Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Robert Nesta Marley, OM was a Jamaican singer and songwriter. Considered one of the pioneers of reggae, his musical career has been marked by blending elements of reggae and rocksteady, as well as forging a smooth and distinctive vocal and songwriting style. Marley's contributions to music increased the visibility of Jamaican music worldwide, made him a global figure in popular culture for over a decade. Born in Nine Mile, British Jamaica, Marley began his professional musical career in 1963, after forming Bob Marley & The Wailers; the group released its debut studio album The Wailing Wailers in 1965, which contained the single "One Love/People Get Ready". The Wailers subsequently went onto release eleven additional studio albums. During this period, Marley relocated to London, the group typified their musical shift with the release of the album The Best of The Wailers; the group attained international success after the release of the albums Catch a Fire and Burnin', forged a reputation as touring artists.
A year The Wailers disbanded, Marley continued to use band's name for which to release his solo material. His debut studio album, Natty Dread, received positive reception, as did its follow up Rastaman Vibration. A few months after the album's release, Marley survived an assassination attempt at his home in Jamaica, which prompted permanent relocation to London soon after. There, he recorded the album Exodus. Over the course of his career, Marley became known as a Rastafari icon, the singer sought to infuse his music with a sense of spirituality, he is considered a global symbol of Jamaican culture and identity, was controversial in his outspoken support for the legalization of marijuana, while he advocated for Pan-Africanism. In 1977, Marley was diagnosed with acral lentiginous melanoma, in 1981, he died as a result of the illness. Marley's fans around the world expressed their grief, he received a state funeral in Jamaica; the greatest hits album, was released in 1984, subsequently became the best-selling reggae album of all-time.
Marley ranks as one of the best-selling music artists of all-time, with estimated sales of more than 75 million records worldwide, while his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. He was posthumously honored by Jamaica soon after his death, as he was designated the nation's Order of Merit award. Bob Marley was born 6 February 1945 on the farm of his maternal grandfather in Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica, to Norval Sinclair Marley and Cedella Booker. Norval Marley was a white Jamaican from Sussex, whose family claimed Syrian Jewish origins. Norval claimed to have been a captain in the Royal Marines. Bob Marley's full name is Robert Nesta Marley, though some sources give his birth name as Nesta Robert Marley, with a story that when Marley was still a boy a Jamaican passport official reversed his first and middle names because Nesta sounded like a girl's name. Norval provided financial support for his wife and child but saw them as he was away. Bob Marley attended Stepney Primary and Junior High School which serves the catchment area of Saint Ann.
In 1955, when Bob Marley was 10 years old, his father died of a heart attack at the age of 70. Marley's mother went on to marry Edward Booker, a civil servant from the United States, giving Marley two step-brothers: Richard and Anthony. Marley and Neville Livingston had been childhood friends in Nine Mile, they had started to play music together while at Junior High School. Marley left Nine Mile with his mother when he was 12 and moved to Kingston. Cedella Booker and Thadeus Livingston had a daughter together whom they named Claudette Pearl, a younger sister to both Bob and Bunny. Now that Marley and Livingston were living together in the same house in Trenchtown, their musical explorations deepened to include the latest R&B from United States radio stations whose broadcasts reached Jamaica, the new ska music; the move to Trenchtown was proving to be fortuitous, Marley soon found himself in a vocal group with Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Beverley Kelso and Junior Braithwaite. Joe Higgs, part of the successful vocal act Higgs and Wilson, resided on 3rd St. and his singing partner Roy Wilson had been raised by the grandmother of Junior Braithwaite.
Higgs and Wilson would rehearse at the back of the houses between 2nd and 3rd Streets, it wasn't long before Marley, Junior Braithwaite and the others were congregating around this successful duo. Marley and the others didn't play any instruments at this time, were more interested in being a vocal harmony group. Higgs was glad to help them develop their vocal harmonies, although more he had started to teach Marley how to play guitar—thereby creating the bedrock that would allow Marley to construct some of the biggest-selling reggae songs in the history of the genre. In February 1962, Marley recorded four songs, "Judge Not", "One Cup of Coffee", "Do You Still Love Me
Ahimsa means'not to injure' and'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions. The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike. Ahimsa is referred to as nonviolence, it applies to all living beings—including all animals—in ancient Indian religions. Ahimsa is one of the cardinal virtues and an important tenet of Jainism and Buddhism. Ahimsa is a multidimensional concept, inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy. Ahimsa has been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences. While ancient scholars of Hinduism pioneered and over time perfected the principles of Ahimsa, the concept reached an extraordinary status in the ethical philosophy of Jainism. Most popularly, Mahatma Gandhi believed in the principle of ahimsa. Ahimsa's precept of'cause no injury' includes one's deeds and thoughts. Classical literature of Hinduism such as Mahabharata and Ramayana, as well as modern scholars debate principles of Ahimsa when one is faced with war and situations requiring self-defence.
