and ferment poi. The flowers were used to make lei, while a dye for kapa cloth, media related to Cordia subcordata at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cordia subcordata at Wikispecies Cordia subcordata. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife
Sugar plantations in Hawaii
The sugar grown and processed in Hawaii was shipped primarily to the United States and, in smaller quantities, globally. Industrial sugar production started slowly in Hawaii, the first sugar mill was created on the island of Lanaʻi in 1802 by an unidentified Chinese man who returned to China in 1803. The first sugarcane plantation, known as the Old Sugar Mill of Koloa, was established in 1835 by Ladd & Co. and in 1836 the first 8,000 pounds of sugar, by the 1840s, sugarcane plantations gained a foothold in Hawaiian agriculture. Steamships provided rapid and reliable transportation to the islands, and demand increased during the California Gold Rush, the land division law of 1848 displaced Hawaiian people from their land, forming the basis for the sugarcane plantation economy. In 1850, the law was amended to allow residents to buy. In 1850, when California became a state, profits declined, market demand increased even further during the onset of the American Civil War which prevented Southern sugar from being shipped northward.
The price of sugar rose 525% from 4 cents per pound in 1861 to 25 cents in 1864, the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 allowed Hawaii to sell sugar to the United States without paying duties or taxes, greatly increasing plantation profits. This treaty guaranteed all of the resources including land, human labor power, capital. The 1890 McKinley Tariff Act, an effort by the United States government to decrease the competitive pricing of Hawaiian sugar, after significant lobbying efforts, this act was repealed in 1894. By 1890, 75% of all privately held land was owned by foreign businessmen, the plantation owners wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so that Hawaiian sugar would never again be subject to tariffs. They wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so there could be a U. S military base on the island, the industry was tightly controlled by descendants of missionary families and other Caucasian businessmen, concentrated in corporations known in Hawaii as The Big Five. These included Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C and this control of commodity distribution kept Hawaiians burdened under high prices and toiling under a diminished quality of life.
These businessmen had perfected the double-edged sword of a labor force dependent upon plantation goods. Close ties as missionaries to the Hawaiian monarchy along with capital investments, cheap land, cheap labor, Alexander & Baldwin acquired additional sugar lands and operated a sailing fleet between Hawaii and the mainland, the shipping concern became American-Hawaiian Line, and Matson. Later the sons and grandsons of the missionaries played central roles in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893. In 1898, the Republic of Hawaii was annexed by the United States and became the Territory of Hawaii, when Hawaiian plantations began to produce on a large scale, it became obvious that a labor force needed to be imported. The Hawaiian population was 1/6 its pre-1778 size due to ravaging disease brought by foreigners, Hawaiian people saw little use for working on the plantations when they could easily subsist by farming and fishing. Plantation owners quickly began importing workers which dramatically changed Hawaii’s demographics and is an example of globalization
Māhāʻulepū Beach is a beach on the southeast coast of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. The beach is separated into three different parts, Gillins Beach, Kawailoa Bay, and Hāʻula Beach, the beach offers protection from the surf in parts and can be great for swimming. Māhāulepū, Island of Kauai Reconnaissance Survey, John R. K. Beaches of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mahaulepu Beach Additional Mahaulepu Beach Information Info on Poipu Beaches
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
A sinkhole, known as a cenote, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline, is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes—for example, the dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms, sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide. Sinkholes may capture surface drainage from running or standing water, but may form in high. Sinkholes that capture drainage can hold it in limestone caves. These caves may drain into tributaries of larger rivers, the formation of sinkholes involves natural processes of erosion or gradual removal of slightly soluble bedrock by percolating water, the collapse of a cave roof, or a lowering of the water table. Sinkholes often form through the process of suffosion, for example, groundwater may dissolve the carbonate cement holding the sandstone particles together and carry away the lax particles, gradually forming a void.
Occasionally a sinkhole may exhibit a visible opening into a cave below, sinkholes occur in sandstone and quartzite terrains. As the rock dissolves and caverns develop underground and these sinkholes can be dramatic, because the surface land usually stays intact until there is not enough support. Then, a collapse of the land surface can occur. Sinkholes form from human activity, such as the collapse of abandoned mines and salt cavern storage in salt domes in places like Louisiana, more commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when old pipes give way. They can occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater, sinkholes can form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Sinkholes tend to occur in karst landscapes, karst landscapes can have up to thousands of sinkholes within a small area, giving the landscape a pock-marked appearance. These sinkholes drain all the water, so there are only subterranean rivers in these areas, examples of karst landscapes with a plethora of massive sinkholes include Khammouan Mountains and Mamo Plateau.
The largest known sinkholes formed in sandstone are Sima Humboldt and Sima Martel in Venezuela, some sinkholes form in thick layers of homogenous limestone. On the contact of limestone and insoluble rock below it, powerful underground rivers may form, in such conditions, the largest known sinkholes of the world have formed, like the 662-metre deep Xiaozhai Tiankeng, giant sótanos in Querétaro and San Luis Potosí states in Mexico and others. The state of Florida in the United States is known for having frequent sinkhole collapses, the Murge area in southern Italy has numerous sinkholes. Sinkholes can be formed in retention ponds from large amounts of rain, an analysis of a case of sinkhole formation under a retention pond due to a large amount of rain can be seen in a sinkhole collapse study
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel.
Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language.
The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length