Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
"Love Someone" is a song by American singer-songwriter Jason Mraz. It was released on May 19, 2014, on Atlantic Records as the lead single from his fifth studio album, Yes!. Mraz and Mike Mogis produced the song, it was written by Mraz, Chris Keup and Stewart Myers, along with members of the indie-rock-folk band Raining Jane. They served as his band on the record. Mraz has been working with other artists in this way since 2007. Download digitalLove Someone — 4:16Download digital Love Someone — 3:31 Love Someone — 4:53 Jason Mraz – vocals, production
The Melkweg is a popular music venue and cultural center in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It is located on the Lijnbaansgracht, near the Leidseplein - the prime nightlife square of Amsterdam, it is divided into a number of spaces of varying sizes. Besides four halls for varying genres of music concerts, the venue houses a cinema, a restaurant and an exhibition space; the Melkweg is run by a nonprofit organisation that has existed since 1970. In the 19th century a sugar refinery was established at the Lijnbaansgracht. In 1920, the milk company OVVV bought the factory; until 1969, the OVVV housed before closing. The building was closed for a year, but reopened as a cultural center in 1970, it was only open for the summer and featured a café, a restaurant and one hall for music and theatre. Because of the success the Melkweg reopened in the summer of 1971 and 1972 before becoming a permanent venue since 1973. In the years that followed the Melkweg became one of the most important pop venues of Amsterdam and the Netherlands.
A meeting place for hippies in the seventies and eighties, the Melkweg embraced all music styles and has evolved into a multidisciplinary center for all music styles. The venue has 6 halls: The Max, the largest concert hall of the venue, it hosted internationally known acts like Prince or Arctic Monkeys, but is used for parties and film projections. It has a capacity of 1,500 people and opened in late 1995, it was renovated in 2007. The Old Hall, the oldest concert hall of the venue the only one until the opening of "The Max" in 1995, it hosts concerts of lesser-known acts, bands such as U2 or Nirvana played their first Dutch concerts here. Grateful Dead played an unscheduled show here on October 1981 using borrowed instruments, it has a capacity of 700 people. The Rabo Hall, in a separated building, hosts film projections or theater plays, it has a capacity of 1400 people. The Theater Hall, a small hall used for smaller artists and theater plays, it has a capacity of between 130 people. The Cinema, a private film projection hall with a capacity of 90 people.
The Exhibition space, used for art exhibitions. Melkweg is referenced in the Cracker song "Euro-Trash Girl", the Lagwagon song "Infectious" and in title of the Half Man Half Biscuit song "Prag Vec at the Melkweg"; the title of The Church's song "Under the Milky Way" is a reference to the Melkweg. Heather Nova's 1995 EP "Live from the Milky Way" was recorded here as was Spacemen 3's album Performance. Frank Black And The Catholics recorded there live on March 24, 2001 on "Live From Melkweg". Media related to Melkweg at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Gracht is a Dutch word for a canal within a city. Grachten have a round shape and form a circle around the city cores in the Netherlands and northern Germany. Outside the Netherlands, the word grachten refer to the city canals of Amsterdam, for which it is well known; the word gracht cannot be translated. The streets are lined with houses in a closed front. In rare exceptions, there is only one street, on the other side of the waterway, the houses border on the water. A kanaal is a manmade watercourse in the countryside, whether or not it has streets along its banks. A vaart is a canal used for transport, rather than other purposes such as drainage. Like most kanalen, they are in the countryside. A singel is by origin a water-filled moat; when the city expands, the singel is incorporated in the city’s structure and can no longer be distinguished from a gracht, but the name singel is maintained. As such, singels encircle parts of the city; however in other cases regular grachten were dug in circles as well, like the famous Grachtengordel of Amsterdam.
Although the word gracht means "canal" or "waterway" in the general sense, there is no exact equivalent for the term in English. The word gracht stems from the older word graft, derived from graven, to dig; the Dutch language has had a sound shift. Other good examples are zacht. In some regional languages such as Frisian and Gronings, the word graft is still used. In Dutch, the word gracht is used only when canals are located inside the city, while canals outside a city are called kanaal. However, Venice is an exception. In Dutch, one does not say "de grachten van Venetië", but "de kanalen van Venetië". Toponyms for grachten are made by the suffixes -gracht, -singel, -wal, -vest, -kade; the suffix -diep is used in Groningen where it is a local word for a large canal. When a gracht is a remake of an old river, the river's name is used. Grachten were the life-lines of Flemish cities, they were used for many purposes: for transportation, for draining, as water supply and as sewers, all at the same time.