The historic literature from India and modern discussions have contributed to theories of Just War, theories of appropriate self-defence. The word Ahimsa—sometimes spelled as Ahinsa—is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike. Nonviolence or Ahimsa is one of the cardinal virtues and an important tenet of Jainism and Buddhism, it is a multidimensional concept, inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy. It has been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences. While ancient scholars of Hinduism pioneered and over time perfected the principles of Ahimsa, the concept reached an extraordinary status in the ethical philosophy of Jainism. Parsvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara of Jainism, advocated for and preached the concept of nonviolence in around eighth-century BC. Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara further strengthened the idea in sixth-century BC. Ahimsa as an ethical concept evolved in Vedic texts.
The oldest scripts indirectly do not emphasise it. Over time, the Hindu scripts revise ritual practices and the concept of Ahimsa is refined and emphasised Ahimsa becomes the highest virtue by the late Vedic era. For example, hymn 10.22.25 in the Rig Veda uses the words Satya and Ahimsa in a prayer to deity Indra. The term Ahimsa appears in the text Taittiriya Shakha of the Yajurveda, where it refers to non-injury to the sacrificer himself, it occurs several times in the Shatapatha Brahmana in the sense of "non-injury". The Ahimsa doctrine is a late Vedic era development in Brahmanical culture; the earliest reference to the idea of non-violence to animals in a moral sense, is in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda, which may have been written in about the 8th century BCE. Bowker states the word is uncommon in the principal Upanishads. Kaneda gives examples of the word Ahimsa in these Upanishads. Other scholars suggest Ahimsa as an ethical concept that started evolving in the Vedas, becoming an central concept in Upanishads.
The Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the Vedic era use of the word Ahimsa in the sense familiar in Hinduism. It bars violence against "all creatures" and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths; some scholars state that this 8th or 7th-century BCE mention may have been an influence of Jainism on Vedic Hinduism. Others scholar state that this relationship is speculative, though Jainism is an ancient tradition the oldest traceable texts of Jainism tradition are from many centuries after the Vedic era ended. Chāndogya Upaniṣad names Ahimsa, along with Satyavacanam, Danam, Tapo, as one of five essential virtues; the Sandilya Upanishad lists ten forbearances: Ahimsa, Asteya, Daya, Kshama, Dhriti and Saucha. According to Kaneda, the term Ahimsa is an important spiritual doctrine shared by Hinduism and Jainism, it means'non-injury' and'non-killing'. It implies the total avoidance of harming of any kind of living creatures not only by deeds, but by words and in thoughts.
The Mahabharata, one of the epics of Hinduism, has multiple mentions of the phrase Ahimsa Paramo Dharma, which means: non-violence is the highest moral virtue. For example, Mahaprasthanika Parva has the verse: The above passage from Mahabharata emphasises the cardinal importance of Ahimsa in Hinduism, means: Some other examples where the phrase Ahimsa Paramo Dharma are discussed include Adi Parva, Vana Parva and Anushasana Parva; the Bhagavad Gita, among other things, discusses the doubts and questions about appropriate response when one faces systematic violence or war. These verses develop the concepts of lawful violence in self-defence and the theories of
A peace walk or peace march, sometimes referred to as a peace pilgrimage, is a form of nonviolent action where a person or groups of people march a set distance to raise awareness of particular issues important to the walkers. Europe is launching its first permanent Peace Walk Route, that will run along the former division between East and West Europe and end in Trieste, N-E Italy. A pan European network is working on its Design, it is set to open in 2014, to mark the 100th anniversary of World War I. One famous example was that of Vinoba Bhave, who undertook a peace walk with many of his followers throughout India for land reform. A recent peace walk campaign named Freedom Walk was organized by the Free Software Community in Kerala in 2008. 4 volunteers walked 750 miles from one end of the state to the other to promote Free Software. A peace walk was undertaken in 1962 by Satish Kumar and his companion who walked without money from India via the Soviet Union and the UK to the United States.