In populated cities, these combined functions proved to be detrimental to the public health. Most Hanseatic cities have grachten to load and to land goods in and from ships. In the Netherlands, the northeastern cities of Deventer, Kampen, Meppel, Sneek and Zwolle are renowned for their historical grachten. Other cities in the Netherlands, in the western part of the country, are touristic attractions because of their grachten Alkmaar, Gouda, Leiden and Weesp. Sometimes grachten were made like in Groningen. There the older river called. In Delft, the main gracht – Oude Delft – started as a drainage canal for reclaiming land in marshy surroundings: in a period around the year 1100, a canal was dug, making use of a natural creek in the marshy country; this canal was called Delf on Delft, from the word delven, akin to the verb to "delve" in English. This canal was used to drain the land at both sides. A second canal, called the Nieuwe Delft was dug through part of the settlement that had grown around the first.
The original canal became known as a name it still bears today. The rural village around Oude and Nieuwe Delft developed into a more urban area and the canals acquired the character of city-canals or grachten. A third canal was dug and changed into a gracht; the city and the grachten grew hand in hand. In 1246, this agglomeration was granted a city charter by the Count of Holland and became the City of Delft. A natural waterway was incorporated in the city and became a gracht as well. Circular canals or singels were surrounded the city. Fortifications were built along these singels and fixed the shape of the historical inner city of Delft; the characteristic, narrow grachten, perpendicular to the main grachten, developed from ditches, dug to drain and delimit the fields which preceded the city. When it was still a Dutch colony, Cape Town had a network of grachten, that were fed by the springs at the base of Table Mountain; these provided sanitation for the infant town. In the ensuing centuries, the grachten were covered over, but many of the prominent streets in the modern city centre still bear their names.
There is a project to restore some of these historic waterways. A function in every city was drainage. Rainwater flowed through these city-canals, they were used as a sewer. Because these functions are not needed any more, many grachten have been filled in to give access to road traffic. However, these new streets have retained the names of the grachts and singels they covered or replaced
Geek in the Pink
"Geek in the Pink" is a 2006 single by Jason Mraz from his album Mr. A–Z. In 2007, American Idol contestant Chris Richardson performed "Geek in the Pink", which subsequently garnered the song mass recognition and increased downloads at the United States iTunes Store. "Geek in the Pink" peaked at #22 on the U. S. iTunes Store on March 10, 2007, but it was ineligible for the site's Hot 100.. Canadian Idol contestant Greg Neufeld sang this song during the fifth season of Canadian Idol. "Geek in the Pink" - 3:55 "The Remedy" - 3:39 "Geek in the Pink" - 3:55 "No Stopping Us" - 6:10 "Geek in the Pink" "The Making of Mr. A-Z" This song was written by Jason Mraz, who went on to shoot a music video; the video starts with Jason Mraz in a pink shirt on the street in the city of Venice Beach, CA promoting his second studio album, Mr. A-Z, he wears a pink shirt that reads OTAKU. He continues to promote the record; the video moves to Jason sitting in the back of someone's truck listening to his own song, "Geek in the Pink."
The video moves from the city, to the boardwalk to the beach, while he is still promoting the new album. At one point on the boardwalk he wears pink flip-flop sandals; the video continues to show all of the previous shots, with the video ending with him and his two friends falling down on the beach at sunset. The video fades to black. Video premiered on December 19, 2005. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Viktualienmarkt is a daily food market and a square in the center of Munich, Germany. The Viktualienmarkt developed from an original farmers' market to a popular market for gourmets. In an area covering 22,000 m2, 140 stalls and shops offer flowers, exotic fruit, poultry, cheese, juices and so on. Most stalls and shops are open during the official opening hours. Many stalls close at 6 p.m. before the standard closing time. There are special opening hours for flower shops and restaurants; when today's Marienplatz as a store for cereals and other agricultural products had become too small, Viktualienmarkt as its official successor evolved where it is still situated today due to a decree issued by King Maximilian I on 2. May, 1807; the King ordered that those parts of the market between Heiliggeist Church and Frauenstraße should be relocated and told the municipal authorities to demolish the buildings of the charitable Heiliggeist hospice, acquired by the city. Thus the "green market" had its own place, named "market place" for some time.
It was only that the word "Viktualien", a Latin word for food, was used. From 1823 to 1829 the central market had to be enlarged significantly. In 1885 the ancient Heiliggeist infirmary was demolished and the Heiliggeist Church was extended to the west, thus a new image was created for the city. In 1852 the precursor of today's Großmarkthalle, the Schrannenhalle, was built close to the ancient city wall at the end of Blumenstraße, it burned down in 1932 and was reopened in 2005. In 1855 the fish market was moved to Westenriederstraße. In the course of time many additions were made to the market, as for example a butchers' hall, a tripe hall, pavilions for bakeries, fruit vendors and a fish hall; the butchers' shops at the foot of Petersbergl, the stalls for poultry and venison and the stands of the flower vendors expanded further. During World War II this square with its cosy atmosphere was damaged. There was talk of closing down the market in order to erect multi-story buildings on this important site.
Instead, the municipal authorities revitalised Viktualienmarkt with considerable financial support, the citizens of Munich enriched it with memorial fountains for the folk singers and comedians Karl Valentin, Weiß Ferdl and Liesl Karlstadt. Memorial fountains for the folk singers and comedians Ida Schumacher, Elise Aulinger and Roider Jackl were added. In a 2009 New York Times article about meals worth a plane trip across the Atlantic, food critic Mimi Sheraton picked a snack of sausages at the Viktualienmarkt; the market hosts a number of traditional and folkloric events such as weighing celebrities, brewers' day, gardeners' day, opening of the asparagus season, summer festival, dance of the market women on Shrove Tuesday, etc. Hence the Viktualienmarkt, a pedestrian zone since November 6, 1975 is a meeting point; the Viktualienmarkt is organized by the Wholesale Market Munich. The Wholesale Market Munich, together with Viktualienmarkt, Pasing Viktualienmarkt, Wiener Markt and the Weekly Markets in Munich, is a municipal company run by the City of Munich.
Media related to Viktualienmarkt at Wikimedia Commons Official website Panorama View
The Englischer Garten is a large public park in the centre of Munich, stretching from the city centre to the northeastern city limits. It was created in 1789 by Sir Benjamin Thompson Count Rumford, for Prince Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria. Thompson's successors, Reinhard von Werneck and Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell, advisers on the project from its beginning, both extended and improved the park. With an area of 3.7 km2, the Englischer Garten is one of world's largest urban public parks. The name refers to its English garden form of informal landscape, a style popular in England from the mid-18th century to the early 19th century and associated with Capability Brown; when the Elector of Bavaria Maximilian III Joseph, the last ruler from the Bavarian branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, died childless in 1777, his throne passed to Charles Theodore and elector of the Palatinate. The new ruler preferred his existing home in Mannheim on the Rhine to living in Bavaria and tried unsuccessfully to trade his unloved inheritance for the Austrian Netherlands.
Understandably, the people of Munich returned his disdain. To offset this unhappy atmosphere, Charles Theodore devoted much attention to improvements in the city. Among others, he created an art gallery in the northern arcades of the Residence's Hofgarten and made both the garden and the new gallery open to the public. While the Hofgarten was the only public park in Munich, not the primary motivation for the creation of the English Garden. Rather, it was part of a series of military reforms being pursued under the guidance of Sir Benjamin Thompson, the new Elector's chief military aide created Count Rumford and appointed as Bavarian war minister. Born in Massachusetts, Thompson had served on the Loyalist side in the American Revolutionary War, after the British defeat had returned to England before moving to continental Europe and entering Charles Theodore's service in 1784. In 1788 Thompson proposed that in peacetime the majority of the soldiers of the Elector's army should be given leave to do civilian work, such as farming and gardening.
In February 1789, Charles Theodore decreed that military gardens should be laid out in each garrison city, to provide soldiers with good agricultural knowledge and to serve as recreation areas, accessible to the public. The planned location of the Munich gardens was the area north of the Schwabinger city gate, a hunting ground of the Wittelsbach rulers since the Middle Ages. Known as the Hirschanger, the higher part of the hunting ground closer to the city was included in the scheme, while the Hirschau and further north, a more densely wooded part to the south known as the Hirschangerwald were not included; the whole area had been subject to flooding from the Isar, the river on which Munich stands, a little to the east. This problem was soon removed by the construction of a river wall in 1790, which became known as the "Riedl-Damm" after the engineer Anton von Riedl, who had supervised its construction; the laying out of the military garden was begun in July 1789, an area of 800 by less than 200 metres was made ready for cultivation, but soon the idea was extended to the creation of a public park, of which the military garden should be only a small part.
On August 13, 1789, Charles Theodore published a decree, devoting the Hirschanger to the amusement of the people of Munich. To advise on the project, the Royal Gardener Friedrich Ludwig Sckell who had studied landscape gardening in England and had worked for Charles Theodore at Schwetzingen, had been summoned to Munich earlier in August. Various associated projects were made part of the park development, among them the Elevengarten, a "Schweizerey", "Schäfery" and "Ackerbauschule" to improve farming techniques, a "Vihearzneyschule" for the treatment of cattle diseases. Most of these projects did not long survive the creation of the park, but the veterinary school went on to become what is now the Tierärztliche Fakultät of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich; the gateway from 1790 can be seen at the Veterinärstraße entrance to the garden. The park was named "Theodors Park", but it quickly became known by the descriptive name of "the English Garden". By May, 1790 sufficient progress had been made to allow Charles Theodore to make an inspection tour.
Thompson left Munich in 1798. His successor, Baron von Werneck, attempted to make the garden itself through its agricultural use. To that end he expanded the park in December 1799 to encompass the Hirschau, improved to provide pasture; the fields of the military gardens were added to the Englischer Garten in January 1800. Werneck's improvements had been costly, in 1804 he was replaced by Sckell, given the post of Bayerischer Hofgärtenintendant. Although Sckell had had a guiding role from the beginning, many aspects of the execution differed from his ideas, which he set out in a memorandum of 1807, his long supervision of the garden was marked by a movement away from agricultural uses and by concentration on the landscape garden. For instance, two mills at the point where the Schwabingerbach leaves t