Vinoba gave 2 gifts to Satish and his companion: pennilessness, i.e. voluntary poverty, vegetarianism. Early in 1984, peace campers walked 26 miles from Daws hill to Naphill through country roads and countryside to raise money for The Angry Pacifist magazine; the King-Carter Freedom Peace Walk is a 1.5-mile walkway in Georgia's Freedom Park. It commemorates the only two Georgia winners of the Nobel Prize for Peace: Martin Luther King Jr. and Jimmy Carter. Various peace organizations throughout the United States have organized marches and vigils to protest the Iraq War, since before the war started in 2003, annually since. Sometimes these marches are coordinated to take place on the same day across the nation. In San Diego, the greatest number of anti-war protesters, an estimated 7,000, turned out for a demonstration on March 15, just five days before the beginning of the Iraq War. Peace walk for the Unity of Hungary, on the 29th of March, 2014. "The Interfaith Pilgrimage for Peace and Life" started in Auschwitz, Poland on December 8, 1994, ended in Nagasaki on the fiftieth anniversary of the Nagasaki bombing, 9 August 1995.
It was led by Nipponzan-Myōhōji Japanese Buddhist monks. The monks, were dwarfed in number by American, South American and Japanese lay people; the trip was organized to both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II as well as to be witness to the suffering in contemporary war zones. The group walked from Auschwitz to Vienna travelled through Croatia and Serbia, they crossed the front lines of the Bosnian war in Mostar and held a day of vigil and prayer there. The next leg took them through Israel, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Iraq; the group travelled across the front lines in Cambodia, where they joined the Dhammayietra, an annual Cambodian peace walk led by "the Gandhi of Cambodia" Maha Ghosananda. They visited war sites in Vietnam and the Philippines before going to Hiroshima and Nagasaki; this walk was one of many peace pilgrimages organized by the Nipponzan Myōhōji monks, but it was the largest in scale, number of participants and distance travelled. Over 1000 people participated in at least part of the pilgrimage, including Buddhists, Catholics and Jews.
The pilgrimage received books were written about it. "A Walk to Moscow" was a peace walk, one of many walks for peace in the 20th century. These were specially organized by groups of pacifists and peace activists who wanted to make some protest against the politics of war and the use of chemical and nuclear weapons. In the early 1960s, there was a walk across the United States and the USSR (its history is told in a book You Come with Naked Hands by Bradford Lyttle. In the 1980s, a group organized to walk across America and through Europe to Moscow to show solidarity with all people and to demonstrate in a grass roots way that all people are linked by their right to live on the earth in peace and safety; this walk was conceived by organizers while on another peace walk "A Walk for Survival" in 1980. While at a requested meeting with the Russian Consulate in San Francisco one organizer, Jack Chalmers asked if we continued our walk across America, Europe would we be allowed to walk to Moscow? The Consulate answered "of course".
"A Walk for Survival" ended at Bangor, Washington State at the site of a Trident nuclear submarine base, the organizers started planning "A Walk to Moscow". The walk started in Bangor on March 1, 1981 and reached the East Coast in time to winter it out in Boston, before flying to Europe in March 1982; the summer of 1982 was spent walking across the UK, France and Federal Republic of Germany The Walk operated by sending advance teams a few weeks ahead to cities and towns along a prospective path to set up press, speaking engagements and accommodations for the group. Decisions were made only by complete consensus, which led to long and stormy meetings; the German Democratic Republic had refused entry to the group, so they walked south to Bavaria and stayed there for the winter, while negotiating visas for Czechoslovakia and the USSR. A Walk to Moscow spent nearly a yea
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation. Sometimes draft evasion involves refusing to comply with the military draft laws of one's nation. Illegal draft evasion is said to have characterized every military conflict of the 20th and 21st centuries; such evasion is considered to be a criminal offense, laws against it go back thousands of years. There are many draft evasion practices; those that manage to adhere to or circumvent the law, those that do not involve taking a public stand, are sometimes referred to as draft avoidance. Those that involve overt lawbreaking or taking a public stand are sometimes referred to as draft resistance. Draft evaders are sometimes pejoratively referred to as draft dodgers, although in certain contexts that term has been used non-judgmentally or as an honorific. Draft evasion has been a significant phenomenon in nations as different as Colombia, France, South Korea and the United States.
Accounts by scholars and journalists, along with memoiristic writings by draft evaders, indicate that the motives and beliefs of the evaders cannot be stereotyped. Over the years and others have raised several large issues with regard to draft evasion; these observers have asked whether it is politically effective, whether it is a function of class privilege, whether it has positive or negative effects on democracy and community. There is no clear consensus on any of these issues. Young people have engaged in a wide variety of draft evasion practices around the world; some of these practices go back thousands of years. The following list does not aspire to be complete – one book from the counterculture of the 1960s enumerated over 1,000 supposed draft evasion practices in one nation alone; the purpose here is to delineate a representative sampling of draft evasion practices and support activities as identified by scholars and journalists. Examples of many of these practices and activities can be found in the section on draft evasion in the nations of the world, further down this page.
One type of draft avoidance consists of attempts to follow the letter and spirit of the draft laws in order to obtain a valid draft deferment or exemption. Sometimes these deferments and exemptions are prompted by political considerations. Another type consists of attempts to circumvent, manipulate, or surreptitiously violate the substance or spirit of the draft laws in order to obtain a deferment or exemption. Nearly all attempts at draft avoidance are unpublicized. Examples include: Claiming conscientious objector status on the basis of sincerely held religious or ethical beliefs. Claiming a student deferment, when one is in school in order to study and learn. Claiming a medical or psychological problem, if the purported health issue is genuine and serious. Claiming to be homosexual, when one is so and the military excludes homosexuals. Claiming economic hardship, if the hardship is genuine and the military recognizes such a claim. Holding a job in what the government considers to be an essential civilian occupation.
Purchasing exemptions in nations where such payments are permitted. Not being chosen in a draft lottery, where lotteries determine the order of call to military service. Not being able to afford armor, in polities where conscripts were required to bring their own armor. Obtaining conscientious objector status by professing insincere religious or ethical beliefs. Obtaining a student deferment, if the student wishes to attend or remain in school to avoid the draft. Claiming a medical or psychological problem, if the purported problem is feigned, overstated, or self-inflicted. Finding a doctor who would certify a healthy draft-age person as medically unfit, either willingly or for pay. Falsely claiming to be homosexual, where the military excludes homosexuals. Claiming economic hardship, if the purported hardship is overstated. Deliberately failing one's military-related intelligence tests. Becoming pregnant in order to evade the draft, in nations where women who are not mothers are drafted. Having someone exert personal influence on an officer in charge of the conscription process.
Bribing an officer in charge of the conscription process. Draft evasion that involves overt lawbreaking or that communicates conscious or organized resistance to government policy is sometimes referred to as draft resistance. Examples include: Declining to register for the draft, in nations where, required by law. Declining to report for one's draft-related physical examination, or for military induction or call-up, in nations where these are required by law. Participating in draft card burnings or turn-ins. Living "underground" after being indicted for draft evasion. Traveling or emigrating to another country, rather than submitting to induction or to trial. Going to jail, rather than submitting to induction or to alternative government service. Organizing or participating in a peaceful street assembly or demonstration against the draft. Publicly encouraging, aiding, or abetting draft evaders. Deliberately disrupting a military draft agency's processes or procedures. Destroying a military draft agency's records.
Organizing or participating in a riot against the draft. Building an anti-war movement that treats draft resistance as a vital and integral part of it. Draft evasion is said to have characterized every military conflict of the 21st centuries. Laws against certain draft evasion practices go back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. Examples of
Rodney Marvin "Rod" McKuen was an American poet, singer-songwriter, actor. He was one of the best-selling poets in the United States during the late 1960s. Throughout his career, McKuen produced a wide range of recordings, which included popular music, spoken word poetry, film soundtracks and classical music, he earned one Pulitzer nomination for his music compositions. McKuen's translations and adaptations of the songs of Jacques Brel were instrumental in bringing the Belgian songwriter to prominence in the English-speaking world, his poetry deals with themes of the natural world and spirituality. McKuen's songs sold over 100 million recordings worldwide, 60 million books of his poetry were sold as well, according to the Associated Press. McKuen was born on April 1933, in a Salvation Army hostel in Oakland, California, he never knew his biological father. Sexually and physically abused by relatives, raised by his mother and stepfather, a violent alcoholic, McKuen ran away from home at the age of 11.
He drifted along the West Coast, supporting himself as a ranch hand, railroad worker, rodeo cowboy and radio disc jockey, always sending money home to his mother. To compensate for his lack of formal education, McKuen began keeping a journal, which resulted in his first poetry and song lyrics. After dropping out of Oakland Technical High School prior to graduating in 1951, McKuen worked as a newspaper columnist and propaganda script writer during the Korean War, he settled in San Francisco, where he read his poetry in clubs alongside Beat poets like Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. He began performing as a folk singer at the famed Purple Onion. Over time, he began incorporating his own songs into his act, he was released several pop albums in the late 1950s. McKuen appeared as an actor in Rock, Pretty Baby, Summer Love, the western Wild Heritage, he sang with Lionel Hampton's band. In 1959, McKuen moved to New York City to compose and conduct music for the TV show The CBS Workshop. McKuen appeared on To Tell The Truth on June 18, 1962 as a decoy contestant, described himself as "a published poet and a twist singer."
In the early 1960s, McKuen moved to France, where he first met the Belgian singer-songwriter and chanson singer Jacques Brel. McKuen began to translate the work of this composer into English, which led to the song "If You Go Away" – an international pop-standard – based on Brel's "Ne me quitte pas". In the early 1970s, singer Terry Jacks turned McKuen's "Seasons in the Sun", based on Brel's "Le Moribond", into a best-selling pop hit, charted with a cover of "If You Go Away." McKuen translated songs by other French songwriters, including Gilbert Bécaud, Pierre Delanoé, Michel Sardou, others. In 1978, after hearing of Brel's death, McKuen was quoted as saying, "As friends and as musical collaborators we had traveled and written – together and apart – the events of our lives as if they were songs, I guess they were; when news of Jacques' death came I drank for a week. That kind of self-pity was something he wouldn't have approved of, but all I could do was replay our songs and ruminate over our unfinished life together."
In the late 1960s, McKuen began to publish books of poetry, earning a substantial following among young people with collections like Stanyan Street & Other Sorrows, Listen to the Warm, Lonesome Cities. His Lonesome Cities album of readings won a Grammy for Best Spoken Word Recording in 1968. McKuen's poems were translated into eleven languages and his books sold over 1 million copies in 1968 alone. McKuen said that his most romantic poetry was influenced by American poet Walter Benton's two books of poems. McKuen sold according to the Associated Press. McKuen wrote over 1,500 songs, which have accounted for the sale of over 100 million records worldwide according to the Associated Press, his songs have been performed by such diverse artists as Robert Goulet, Glenn Yarbrough, Barbra Streisand, Perry Como, Petula Clark, Waylon Jennings, The Boston Pops, Chet Baker, Jimmie Rodgers, Johnny Cash, Pete Fountain, Andy Williams, the Kingston Trio, Percy Faith, the London Philharmonic, Nana Mouskouri, Dusty Springfield, Johnny Mathis, Al Hirt, Greta Keller, Aaron Freeman, Frank Sinatra.
In 1959, McKuen released his first novelty single with Bob McFadden, under the pseudonym Dor on the Brunswick label, called "The Mummy". The McKuen-written song reached No. 39 on the Billboard pop chart. In 1961, he had a hit single titled "Oliver Twist", he co-wrote it along with Gladys Shelley and the Spiral label-issued single reached No. 76 on the Billboard pop chart. His hoarse and throaty singing voice on these and other recordings was a result of McKuen straining his vocal chords in 1961, due to too many promotional appearances, he collaborated with numerous composers, including Henry Mancini, John Williams, Anita Kerr. His symphonies and other orchestral works have been performed by orchestras around the globe, his work as a composer in the film industry garnered him two Academy Award nominations for The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and A Boy Named Charlie Brown, his other film scores have included Joanna, Me, Scandalous John, The Borrowers and Emily. McKuen's contribution to A Boy Named Charlie Brown, the first feature-length animation based on Charles M. Schulz's comic strip, Peanuts included singing the title song.
McKuen earned a mention in the Peanuts strip dated October 3, 1969, in which Sally Brown expresses her frustration that she was sent